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3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1081-1086, 2019 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751322

RESUMEN

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders are investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). CDC has published recommendations for health care providers regarding EVALI (2-4). Recently, researchers from Utah and New York published proposed diagnosis and treatment algorithms for EVALI (5,6). EVALI remains a diagnosis of exclusion because, at present, no specific test or marker exists for its diagnosis, and evaluation should be guided by clinical judgment. Because patients with EVALI can experience symptoms similar to those associated with influenza or other respiratory infections (e.g., fever, cough, headache, myalgias, or fatigue), it might be difficult to differentiate EVALI from influenza or community-acquired pneumonia on initial assessment; EVALI might also co-occur with respiratory infections. This report summarizes recommendations for health care providers managing patients with suspected or known EVALI when respiratory infections such as influenza are more prevalent in the community than they have been in recent months (7). Recommendations include 1) asking patients with respiratory, gastrointestinal, or constitutional symptoms about the use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products; 2) evaluating those suspected to have EVALI with pulse oximetry and obtaining chest imaging, as clinically indicated; 3) considering outpatient management for clinically stable EVALI patients who meet certain criteria; 4) testing patients for influenza, particularly during influenza season, and administering antimicrobials, including antivirals, in accordance with established guidelines; 5) using caution when considering prescribing corticosteroids for outpatients, because this treatment modality has not been well studied among outpatients, and corticosteroids could worsen respiratory infections; 6) recommending evidence-based treatment strategies, including behavioral counseling, to help patients discontinue using e-cigarette, or vaping, products; and 7) emphasizing the importance of annual influenza vaccination for all persons aged ≥6 months, including patients who use e-cigarette, or vaping products.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Lesión Pulmonar/terapia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Humanos , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
Stroke ; 50(8): 1959-1967, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208302

RESUMEN

Background and Purpose- International Classification of Diseases, Ninth and Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM) codes are often used for disease surveillance. We examined changes in concordance between ICD-CM codes and clinical diagnoses before and after the transition to ICD-10-CM in the United States (October 1, 2015), and determined if there were systematic variations in concordance by patient and hospital characteristics. Methods- We included Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Program patient discharges from 2014 to 2017. Concordance between ICD-CM codes and the clinical diagnosis documented by the physician (assumed as accurate) was calculated for each diagnosis category: ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Results- In total, 314 857 patient records were included in the analysis (n=280 hospitals), 55.9% of which were obtained after the transition to ICD-10-CM. While concordance was generally high, a small, and temporary decline occurred from the last calendar quarter of ICD-9-CM (average unadjusted concordance =92.8%) to the first quarter of ICD-10-CM use (91.0%). Concordance differed by diagnosis category and was generally highest for ischemic stroke. In the analysis of ICD-10-CM records, disagreements often occurred between ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack records and between subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage records. Compared with the smallest hospitals (≤200 beds), larger hospitals had significantly higher odds of concordance (ischemic stroke adjusted odds ratio for ≥400 beds, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5-1.9). Conclusions- This study identified a small and transient decline in concordance between ICD-CM codes and stroke clinical diagnoses during the coding transition, indicating no substantial impact on the overall identification of stroke patients. Researchers and policymakers should remain aware of potential changes in ICD-CM code accuracy over time, which may affect disease surveillance. Systematic variations in the accuracy of codes by hospital and patient characteristics have implications for quality-of-care studies and hospital comparative assessments.

5.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 260-266, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230545

RESUMEN

Over the past decade, blood pressure and sodium intake declined among children and adolescents (ie, youths) in the United States. We updated temporal trends and determined if secular changes in blood pressure might be partly associated with usual sodium intake. We included 12 249 youths aged 8 to 17 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003 to 2016 and had blood pressure and dietary data. Logistic regression was used to describe secular trends and the association between usual sodium intake and blood pressure categorized according to 2017 Hypertension Guidelines. The prevalence of youths with combined elevated blood pressure/hypertension (ie, either elevated blood pressure or hypertension) significantly declined from 16.2% in 2003-2004 to 13.3% in 2015-2016 ( P<0.001 for trend), as did hypertension from 6.6% to 4.9% ( P=0.005 for trend). Across the same time period, mean usual sodium intake decreased from 3381 to 3208 mg/day ( P<0.001 for trend). Holding constant survey cycle, sex, age, race and Hispanic origin, and weight status, the adjusted odds ratio per 1000 mg/day of usual sodium intake for elevated blood pressure/hypertension was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.03-1.35) and for hypertension was 1.20 (95% CI, 0.96-1.50). From 2003 to 2016, blood pressure and usual sodium intake declined among youths. Although 1000 mg/day higher usual sodium intake was associated with ≈20% higher odds of elevated blood pressure/hypertension and hypertension, the association with hypertension was not statistically significant.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/efectos adversos , Hipertensión/etiología , Encuestas Nutricionales/métodos , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Edad de Inicio , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/tendencias , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos
6.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 11(12): e004981, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557047

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The clinical benefit of intravenous (IV) alteplase in acute ischemic stroke is time dependent. We assessed the overall temporal changes in door-to-needle (DTN) time and examine the factors associated with DTN time ≤60 and ≤45 minutes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 496 336 acute ischemic stroke admissions were identified in the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Program from 2008 to 2017. We used generalized estimating equations models to examine the factors associated with DTN time ≤60 and ≤45 minutes, and calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% CI. Between 2008 and 2017, the percentage of acute ischemic stroke patients who received IV alteplase including those transferred, increased from 6.4% to 15.3%. After excluding those who received IV alteplase at an outside hospital, a total of 39 737 (8%) acute ischemic stroke patients received IV alteplase within 4.5 hours of the time the patient last known to be well. Significant increases were seen in DTN time ≤60 minutes (26.4% in 2008 to 66.2% in 2017, P<0.001), as well as DTN time ≤45 minutes (10.7% in 2008 to 40.5% in 2017, P<0.001). Patients aged 55 to 84 years were more likely to receive IV alteplase within 60 minutes, while those aged 55 to 74 years were more likely to receive IV alteplase within 45 minutes, as compared with those aged 18 to 54 years. Arrival by emergency medical service, and patients with severe stroke were more likely to receive IV alteplase within 60 and 45 minutes. Conversely, women, black patients as compared with white, and patients with a medical history of diseases associated with stroke were less likely to receive DTN time ≤60 or 45 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid improvements in DTN time were observed in the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Program; however, opportunities to reduce disparities remain.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/administración & dosificación , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/administración & dosificación , Administración Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Femenino , Fibrinolíticos/efectos adversos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sistema de Registros , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico , Terapia Trombolítica/efectos adversos , Factores de Tiempo , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(27): 758-762, 2018 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001558

RESUMEN

Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension in adolescents and young adults is associated with long-term negative health effects (1,2).* In 2017, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a new Clinical Practice Guideline (3), which updated 2004 pediatric hypertension guidance† with new thresholds and percentile references calculated from a healthy-weight population. To examine trends in youth hypertension and the impact of the new guideline on classification of hypertension status, CDC analyzed data from 12,004 participants aged 12-19 years in the 2001-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). During this time, prevalence of hypertension declined, using both the new (from 7.7% to 4.2%, p<0.001) and former (from 3.2% to 1.5%, p<0.001) guidelines, and declines were observed across all weight status categories. However, because of the new percentile tables and lower threshold for hypertension (4), application of the new guideline compared with the former guideline resulted in a weighted net estimated increase of 795,000 U.S. youths being reclassified as having hypertension using 2013-2016 data. Youths who were older, male, and those with obesity accounted for a disproportionate share of persons reclassified as having hypertension. Clinicians and public health professionals might expect to see a higher prevalence of hypertension with application of the new guideline and can use these data to inform actions to address hypertension among youths. Strategies to improve cardiovascular health include adoption of healthy eating patterns and increased physical activity (3).


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Masculino , Encuestas Nutricionales , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 14: E103, 2017 10 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072985

RESUMEN

Electronic information technology standards facilitate high-quality, uniform collection of data for improved delivery and measurement of health care services. Electronic information standards also aid information exchange between secure systems that link health care and public health for better coordination of patient care and better-informed population health improvement activities. We developed international data standards for healthy weight that provide common definitions for electronic information technology. The standards capture healthy weight data on the "ABCDs" of a visit to a health care provider that addresses initial obesity prevention and care: assessment, behaviors, continuity, identify resources, and set goals. The process of creating healthy weight standards consisted of identifying needs and priorities, developing and harmonizing standards, testing the exchange of data messages, and demonstrating use-cases. Healthy weight products include 2 message standards, 5 use-cases, 31 LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) question codes, 7 healthy weight value sets, 15 public-private engagements with health information technology implementers, and 2 technical guides. A logic model and action steps outline activities toward better data capture, interoperable systems, and information use. Sharing experiences and leveraging this work in the context of broader priorities can inform the development of electronic information standards for similar core conditions and guide strategic activities in electronic systems.


Asunto(s)
Registros Electrónicos de Salud/normas , Difusión de la Información , Informática Médica/normas , Obesidad/prevención & control , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Obesidad/terapia
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(35): 933-939, 2017 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880858

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The prominent decline in U.S. stroke death rates observed for more than 4 decades has slowed in recent years. CDC examined trends and patterns in recent stroke death rates among U.S. adults aged ≥35 years by age, sex, race/ethnicity, state, and census region. METHODS: Trends in the rates of stroke as the underlying cause of death during 2000-2015 were analyzed using data from the National Vital Statistics System. Joinpoint software was used to identify trends in stroke death rates, and the excess number of stroke deaths resulting from unfavorable changes in trends was estimated. RESULTS: Among adults aged ≥35 years, age-standardized stroke death rates declined 38%, from 118.4 per 100,000 persons in 2000 to 73.3 per 100,000 persons in 2015. The annual percent change (APC) in stroke death rates changed from 2000 to 2015, from a 3.4% decrease per year during 2000-2003, to a 6.6% decrease per year during 2003-2006, a 3.1% decrease per year during 2006-2013, and a 2.5% (nonsignificant) increase per year during 2013-2015. The last trend segment indicated a reversal from a decrease to a statistically significant increase among Hispanics (APC = 5.8%) and among persons in the South Census Region (APC = 4.2%). Declines in stroke death rates failed to continue in 38 states, and during 2013-2015, an estimated 32,593 excess stroke deaths might not have occurred if the previous rate of decline could have been sustained. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Prior declines in stroke death rates have not continued in recent years, and substantial variations exist in timing and magnitude of change by demographic and geographic characteristics. These findings suggest the importance of strategically identifying opportunities for prevention and intervening in vulnerable populations, especially because effective and underused interventions to prevent stroke incidence and death are known to exist.


Asunto(s)
Accidente Cerebrovascular/mortalidad , Estadísticas Vitales , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad/tendencias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
10.
EGEMS (Wash DC) ; 5(1): 21, 2017 Dec 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930962

RESUMEN

Context: Obesity is a significant health issue in the United States that both clinical and public health systems struggle to address. Electronic health record data could help support multi-sectoral interventions to address obesity. Standards have been identified and created to support the electronic exchange of weight-related data across many stakeholder groups. Case Description: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated a public-private partnership including government, industry, and academic technology partners to develop workflow scenarios and supporting systems to exchange weight-related data through standard transactions. This partnership tested the transmission of data using this newly-defined Healthy Weight (HW) profile at multiple health data interoperability demonstration events. Findings: Five transaction types were tested by 12 partners who demonstrated how the standards and related systems support end-to-end workflows around managing weight-related issues in the community. The standard transactions were successfully tested at two Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Connectathon events through 86 validated tests encompassing 38 multi-partner transactions. Discussion: We have successfully demonstrated the transactions defined in the HW profile with a public-private partnership. These tested IT products and HW standards could be used to support a continuum of care around health related issues encompassing both health care and public health functions. Conclusion: The use of the HW profile, including a set of transactions and identified standards to implement those transactions, in IT products is a helpful first step in leveraging health information technology to address weight-related issues in the United States. Future work is needed to expand the use of these standards and to assess their use in real world settings.

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