Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 159
Filtrar
1.
Med Educ ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509282

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: This article explores the myth that stress is always bad for learning. The term "stress" has been narrowed by habitual use to equate with the negative outcome of distress; this article takes an alternative view that ultimately rejects the myth that demonises stress. The avoidance of distress is important, but a broader view of stress as something that can have either positive or negative outcomes is considered. PROPOSAL: We propose that stress is important for learning and stress-related growth. We explore the little-mentioned concept of eustress (good stress) as a counter to the more familiar concept of distress. We further consider that the negative associations of stress may contribute to its negative impact. The impact of stress on learning should be deliberately and carefully considered. We offer a hypothetical learning journey that considers the cause of potential stress, a stressor, and how a stressor is moderated to result in stress that may influence learning either by positively challenging the learner or by functioning as a hindrance to learning. CONCLUSIONS: In thinking more positively about stress, health professional educators may better support the student's learning journey.

2.
Ann Bot ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418009

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Southern Arabia is a global biodiversity hotspot with a high proportion of endemic desert-adapted plants. Here we examine evidence for a Pleistocene climate refugium in the southern Central Desert of Oman, and its role in driving biogeographical patterns of endemism. METHODS: Distribution data for seven narrow-range endemic plants were collected systematically across 195 quadrats, together with incidental and historic records. Important environmental variables relevant to arid coastal areas, including night-time fog and cloud cover, were developed for the study area. Environmental niche models using presence/absence data were built and tuned for each species, and spatial overlap was examined. KEY RESULTS: A region of the Jiddat Al Arkad reported independent high model suitability for all species. Examination of environmental data across southern Oman indicates that the Jiddat Al Arkad displays a regionally unique climate with higher intra-annual stability, due in part to the influence of the southern monsoon. Despite this, the relative importance of environmental variables was highly differentiated among species, suggesting that characteristic variables such as coastal fog are not major cross-species predictors at this scale. CONCLUSIONS: The co-occurrence of a high number of endemic study species within a narrow monsoon-influenced region is indicative of a refugium with low climate change velocity. Combined with climate analysis, our findings provide strong evidence for a southern Arabian Pleistocene refugium in Oman's Central Desert. We suggest that this refugium has acted as an isolated temperate and mesic island in the desert, resulting in the evolution of these narrow-range endemic flora. Based on the composition of species, this system may represent the northernmost remnant of a continuous belt of mesic vegetation formerly ranging from Africa to Asia, with close links to the flora of East Africa. This has significant implications for future conservation of endemic plants in an arid biodiversity hotspot.

3.
Perspect Med Educ ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441011

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Not all medical students who intercalate research degrees go on to completion. No study to date has investigated the specific reasons. Understanding this minority would fill an important research gap. METHODS: A list was obtained of intercalating medical students who enrolled at our institution between 1995 and 2014. Students who withdrew from an intercalated research degree were then invited to complete an online survey via email. RESULTS: Over the study period, 178 medical students commenced an intercalated honours or PhD degree with their medical degree, and 13 students withdrew from that program, giving an overall attrition rate of 7.3%. Students who withdrew from the intercalated degree were also more likely to withdraw from their medical degree (40%); this is compared with 3.6% of students who completed the intercalated degree, but eventually withdrew from their medical degree. DISCUSSION: Demographics of this cohort were not dissimilar to those of completing students. Although withdrawing students had a higher exit rate from the medical degree, the rate of research involvement remained similar pre- and post-intercalation. The most commonly cited reasons for withdrawal were decreased satisfaction with research, and conflict with supervisors.

4.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 271, 2019 Jul 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324236

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Medical student journals play a critical role in promoting academic research and publishing amongst medical students, but their impact on students' future academic achievements has not been examined. We aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of publication in the New Zealand Medical Student Journal (NZMSJ) through examining rates of post-graduation publication, completion of higher academic degrees, and pursuing an academic career. METHODS: Student-authored original research publications in the NZMSJ during the period 2004-2011 were retrospectively identified. Gender-, university- and graduation year-matched controls were identified from publicly available databases in a 2:1 ratio (two controls for each student authors). Date of graduation, current clinical scope of practice, completion of higher academic degrees, and attainment of an academic position for both groups were obtained from Google searches, New Zealand graduate databases, online lists of registered doctors in New Zealand and Australia, and author affiliation information from published articles. Pre- and post-graduation PubMed®-indexed publications were identified using standardised search criteria. RESULTS: Fifty publications authored by 49 unique students were identified. The median follow-up period after graduation was 7.0 years (range 2-12 years). Compared with controls, student-authors were significantly more likely to publish in PubMed®-indexed journals (OR 3.09, p = 0.001), obtain a PhD (OR 9.21, p = 0.004) or any higher degree (OR 2.63, p = 0.007), and attain academic positions (OR 2.90, p = 0.047) following graduation. CONCLUSION: Publication in a medical student journal is associated with future academic achievement and contributes to develop a clinical academic workforce. Future work should aim to explore motivators and barriers associated with these findings.

5.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 176, 2019 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146714

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite much effort in the development of robustness of information provided by individual assessment events, there is less literature on the aggregation of this information to make progression decisions on individual students. With the development of programmatic assessment, aggregation of information from multiple sources is required, and needs to be completed in a robust manner. The issues raised by this progression decision-making have parallels with similar issues in clinical decision-making and jury decision-making. MAIN BODY: Clinical decision-making is used to draw parallels with progression decision-making, in particular the need to aggregate information and the considerations to be made when additional information is needed to make robust decisions. In clinical decision-making, diagnoses can be based on screening tests and diagnostic tests, and the balance of sensitivity and specificity can be applied to progression decision-making. There are risks and consequences associated with clinical decisions, and likewise with progression decisions. Both clinical decision-making and progression decision-making can be tough. Tough and complex clinical decisions can be improved by making decisions as a group. The biases associated with decision-making can be amplified or attenuated by group processes, and have similar biases to those seen in clinical and progression decision-making. Jury decision-making is an example of a group making high-stakes decisions when the correct answer is not known, much like progression decision panels. The leadership of both jury and progression panels is important for robust decision-making. Finally, the parallel between a jury's leniency towards the defendant and the failure to fail phenomenon is considered. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that decisions should be made by appropriately selected decision-making panels; educational institutions should have policies, procedures, and practice documentation related to progression decision-making; panels and panellists should be provided with sufficient information; panels and panellists should work to optimise their information synthesis and reduce bias; panellists should reach decisions by consensus; and that the standard of proof should be that student competence needs to be demonstrated.

6.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 220, 2019 Jun 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226986

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Student bullying in the clinical environment continues to have a substantial impact, despite numerous attempts to rectify the situation. However, there are significant gaps in the literature about interventions to help students, particularly a lack of specific guidance around which to formulate an intervention program likely to be effective. With this narrative review about student bullying interventions in the clinical learning environment, we examine and draw together the available, but patchy, information about 'what works' to inform better practice and further research. METHODS: We initially followed a PICO approach to obtain and analyse data from 38 articles from seven databases. We then used a general inductive approach to form themes about effective student bullying intervention practice, and potential unintended consequences of some of these, which we further developed into six final themes. RESULTS: The diverse literature presents difficulties in comparison of intervention efficacy and substantive guidance is sparse and inconsistently reported. The final analytical approach we employed was challenging but useful because it enabled us to reveal the more effective elements of bullying interventions, as well as information about what to avoid: an interventionist and institution need to, together, 1. understand bullying catalysts, 2. address staff needs, 3. have, but not rely on policy or reporting process about behaviour, 4. avoid targeting specific staff groups, but aim for saturation, 5. frame the intervention to encourage good behaviour, not target poor behaviour, and 6. possess specific knowledge and specialised teaching and facilitation skills. We present the themed evidence pragmatically to help practitioners and institutions design an effective program and avoid instigating practices which have now been found to be ineffective or deleterious. CONCLUSIONS: Despite challenges with the complexity of the literature and in determining a useful approach for analysis and reporting, results are important and ideas about practice useful. These inform a way forward for further, more effective student bullying intervention and research: an active learning approach addressing staff needs, which is non-targeted and positively and skilfully administered. (331w).

7.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 119, 2019 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036089

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: In order to foster positive student experiences in the clinical learning environment, we wanted to better understand which teaching practices they regard highly. METHODS: In 2016, the authors undertook a paper 'exemplar' survey (ES) of all fifth year medical students at one tertiary teaching site. Students had experienced all assigned clinical rotations over a two year period. Following a 66% response rate, we identified two clear exemplar clinical areas (ECAs). Over 2016-7, six focus groups with multidisciplinary staff members from these clinical areas were held, with the aim to identify, discuss and understand their specific teaching practices in more detail. RESULTS: The authors present descriptions of positive student experiences and related staff practices, in five themes. Themes emerged around foundational logistic and personal factors: central to student and staff data is that 'welcome' on a daily, and ongoing basis, can be foundational to learning. Central to ECA staff data are universal practices by which all staff purposefully work to develop a functional staff-student relationship and play a part in organising/teaching students. Students and ECA staff groups both understood teacher values to be central to student learning and that cultivating a student's values is one of their major educational tasks. CONCLUSIONS: The framework formed by this thematic analysis is useful, clear and transferrable to other clinical teaching contexts. It also aligns with current thinking about best supporting student learning and cultivating student values as part of developing professionalism. Instigating such practices might help to optimise clinical teaching. We also tentatively suggest that such practices might help where resources are scarce, and perhaps also help ameliorate student bullying.

8.
N Z Med J ; 132(1495): 65-73, 2019 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095546

RESUMEN

For over a decade, the Medical Schools Outcomes Database and Longitudinal Tracking Project (MSOD) has collected data from medical students in Australia and New Zealand. This project aims to explore how individual student background or attributes might interact with curriculum or early postgraduate training to affect eventual career choice and location. In New Zealand, over 4,000 students have voluntarily provided information at various time points, and the project is at a stage where some firm conclusions are starting to be drawn. This paper presents the background to the project along with some early results and future directions.

9.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 116, 2019 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023315

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Student bullying in clinical practice persists, and poor outcomes continue: for learning, academic achievement and career goals, for their mental and physical health and potentially affecting all staff and patients in a clinical workplace. We describe an emergent framework for the strategic design of a bullying intervention, presented as a staff development opportunity. METHODS: CAPLE (Creating A Positive Learning Environment) was a bullying intervention designed around current best evidence about ameliorating student bullying in the clinical environment. CAPLE was also an action research project delivered in two eight- week cycles, one in 2016 & another in 2017. CAPLE's primary practical foci were to offer clinical staff in two separate hospital wards an opportunity to develop their clinical teaching skills and to guide them in reflection and cultivation of values around students and learning. Research foci were: 1. to gain insight into staff experiences of CAPLE as a development process and 2. to evaluate how CAPLE might best help staff reflect on, discuss and develop values around student learning, to include bullying. Staff undertook five active learning workshops combined with supportive contact with one researcher over the research period. Data include individual interviews, staff and researchers' reflective journals and a paper survey about staff experiences of the 2017 intervention. RESULTS: We confirm the effectiveness of best evidence from the literature and also that a strategic four-part framework of approach, process, content and person can further enhance a bullying intervention by increasing the likelihood of participant engagement, learning and values change. CONCLUSIONS: This research aggregates and adds weight to the current literature about student bullying and adds important pragmatic detail about best practice for bullying intervention design and delivery. Ultimately, this emergent framework offers insight to help move past some persistent barriers encountered by those wishing to improve workplace behaviour.

10.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 93, 2019 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909862

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hip fractures are a common injury in older people. Many studies worldwide have identified various risk factors for hip fracture. However, risk factors for hip fracture have not been studied extensively in New Zealand. The interRAI home care assessment consists of 236 health questions and some of these may be related to hip fracture risk. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 45,046 home care clients aged 65 years and older, in New Zealand. Assessments ranged from September 2012 to October 2015. Hip fracture diagnosis was identified by linking ICD (International Classification of Diseases) codes from hospital admissions data (September 2012 to December 2015) to the interRAI home care data. Unadjusted and adjusted competing risk regressions, using the Fine and Gray method were used to identify risk factors for hip fracture. Mortality was the competing event. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 61% female with a mean age of 82.7 years. A total of 3010 (6.7%) of the cohort sustained a hip fracture after assessment. After adjusting for sociodemographic and potentially confounding variables falls (SHR (Subhazard Ratio) = 1.17, 95% CI (Confidence interval): 1.05-1.31), previous hip fracture (SHR = 4.16, 95% CI: 2.93-5.89), female gender (SHR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.22-1.55), underweight (SHR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.39-2.02), tobacco use (SHR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.25-1.96), Parkinson's disease (SHR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.14-1.84), and Wandering (SHR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.07-1.72) were identified as risk factors for hip fracture. Shortness of breath (SHR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.71-0.90), was identified as being protective against hip fracture risk. Males and females had different significant risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for hip fracture similar to international work on risk factors for hip fracture, can be identified using the New Zealand version of the interRAI home care assessment.

11.
Aust J Prim Health ; 25(2): 108-112, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871673

RESUMEN

Dementia is increasing in Australia in line with population ageing and is expected to peak by mid-century. The development of common forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, is associated with lifestyle-related risk factors that are prevalent among middle-aged Australians, including obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes and depression. These risk factors can be significantly ameliorated through regular participation in moderate aerobic physical activity (PA). Current national and international guidelines recommend at least 150 min of aerobic PA per week for achieving health protective effects. Lifestyle intervention is a critical area for action as there are currently no medical or pharmaceutical interventions that can halt the progression of common dementias. Physician-patient discussions concerning risk reduction via habitual aerobic PA offers a complementary intervention as part of broader dementia management. Evidence suggests that to achieve the highest rates of adherence to PA, physician advice in primary care should be supported by wider policies, institutions and community services that offer a meaningful referral pathway and patient follow up after initial assessment. International Green Prescription programs provide examples of physician-led interventions in primary care that could inform further action in Australia.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0198736, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703084

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Population-based, prospective studies can provide important insights into Parkinson's disease (PD) and other parkinsonian disorders. Participant follow-up in such studies is often achieved through linkage to routinely collected healthcare datasets. We systematically reviewed the published literature on the accuracy of these datasets for this purpose. METHODS: We searched four electronic databases for published studies that compared PD and parkinsonism cases identified using routinely collected data to a reference standard. We extracted study characteristics and two accuracy measures: positive predictive value (PPV) and/or sensitivity. RESULTS: We identified 18 articles, resulting in 27 measures of PPV and 14 of sensitivity. For PD, PPV ranged from 56-90% in hospital datasets, 53-87% in prescription datasets, 81-90% in primary care datasets and was 67% in mortality datasets. Combining diagnostic and medication codes increased PPV. For parkinsonism, PPV ranged from 36-88% in hospital datasets, 40-74% in prescription datasets, and was 94% in mortality datasets. Sensitivity ranged from 15-73% in single datasets for PD and 43-63% in single datasets for parkinsonism. CONCLUSIONS: In many settings, routinely collected datasets generate good PPVs and reasonable sensitivities for identifying PD and parkinsonism cases. However, given the wide range of identified accuracy estimates, we recommend cohorts conduct their own context-specific validation studies if existing evidence is lacking. Further research is warranted to investigate primary care and medication datasets, and to develop algorithms that balance a high PPV with acceptable sensitivity.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Enfermedad de Parkinson/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos
13.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(6): 557-565, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806901

RESUMEN

Prospective, population-based studies that recruit participants in mid-life are valuable resources for dementia research. Follow-up in these studies is often through linkage to routinely-collected healthcare datasets. We investigated the accuracy of these datasets for dementia case ascertainment in a validation study using data from UK Biobank-an open access, population-based study of > 500,000 adults aged 40-69 years at recruitment in 2006-2010. From 17,198 UK Biobank participants recruited in Edinburgh, we identified those with ≥ 1 dementia code in their linked primary care, hospital admissions or mortality data and compared their coded diagnoses to clinical expert adjudication of their full-text medical record. We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV, the proportion of cases identified that were true positives) for all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia for each dataset alone and in combination, and explored algorithmic code combinations to improve PPV. Among 120 participants, PPVs for all-cause dementia were 86.8%, 87.3% and 80.0% for primary care, hospital admissions and mortality data respectively and 82.5% across all datasets. We identified three algorithms that balanced a high PPV with reasonable case ascertainment. For Alzheimer's disease, PPVs were 74.1% for primary care, 68.2% for hospital admissions, 50.0% for mortality data and 71.4% in combination. PPV for vascular dementia was 43.8% across all sources. UK routinely-collected healthcare data can be used to identify all-cause dementia in prospective studies. PPVs for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are lower. Further research is required to explore the geographic generalisability of these findings.


Asunto(s)
Demencia/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Demencia/mortalidad , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Primaria de Salud , Resultado del Tratamiento , Reino Unido/epidemiología
15.
Rural Remote Health ; 18(4): 4872, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293435

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In most countries it remains a challenge to sustain the rural medical workforce. Based on evidence that medical students with rural backgrounds are more likely than their urban peers to enter rural practice, medical schools may have rural entry pathways. It is less well established what happens to career intentions during medical school. This study assessed how rural intentions persist or change during medical school and sought factors associated with either persistence or change in rural intention. METHODS: Students who participate in the Medical Schools Outcomes Database and Longitudinal Tracking project complete surveys at entry to and exit from medical school. They are asked about demographics, career intentions and influencing factors. This study used data from students at both of New Zealand's medical schools from 2006 to 2016. Participants were placed into one of four groups: rural intention at entry and rural intention at exit (R-R), urban at entry and rural at exit (U-R), rural at entry and urban at exit (R-U) or urban at entry and urban at exit (U-U). 'Rural' was defined as an area with a population of 100 000 or fewer. Differences among the groups in demographics and influencing factors were analysed. RESULTS: Overall, 4368 students completed an entry survey (response rate 85.9%), and 2243 students completed an exit survey (response rate 66.4%). A third intended to work in a rural area; of these, 49% had a rural background and 51% an urban background. From the linked entry and exit data (n=1114), there were 239 (21.4%), 188 (16.8%), 135 (12.1%) and 552 (49.5%) students in the R-R, U-R, R-U and U-U groups respectively (p<0.001). Most students had a stable geographical career intention. Of those who changed, more moved towards a rural intention than away from it. Medical students with a persistent rural pattern had characteristics of a rural background (70%), being female (68%), New Zealand European (76%) or having involvement with a rural club for at least 1 year (45%). These students were also more likely to express a GP career intention as their first choice (25%). There were small differences in age, but otherwise no particular demographic factors were associated with students who changed intention. Similarly there were only small differences in perceived career influencing factors among groups. CONCLUSION: This large national study shows a stability of career location intention for the majority of students. It confirms earlier findings of the importance of rural background in rural career preference, but shows that women may have a higher propensity for a persisting rural interest. Apart from providing quality experience in rural areas for all students, and facilitating rural clubs, the study did not reveal any other strategies that might be used by medical schools to either increase or prevent the loss of rural interest.

18.
N Z Med J ; 131(1479): 81-85, 2018 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048436

RESUMEN

Student bullying in clinical practice remains a concern, and evidence regarding what works to specifically help the student appears rather piecemeal. At the same time, emergent literature indicates that some bullying interventions can be ineffective for behaviour change, or even deleterious to the staff which they target. Considering the potentially sizeable financial and personal costs associated with continued bullying and undertaking an intervention, it would seem sensible that any selected intervention method avoids those shown to be potentially ineffective or deleterious. Such avoidance would likely help to move the student bullying research forward, prevent further suffering and reduce the waste of valuable taxpayer resources.

19.
Med Educ ; 2018 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932221

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: The effectiveness of cultural competency education in improving health practitioner proficiency and addressing health inequities for minoritised patient groups is uncertain. Identification of institutional factors that shape or constrain development of indigenous health curricula may provide insights into the impact of these factors on the broader cultural competency curricula. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review using actor-network theory to inform our interpretive synthesis of studies that reported indigenous health curricula evaluated within medical, nursing and allied health education. We searched the MEDLINE, OVID Nursing, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science and PubMed databases to December 2017 using exploded MeSH terms 'indigenous' and 'medical education' and 'educational professional' and 'health professional education'. We included studies involving undergraduate or postgraduate medical, nursing or allied health students or practitioners. Studies were eligible if they documented indigenous health learning outcomes, pedagogical practices and student evaluations. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies were eligible for the review. In an interpretive synthesis informed by actor-network theory, three themes emerged from the data: indigenous health as an emerging curriculum (drivers of institutional change, increasing indigenous capacity and leadership, and addressing deficit discourse); institutional resource allocation to indigenous health curricula (placement within the core curriculum, time allocation, and resources constraining pedagogy), and impact of the curriculum on learners (acceptability of the curriculum, learner knowledge, and learner behaviour). CONCLUSIONS: Systemic barriers acting on and within educational networks have limited the developmental capacity of indigenous health curricula, supported and sustained hidden curricula, and led to insufficient institutional investment to support a comprehensive curriculum. Future research in health professional education should explore these political and network intermediaries acting on cultural competence curricula and how they can be overcome to achieve cultural competency learning outcomes.

20.
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA