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1.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51862

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. La Comisión Lancet de Hipertensión determinó que una medida clave para responder a la carga mundial que representa la hipertensión arterial era mejorar la calidad de las mediciones de la presión arterial, mediante la utilización de dispositivos cuya exactitud haya sido validada. En la actualidad existen 3000 dispositivos comercializados, pero muchos no tienen datos publicados sobre pruebas de exactitud conformes a las normas científicas establecidas. La falta de regulación o su ineficiencia, que permiten la autorización de dispositivos para uso comercial sin una validación oficial, posibilitan este problema. Además, han surgido tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial (por ejemplo, los sensores sin brazalete) sobre las cuales no existe unanimidad en la comunidad científica con respecto a las normas de exactitud de la medición. En conjunto, estos aspectos contribuyen a la disponibilidad generalizada de tensiómetros de consultorio o domiciliarios que ofrecen una exactitud limitada o incierta, que llevan a diagnósticos, manejo y farmacoterapia inapropiados de la hipertensión a escala mundial. Los problemas más importantes relacionados con la exactitud de los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial se pueden resolver mediante el requisito regulatorio de una validación independiente obligatoria de los dispositivos, en consonancia con la norma ISO universalmente aceptada. Esta es una recomendación básica y constituye una necesidad internacional acuciante. Otras recomendaciones clave son la elaboración de normas de validación específicas para las tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial y la publicación en línea de listas de los dispositivos nuevos exactos que están a la disposición de los usuarios y los profesionales de salud. Las recomendaciones están en consonancia con las políticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre los dispositivos médicos y la atención universal de la salud. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones aumentará la disponibilidad mundial de dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial que sean exactos y tendrá como efecto un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento, reduciendo así la carga mundial de la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


[RESUMO]. A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico
2.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 21-29, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790375

RESUMEN

: The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organisation for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 63(7): 636-646, 2014 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24239664

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine whether aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) improves prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events beyond conventional risk factors. BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that aPWV may be a useful risk factor for predicting CVD, but they have been underpowered to examine whether this is true for different subgroups. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review and obtained individual participant data from 16 studies. Study-specific associations of aPWV with CVD outcomes were determined using Cox proportional hazard models and random effect models to estimate pooled effects. RESULTS: Of 17,635 participants, a total of 1,785 (10%) had a CVD event. The pooled age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) per 1-SD change in loge aPWV were 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22 to 1.50; p < 0.001) for coronary heart disease, 1.54 (95% CI: 1.34 to 1.78; p < 0.001) for stroke, and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.30 to 1.61; p < 0.001) for CVD. Associations stratified according to sex, diabetes, and hypertension were similar but decreased with age (1.89, 1.77, 1.36, and 1.23 for age ≤50, 51 to 60, 61 to 70, and >70 years, respectively; pinteraction <0.001). After adjusting for conventional risk factors, aPWV remained a predictor of coronary heart disease (HR: 1.23 [95% CI: 1.11 to 1.35]; p < 0.001), stroke (HR: 1.28 [95% CI: 1.16 to 1.42]; p < 0.001), and CVD events (HR: 1.30 [95% CI: 1.18 to 1.43]; p < 0.001). Reclassification indices showed that the addition of aPWV improved risk prediction (13% for 10-year CVD risk for intermediate risk) for some subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Consideration of aPWV improves model fit and reclassifies risk for future CVD events in models that include standard risk factors. aPWV may enable better identification of high-risk populations that might benefit from more aggressive CVD risk factor management.


Asunto(s)
Aorta/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso/métodos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Estudios Prospectivos
4.
Circulation ; 113(5): 664-70, 2006 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16461839

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few population studies addressed the prognostic significance of aortic pulse wave velocity (APWV) above and beyond other cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied a sex- and age-stratified random sample of 1678 Danes aged 40 to 70 years. We used Cox regression to investigate the prognostic value of APWV, office pulse pressure (PP), and 24-hour ambulatory PP while adjusting for mean arterial pressure (MAP) and other covariates. Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, the incidence of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular end points, cardiovascular mortality, and fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease amounted to 154, 62, and 101 cases, respectively. We adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, MAP measured in the office (conventional PP and APWV) or by ambulatory monitoring (24-hour PP), smoking, and alcohol intake. With these adjustments, APWV maintained its prognostic significance in relation to each end point (P<0.05), whereas office and 24-hour PP lost their predictive value (P>0.19), except for office PP in relation to coronary heart disease (P=0.02). For each 1-SD increment in APWV (3.4 m/s), the risk of an event increased by 16% to 20%. In sensitivity analyses, APWV still predicted all cardiovascular events after standardization to a heart rate of 60 beats per minute, after adjustment for 24-hour MAP instead of office MAP, and/or after additional adjustment for the ratio of total to HDL serum cholesterol and diabetes mellitus at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: In a general Danish population, APWV predicted a composite of cardiovascular outcomes above and beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including 24-hour MAP.


Asunto(s)
Aorta/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Flujo Pulsátil , Resistencia Vascular , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Pulso Arterial , Análisis de Regresión
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