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1.
Exp Physiol ; 105(1): 174-183, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628691

RESUMEN

NEW FINDINGS: • What is the central question of this study? This is the first study to examine the impact of acute hyperglycaemia on arterial stiffness across the early and late follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. • What is the main finding and its importance? Central and peripheral arterial stiffness were not impacted by acute hyperglycaemia. This indicates that premenopausal women might experience protection against deleterious effects of acute hyperglycaemia, regardless of menstrual cycle phase. This research furthers our understanding of the interaction between nutrient intake, hormonal fluctuation and vascular function in premenopausal women. ABSTRACT: Acute hyperglycaemia may result in transient increases in arterial stiffness. However, research in healthy premenopausal women is lacking, and the impact of menstrual phase [early follicular (EF; low oestrogen) and late follicular (LF; high oestrogen)] on vulnerability to acute hyperglycaemia-induced changes in arterial stiffness is unknown. We hypothesized that an acute hyperglycaemia-induced increase in arterial stiffness in the EF phase would be attenuated in the LF phase. Seventeen healthy, naturally menstruating women [21 ± 1 years of age (mean ± SD)] participated in three experimental visits. During two visits, in the EF and LF phase, arterial stiffness was assessed via central and peripheral (arm and leg) pulse wave velocity (PWV) before and 15, 45, 75 and 105 min after consuming an oral glucose challenge (75 g glucose in 300 ml of solution). Blood samples were taken to assess glucose, insulin, oestrogen and progesterone concentrations. During a third visit in the EF phase, participants ingested 300 ml of water as a time control for PWV. Despite significant increases in blood glucose and insulin (P < 0.001), both central and peripheral arm PWV remained unchanged across time and phase, indicating that neither acute hyperglycaemia nor menstrual phase had an impact on central or peripheral arm arterial stiffness. There was a small effect of phase for peripheral leg PWV, where PWV was lower in the LF phase (P = 0.04, Cohen's d = 0.39); however, and in contrast to recent results in young men, peripheral leg PWV was unaffected by hyperglycaemia. These results suggest that premenopausal women might experience protection from acute hyperglycaemia-induced increases in arterial stiffness.

2.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(6): 6875, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507285

RESUMEN

Objective. To assess the impact of pharmacy school characteristics on the pass rates of students taking the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) for the first time. Methods. A retrospective review of NAPLEX first-time pass rates, pharmacy school characteristics and percent of total graduating class who matched for a first postgraduate year (PGY1) residency was performed for 2014, 2015, and 2016. All US colleges of pharmacy accredited as of July 2017 were included. Independent samples t tests, paired samples t tests, correlational analysis, and multiple linear regression were conducted. Results. The first-time pass rates on the NAPLEX were significantly higher for the following: schools located within an academic health center; schools established before 2000, and public schools. The 2016 NAPLEX first-time pass rate was significantly higher for schools with a traditional four-year program structure versus an accelerated three-year structure. Also, a school's first-time pass rate on the NAPLEX was positively, significantly correlated with percentage of fourth-year students who matched for a PGY1 residency and being located within an academic health center. The NAPLEX first-time pass rate for the previous year and percent of the total graduating class that matched for a PGY1 residency were significant predictors in the final regression models for 2015 and 2016 NAPLEX first-time pass rates. Conclusion. While differences in certain program characteristics was coorelated with NAPLEX pass rate, many of these factors are not modifiable. Programs can proactively and critically evaluate their educational programs and the readiness of their students to sit for the NAPLEX.

3.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(4): 6608, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223146

RESUMEN

Objective. To examine the association between certain demographic and admission measures and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) performance in a cohort of pharmacy students. Methods. A retrospective review of demographic characteristics, admissions data [cumulative and science admission Grade Point Average (GPA), Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) scores], and OSCE scores was performed for the Class of 2017 at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Results. Female students scored significantly higher than male students on the Warfarin OSCE - Standardized Patient (SP) rated General Communication Skills and on the Warfarin OSCE - Faculty rated Patient Interviewing Skills. Age was significantly, inversely correlated with Warfarin OSCE - Faculty rated Therapeutic Knowledge score. Warfarin OSCE - SP rated General Communication Skills score was significantly, positively related to PCAT composite score and PCAT reading comprehension score. PCAT composite score was significantly, inversely correlated to Warfarin OSCE - Faculty rated Patient Interviewing Skills score. Warfarin OSCE - Faculty rated General Communication Skills score was significantly, positively related to cumulative admission GPA and admission science GPA. Conclusion. Eight statistically significant correlations were found between demographic and admissions measures and specific OSCE scores. Regression models were significant but explained a low percentage of the variance in OSCE scores, suggesting other factors not included in the study have a greater effect on scores. Such factors may include knowledge acquired in pharmacy school courses such as the therapeutics course series.

4.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(2): 6516, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962637

RESUMEN

Objective. To examine relationships between students' demographic and academic performance factors and their scores on the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Methods. Students' PCOA scores and demographics (eg, age, race/ethnicity, sex), preadmission data [eg, cumulative and science grade point average (GPA), Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT)], and academic performance variables (eg, pharmacy GPA, academic standing) were analyzed for one class of third-year pharmacy students (N=159). Independent t-tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to compare scores by demographic variables. Pearson's r correlations were used to assess relationships between PCOA scores and age, PCAT scores, and GPA. Stepwise linear regression was conducted to determine the predictive ability of variables with significant correlations to PCOA performance. Results. Significant correlations were found between sex and PCOA scores with males scoring higher than females. Significant correlations with PCOA scores were also found for PCAT scores, pre-pharmacy science GPA, and pharmacy didactic GPA. Significant differences were found by academic standing, where students in academic difficulty who were allowed to proceed without repeating curricular content scored significantly lower on the PCOA than those who did not experience academic difficulty. Conversely, there were no statistical differences between those who repeated courses and those who never experienced academic difficulty. PCOA performance predictors in the final regression model included PCAT composite score, pharmacy GPA and sex. Conclusion. New findings included differences in PCOA scores by sex and by academic standing, a variable not previously explored in published studies. Findings have implications for remediation decisions in pharmacy curricula.

5.
Exp Physiol ; 104(6): 957-966, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927376

RESUMEN

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? This is the first study to examine the impact of acute hyperglycaemia on endothelial function [flow-mediated dilatation (FMD)] in premenopausal women across the early and late follicular (EF and LF) phases of the menstrual cycle. What is the main finding and its importance? Flow-mediated dilatation was impaired 90 min after glucose ingestion, with no significant difference between phases. This indicates that women are susceptible to acute hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction in both the EF and LF phases of the menstrual cycle, despite potentially vasoprotective elevations in estradiol levels during the LF phase. ABSTRACT: Acute hyperglycaemia transiently impairs endothelial function in healthy men when assessed via flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). However, research in female participants is lacking, and the impact of menstrual phase [early follicular (EF) and late follicular (LF)] on vulnerability to acute hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction is unknown. Seventeen healthy, naturally menstruating women [21 ± 1 years old (mean ± SD)] participated in three visits. During two visits (EFGlucose and LFGlucose ), brachial artery FMD was assessed before and 60, 90 and 120 min after an oral glucose challenge (75 g glucose). During an additional EF visit, participants ingested 300 ml of water (EFTimeControl ). Blood glucose and insulin increased 30 min after glucose ingestion (P < 0.001), with no difference between phases. Flow-mediated dilatation did not change in EFTimeControl (P = 0.748) but was reduced 90 min after glucose ingestion (Pre, 8.5 ± 2.5%; Post90, 6.6 ± 2.4%, P = 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.82), with no difference between phases (main effect of phase, P = 0.506; phase by time interaction, P = 0.391). To account for individual variability in the time course of the impact of hyperglycaemia, the maximal hyperglycaemia-induced impairment in FMD was determined in each participant and compared between phases, revealing no significant phase differences (EFGlucose , -3.1 ± 2.8%; LFGlucose , -2.4 ± 2.1%, P = 0.181; d = 0.34). These results indicate that, similar to findings in men, acute hyperglycaemia results in FMD impairment in young women. We did not detect significant protection from acute hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction in the LF 'high-oestrogen' phase in this sample, and further research is needed to examine the potential for a protective effect of oestrogen exposure, including oral contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy.

6.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(3): 611-619, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603795

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: There is evidence that the endothelium is responsive to both the rate and magnitude of increases in shear stress. However, whether flow-mediated dilation stimulated by sustained increases in shear stress (SS-FMD) is rate sensitive in humans is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to test whether ramp (gradual) and step (instantaneous) increases in shear stress elicit disparate SS-FMD. METHODS: Young, healthy men (n = 18, age = 22 ± 2 years, body mass index = 25 ± 3 kg m-2) performed two 11-min bouts of rhythmic handgrip exercise; one with a 5.5-min ramp-increase in shear stress and one with an immediate step increase in shear stress. Ramp increases in shear stress were achieved through incremental increases in handgrip exercise intensity [increases of 4% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) every 30 s for 5.5 min, ending at 44% MVC] and step increases in shear stress were achieved through a combination of arterial compression and commencing handgrip exercise at 44% MVC. RESULTS: Shear rate was greater in the step versus ramp protocol in minutes 1-6, but not different thereafter. Similarly, SS-FMD was greater in the step versus ramp protocol during minutes 2-6, but similar in minutes 7-11 (minute 11: ramp 8.7 ± 4.6%; step 9.4 ± 3.6%; P = 0.343). SS-FMD continued to increase over time with maintenance of a steady shear stress stimulus (step minutes 2-11: 0.51 ± 0.36% min-1; ramp minutes 7-11: 0.64 ± 0.57% min-1; P = 0.259). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that in the brachial artery of humans, the magnitude of SS-FMD is determined by the magnitude and duration, but not the rate, of increases in shear stress.


Asunto(s)
Arteria Braquial/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Estrés Mecánico , Adulto , Endotelio Vascular/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Flujo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiología , Vasodilatación/fisiología , Adulto Joven
7.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 135: 113-120, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529360

RESUMEN

Endothelial function, assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), may be transiently attenuated in healthy adults following acute mental stress. However, the impact of acute mental stress on endothelial function in the context of clinical depression is unknown. This study examined the impact of acute mental stress on FMD in women with a diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Forty-three otherwise healthy women (33 ±â€¯14 years) participated. Brachial artery diameter and blood velocity were assessed with ultrasound. FMD was assessed immediately prior to and 15 min following the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The FMD protocol included 5 min of forearm cuff occlusion (pressure = 250 mm Hg), followed by release. Shear stress was estimated by calculating shear rate (SR = brachial artery blood velocity/diameter). Stress reactivity was assessed via changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and salivary cortisol. Results are mean ±â€¯SD. A significant stress response was elicited by the TSST [MAP, HR and salivary cortisol increased (p < 0.05)]. Neither the SR stimulus nor FMD response differed pre-versus post-stress (p = 0.124 and p = 0.641, respectively). There was a modest negative correlation between cortisol reactivity and change in FMD from pre- to post-stress (R = -0.392, p = 0.011). To conclude, acute mental stress did not consistently impair endothelial function in women diagnosed with a depressive disorder; however, higher cortisol reactivity may increase the likelihood of post-stress endothelial dysfunction. Further research is required to better understand the factors influencing the relationship between acute mental stress, cortisol and endothelial function in women with depression.


Asunto(s)
Arteria Braquial/fisiopatología , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/psicología , Endotelio Vascular/fisiología , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Depresión/fisiopatología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Flujo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiología , Estrés Psicológico/fisiopatología , Yoga/psicología , Adulto Joven
8.
Exp Physiol ; 103(2): 291-302, 2018 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083061

RESUMEN

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase on flow-mediated dilatation in response to sustained, exercise-induced increases in shear stress. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed, for the first time, that in healthy, premenopausal women the flow-mediated dilatation stimulated by exercise-induced increases in shear stress did not fluctuate across two phases of the menstrual cycle, despite significant fluctuations in oestrogen. This suggests that endothelial function is not consistently augmented in the high-oestrogen phase. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in response to a sustained shear-stress stimulus (e.g. via handgrip exercise; HGEX) is emerging as a useful tool for assessing endothelial function; however, the impact of menstrual phase on HGEX-FMD is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HGEX-FMD fluctuates with cyclical changes in oestrogen concentrations over two discrete phases (low and high oestrogen) of the menstrual cycle. Brachial artery (BA) diameter and blood velocity were assessed with two-dimesional and Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Shear stress was estimated using shear rate (SR = BA blood velocity/BA diameter). Participants (12 healthy, regularly cycling women, 21 ± 2 years of age) completed two experimental visits: (i) low oestrogen (early follicular, EF); and (ii) high oestrogen (late follicular, LF). Reactive hyperaemia-stimulated FMD (RH-FMD) and HGEX-FMD (6 min of handgrip exercise) were assessed during each visit. Results are mean values ± SD. Oestrogen increased from the EF to LF phase (EF, 33 ± 9 pg ml-1 ; LF, 161 ± 113 pg ml-1 , P = 0.003). However, neither the SR stimuli (HGEX, P = 0.501; RH, P = 0.173) nor the FMD responses differed between phases (EF versus LF: HGEX-FMD, 4.8 ± 2.8 versus 4.6 ± 2.2%, P = 0.601; RH-FMD, 7.9 ± 4.3 versus 6.4 ± 3.1%, P = 0.071). These results extend existing RH-FMD findings indicating that not all women experience fluctuations in FMD with the menstrual cycle. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms that underlie variability in the impact of menstrual phase on FMD.


Asunto(s)
Velocidad del Flujo Sanguíneo/fisiología , Arteria Braquial/fisiología , Endotelio Vascular/fisiología , Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Adulto , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperemia/fisiopatología , Estrés Mecánico , Adulto Joven
9.
JAAPA ; 29(5): 1-7, 2016 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27124222

RESUMEN

No consensus definition exists for postgraduate physician assistant (PA) training. This report from the AAPA Task Force on Accreditation of Postgraduate PA Training Programs describes the types of clinical training programs and their effects on hiring and compensation of PAs. Although completing a postgraduate program appears to have no effect on compensation, PAs who complete these programs may be favored in the hiring process and frequently report greater confidence in their skills. More research is needed and program accreditation is key to monitoring the effectiveness of these programs.


Asunto(s)
Acreditación , Asistentes Médicos/educación , Educación de Postgrado , Humanos
11.
BMC Pediatr ; 14: 184, 2014 Jul 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25037579

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Because early life growth has long-lasting metabolic and behavioral consequences, intervention during this period of developmental plasticity may alter long-term obesity risk. While modifiable factors during infancy have been identified, until recently, preventive interventions had not been tested. The Intervention Nurses Starting Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT). Study is a longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial evaluating a responsive parenting intervention designed for the primary prevention of obesity. This "parenting" intervention is being compared with a home safety control among first-born infants and their parents. INSIGHT's central hypothesis is that responsive parenting and specifically responsive feeding promotes self-regulation and shared parent-child responsibility for feeding, reducing subsequent risk for overeating and overweight. METHODS/DESIGN: 316 first-time mothers and their full-term newborns were enrolled from one maternity ward. Two weeks following delivery, dyads were randomly assigned to the "parenting" or "safety" groups. Subsequently, research nurses conduct study visits for both groups consisting of home visits at infant age 3-4, 16, 28, and 40 weeks, followed by annual clinic-based visits at 1, 2, and 3 years. Both groups receive intervention components framed around four behavior states: Sleeping, Fussy, Alert and Calm, and Drowsy. The main study outcome is BMI z-score at age 3 years; additional outcomes include those related to patterns of infant weight gain, infant sleep hygiene and duration, maternal responsiveness and soothing strategies for infant/toddler distress and fussiness, maternal feeding style and infant dietary content and physical activity. Maternal outcomes related to weight status, diet, mental health, and parenting sense of competence are being collected. Infant temperament will be explored as a moderator of parenting effects, and blood is collected to obtain genetic predictors of weight status. Finally, second-born siblings of INSIGHT participants will be enrolled in an observation-only study to explore parenting differences between siblings, their effect on weight outcomes, and carryover effects of INSIGHT interventions to subsequent siblings. DISCUSSION: With increasing evidence suggesting the importance of early life experiences on long-term health trajectories, the INSIGHT trial has the ability to inform future obesity prevention efforts in clinical settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01167270. Registered 21 July 2010.


Asunto(s)
Educación no Profesional/métodos , Relaciones Madre-Hijo , Obesidad/prevención & control , Responsabilidad Parental , Prevención Primaria/métodos , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Preescolar , Protocolos Clínicos , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Conducta del Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Obesidad/enfermería , Sobrepeso/enfermería , Sobrepeso/prevención & control , Estudios Prospectivos , Proyectos de Investigación
16.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 71(5): 91, 2007 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17998988

RESUMEN

There has been an increased emphasis on scholarly activities by health sciences faculty members given the importance of the promotion of public health over the last 50 years. Consequently, faculty members are required to place greater emphasis on scholarly activities while maintaining their teaching and service responsibilities. This increasing requirement of scholarly activities has placed great demands on clinical practice faculty members and it has made their management of clinical practice, teaching responsibilities, and expectations for promotion and tenure a difficult task. This retrospective literature review identifies barriers to the scholarship activities of clinical faculty members in dentistry, medicine, nursing, and pharmacy and discusses strategies for enabling faculty members to pursue scholarly activities in the current health science academic environment. The review indicates commonalities of barriers across these 4 disciplines and suggests strategies that could be implemented by all of these disciplines to enable clinical practice faculty members to pursue scholarly activities.


Asunto(s)
Docentes de Odontología , Docentes Médicos , Docentes de Enfermería , Docentes , Becas/métodos , Docentes/normas , Docentes de Odontología/normas , Docentes Médicos/normas , Docentes de Enfermería/normas , Becas/normas , Humanos
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