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1.
Nanoscale ; 14(15): 5758-5768, 2022 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35348558

RESUMEN

Strain plays an important role for the optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Here, we investigate strain effects in a monolayer MoSe2 sample with a large bubble region using µ-Raman, second harmonic generation (SHG), µ-photoluminescence and magneto µ-photoluminescence at low temperature. Remarkably, our results reveal the presence of a non-uniform strain field and the observation of emission peaks at lower energies which are the signatures of exciton and trion quasiparticles red-shifted by strain effects in the bubble region, in agreement with our theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we have observed that the emission in the strained region decreases the trion binding energy and enhances the valley g-factors as compared to non-strained regions. Considering uniform biaxial strain effects within the unit cell of the TMDC monolayer (ML), our first principles calculations predict the observed enhancement of the exciton valley Zeeman effect. In addition, our results suggest that the exciton-trion fine structure plays an important role for the optical properties of strained TMDC ML. In summary, our study provides fundamental insights on the behaviour of excitons and trions in strained monolayer MoSe2 which are particularly relevant to properly characterize and understand the fine structure of excitonic complexes in strained TMDC systems/devices.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6021, 2020 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244001

RESUMEN

Semiconducting ferromagnet-nonmagnet interfaces in van der Waals heterostructures present a unique opportunity to investigate magnetic proximity interactions dependent upon a multitude of phenomena including valley and layer pseudospins, moiré periodicity, or exceptionally strong Coulomb binding. Here, we report a charge-state dependency of the magnetic proximity effects between MoSe2 and CrBr3 in photoluminescence, whereby the valley polarization of the MoSe2 trion state conforms closely to the local CrBr3 magnetization, while the neutral exciton state remains insensitive to the ferromagnet. We attribute this to spin-dependent interlayer charge transfer occurring on timescales between the exciton and trion radiative lifetimes. Going further, we uncover by both the magneto-optical Kerr effect and photoluminescence a domain-like spatial topography of contrasting valley polarization, which we infer to be labyrinthine or otherwise highly intricate, with features smaller than 400 nm corresponding to our optical resolution. Our findings offer a unique insight into the interplay between short-lived valley excitons and spin-dependent interlayer tunneling, while also highlighting MoSe2 as a promising candidate to optically interface with exotic spin textures in van der Waals structures.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3589, 2020 Jul 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680995

RESUMEN

Highly nonlinear optical materials with strong effective photon-photon interactions are required for ultrafast and quantum optical signal processing circuitry. Here we report strong Kerr-like nonlinearities by employing efficient optical transitions of charged excitons (trions) observed in semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). By hybridising trions in monolayer MoSe2 at low electron densities with a microcavity mode, we realise trion-polaritons exhibiting significant energy shifts at small photon fluxes due to phase space filling. We find the ratio of trion- to neutral exciton-polariton interaction strength is in the range from 10 to 100 in TMDC materials and that trion-polariton nonlinearity is comparable to that in other polariton systems. The results are in good agreement with a theory accounting for the composite nature of excitons and trions and deviation of their statistics from that of ideal bosons and fermions. Our findings open a way to scalable quantum optics applications with TMDCs.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2335, 2019 05 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133651

RESUMEN

The intriguing physics of carrier-carrier interactions, which likewise affect the operation of light emitting devices, stimulate the research on semiconductor structures at high densities of excited carriers, a limit reachable at large pumping rates or in systems with long-lived electron-hole pairs. By electrically injecting carriers into WSe2/MoS2 type-II heterostructures which are indirect in real and k-space, we establish a large population of typical optically silent interlayer excitons. Here, we reveal their emission spectra and show that the emission energy is tunable by an applied electric field. When the population is further increased by suppressing the radiative recombination rate with the introduction of an hBN spacer between WSe2 and MoS2, Auger-type and exciton-exciton annihilation processes become important. These processes are traced by the observation of an up-converted emission demonstrating that excitons gaining energy in non-radiative Auger processes can be recovered and recombine radiatively.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2330, 2019 05 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133703

RESUMEN

Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) hold great promise for future information processing applications utilizing a combination of electron spin and valley pseudospin. This unique spin system has led to observation of the valley Zeeman effect in neutral and charged excitonic resonances under applied magnetic fields. However, reported values of the trion valley Zeeman splitting remain highly inconsistent across studies. Here, we utilize high quality hBN encapsulated monolayer WSe2 to enable simultaneous measurement of both intervalley and intravalley trion photoluminescence. We find the valley Zeeman splitting of each trion state to be describable only by a combination of three distinct g-factors, one arising from the exciton-like valley Zeeman effect, the other two, trion specific, g-factors associated with recoil of the excess electron. This complex picture goes significantly beyond the valley Zeeman effect reported for neutral excitons, and eliminates the ambiguity surrounding the magneto-optical response of trions in tungsten based TMD monolayers.

6.
Sci Adv ; 5(1): eaau0906, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746444

RESUMEN

Similar to silicon-based semiconductor devices, van der Waals heterostructures require integration with high-k oxides. Here, we demonstrate a method to embed and pattern a multifunctional few-nanometer-thick high-k oxide within various van der Waals devices without degrading the properties of the neighboring two-dimensional materials. This transformation allows for the creation of several fundamental nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices, including flexible Schottky barrier field-effect transistors, dual-gated graphene transistors, and vertical light-emitting/detecting tunneling transistors. Furthermore, upon dielectric breakdown, electrically conductive filaments are formed. This filamentation process can be used to electrically contact encapsulated conductive materials. Careful control of the filamentation process also allows for reversible switching memories. This nondestructive embedding of a high-k oxide within complex van der Waals heterostructures could play an important role in future flexible multifunctional van der Waals devices.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4797, 2018 11 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442886

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide a unique possibility to generate and read-out excitonic valley coherence using linearly polarized light, opening the way to valley information transfer between distant systems. However, these excitons have short lifetimes (ps) and efficiently lose their valley coherence via the electron-hole exchange interaction. Here, we show that control of these processes can be gained by embedding a monolayer of WSe2 in an optical microcavity, forming part-light-part-matter exciton-polaritons. We demonstrate optical initialization of valley coherent polariton populations, exhibiting luminescence with a linear polarization degree up to 3 times higher than displayed by bare excitons. We utilize an external magnetic field alongside selective exciton-cavity-mode detuning to control the polariton valley pseudospin vector rotation, which reaches 45° at B = 8 T. This work provides unique insight into the decoherence mechanisms in TMDs and demonstrates the potential for engineering the valley pseudospin dynamics in monolayer semiconductors embedded in photonic structures.

8.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10800, 2016 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26960435

RESUMEN

Microelectromechanical systems, which can be moved or rotated with nanometre precision, already find applications in such fields as radio-frequency electronics, micro-attenuators, sensors and many others. Especially interesting are those which allow fine control over the motion on the atomic scale because of self-alignment mechanisms and forces acting on the atomic level. Such machines can produce well-controlled movements as a reaction to small changes of the external parameters. Here we demonstrate that, for the system of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride, the interplay between the van der Waals and elastic energies results in graphene mechanically self-rotating towards the hexagonal boron nitride crystallographic directions. Such rotation is macroscopic (for graphene flakes of tens of micrometres the tangential movement can be on hundreds of nanometres) and can be used for reproducible manufacturing of aligned van der Waals heterostructures.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Boro/química , Grafito/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Cristalización , Elasticidad , Microscopía de Fuerza Atómica , Nanoestructuras/ultraestructura , Rotación , Termodinámica
9.
Nano Lett ; 15(12): 8223-8, 2015 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26555037

RESUMEN

Monolayers of molybdenum and tungsten dichalcogenides are direct bandgap semiconductors, which makes them promising for optoelectronic applications. In particular, van der Waals heterostructures consisting of monolayers of MoS2 sandwiched between atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and graphene electrodes allows one to obtain light emitting quantum wells (LEQWs) with low-temperature external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1%. However, the EQE of MoS2- and MoSe2-based LEQWs shows behavior common for many other materials: it decreases fast from cryogenic conditions to room temperature, undermining their practical applications. Here we compare MoSe2 and WSe2 LEQWs. We show that the EQE of WSe2 devices grows with temperature, with room temperature EQE reaching 5%, which is 250× more than the previous best performance of MoS2 and MoSe2 quantum wells in ambient conditions. We attribute such different temperature dependences to the inverted sign of spin-orbit splitting of conduction band states in tungsten and molybdenum dichalcogenides, which makes the lowest-energy exciton in WSe2 dark.

10.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8579, 2015 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26446783

RESUMEN

Layered materials can be assembled vertically to fabricate a new class of van der Waals heterostructures a few atomic layers thick, compatible with a wide range of substrates and optoelectronic device geometries, enabling new strategies for control of light-matter coupling. Here, we incorporate molybdenum diselenide/hexagonal boron nitride (MoSe2/hBN) quantum wells in a tunable optical microcavity. Part-light-part-matter polariton eigenstates are observed as a result of the strong coupling between MoSe2 excitons and cavity photons, evidenced from a clear anticrossing between the neutral exciton and the cavity modes with a splitting of 20 meV for a single MoSe2 monolayer, enhanced to 29 meV in MoSe2/hBN/MoSe2 double-quantum wells. The splitting at resonance provides an estimate of the exciton radiative lifetime of 0.4 ps. Our results pave the way for room-temperature polaritonic devices based on multiple-quantum-well van der Waals heterostructures, where polariton condensation and electrical polariton injection through the incorporation of graphene contacts may be realized.

11.
Nat Mater ; 14(3): 301-6, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25643033

RESUMEN

The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices and so on. Here, we take the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level by introducing quantum wells (QWs) engineered with one atomic plane precision. We describe light-emitting diodes (LEDs) made by stacking metallic graphene, insulating hexagonal boron nitride and various semiconducting monolayers into complex but carefully designed sequences. Our first devices already exhibit an extrinsic quantum efficiency of nearly 10% and the emission can be tuned over a wide range of frequencies by appropriately choosing and combining 2D semiconductors (monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides). By preparing the heterostructures on elastic and transparent substrates, we show that they can also provide the basis for flexible and semi-transparent electronics. The range of functionalities for the demonstrated heterostructures is expected to grow further on increasing the number of available 2D crystals and improving their electronic quality.

12.
Nano Lett ; 14(12): 7003-8, 2014 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25375802

RESUMEN

Integration of quasi-two-dimensional (2D) films of metal-chalcogenides in optical microcavities permits new photonic applications of these materials. Here we present tunable microcavities with monolayer MoS2 or few monolayer GaSe films. We observe significant modification of spectral and temporal properties of photoluminescence (PL): PL is emitted in spectrally narrow and wavelength-tunable cavity modes with quality factors up to 7400; a 10-fold PL lifetime shortening is achieved, a consequence of Purcell enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate.

13.
Science ; 346(6208): 448-51, 2014 Oct 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25342798

RESUMEN

Topological materials may exhibit Hall-like currents flowing transversely to the applied electric field even in the absence of a magnetic field. In graphene superlattices, which have broken inversion symmetry, topological currents originating from graphene's two valleys are predicted to flow in opposite directions and combine to produce long-range charge neutral flow. We observed this effect as a nonlocal voltage at zero magnetic field in a narrow energy range near Dirac points at distances as large as several micrometers away from the nominal current path. Locally, topological currents are comparable in strength with the applied current, indicating large valley-Hall angles. The long-range character of topological currents and their transistor-like control by means of gate voltage can be exploited for information processing based on valley degrees of freedom.

14.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 9(10): 808-13, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25194946

RESUMEN

Recent developments in the technology of van der Waals heterostructures made from two-dimensional atomic crystals have already led to the observation of new physical phenomena, such as the metal-insulator transition and Coulomb drag, and to the realization of functional devices, such as tunnel diodes, tunnel transistors and photovoltaic sensors. An unprecedented degree of control of the electronic properties is available not only by means of the selection of materials in the stack, but also through the additional fine-tuning achievable by adjusting the built-in strain and relative orientation of the component layers. Here we demonstrate how careful alignment of the crystallographic orientation of two graphene electrodes separated by a layer of hexagonal boron nitride in a transistor device can achieve resonant tunnelling with conservation of electron energy, momentum and, potentially, chirality. We show how the resonance peak and negative differential conductance in the device characteristics induce a tunable radiofrequency oscillatory current that has potential for future high-frequency technology.

15.
Sci Rep ; 4: 5517, 2014 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24980150

RESUMEN

Plasmonics has established itself as a branch of physics which promises to revolutionize data processing, improve photovoltaics, and increase sensitivity of bio-detection. A widespread use of plasmonic devices is notably hindered by high losses and the absence of stable and inexpensive metal films suitable for plasmonic applications. To this end, there has been a continuous search for alternative plasmonic materials that are also compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Here we show that copper and silver protected by graphene are viable candidates. Copper films covered with one to a few graphene layers show excellent plasmonic characteristics. They can be used to fabricate plasmonic devices and survive for at least a year, even in wet and corroding conditions. As a proof of concept, we use the graphene-protected copper to demonstrate dielectric loaded plasmonic waveguides and test sensitivity of surface plasmon resonances. Our results are likely to initiate wide use of graphene-protected plasmonics.

16.
Nano Lett ; 14(6): 3270-6, 2014 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24844319

RESUMEN

Hexagonal boron nitride is the only substrate that has so far allowed graphene devices exhibiting micrometer-scale ballistic transport. Can other atomically flat crystals be used as substrates for making quality graphene heterostructures? Here we report on our search for alternative substrates. The devices fabricated by encapsulating graphene with molybdenum or tungsten disulfides and hBN are found to exhibit consistently high carrier mobilities of about 60 000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). In contrast, encapsulation with atomically flat layered oxides such as mica, bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide, and vanadium pentoxide results in exceptionally low quality of graphene devices with mobilities of ∼1000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). We attribute the difference mainly to self-cleansing that takes place at interfaces between graphene, hBN, and transition metal dichalcogenides. Surface contamination assembles into large pockets allowing the rest of the interface to become atomically clean. The cleansing process does not occur for graphene on atomically flat oxide substrates.

17.
Nano Lett ; 14(7): 3987-92, 2014 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24871927

RESUMEN

The new paradigm of heterostructures based on two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals has already led to the observation of exciting physical phenomena and creation of novel devices. The possibility of combining layers of different 2D materials in one stack allows unprecedented control over the electronic and optical properties of the resulting material. Still, the current method of mechanical transfer of individual 2D crystals, though allowing exceptional control over the quality of such structures and interfaces, is not scalable. Here we show that such heterostructures can be assembled from chemically exfoliated 2D crystals, allowing for low-cost and scalable methods to be used in device fabrication.


Asunto(s)
Grafito/química , Tinta , Nanopartículas/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Electrónica/instrumentación , Diseño de Equipo , Nanopartículas/ultraestructura , Nanoestructuras/ultraestructura , Nanotecnología/instrumentación , Impresión/instrumentación
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