Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 531
Filtrar
2.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 8(1): 41, 2022 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710757

RESUMEN

Genetic pain loss includes congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP), hereditary sensory neuropathies and, if autonomic nerves are involved, hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). This heterogeneous group of disorders highlights the essential role of nociception in protecting against tissue damage. Patients with genetic pain loss have recurrent injuries, burns and poorly healing wounds as disease hallmarks. CIP and HSAN are caused by pathogenic genetic variants in >20 genes that lead to developmental defects, neurodegeneration or altered neuronal excitability of peripheral damage-sensing neurons. These genetic variants lead to hyperactivity of sodium channels, disturbed haem metabolism, altered clathrin-mediated transport and impaired gene regulatory mechanisms affecting epigenetic marks, long non-coding RNAs and repetitive elements. Therapies for pain loss disorders are mainly symptomatic but the first targeted therapies are being tested. Conversely, chronic pain remains one of the greatest unresolved medical challenges, and the genes and mechanisms associated with pain loss offer new targets for analgesics. Given the progress that has been made, the coming years are promising both in terms of targeted treatments for pain loss disorders and the development of innovative pain medicines based on knowledge of these genetic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Canalopatías , Neuropatías Hereditarias Sensoriales y Autónomas , Insensibilidad Congénita al Dolor , Neuropatías Hereditarias Sensoriales y Autónomas/complicaciones , Neuropatías Hereditarias Sensoriales y Autónomas/diagnóstico , Neuropatías Hereditarias Sensoriales y Autónomas/genética , Humanos , Dolor/genética , Insensibilidad Congénita al Dolor/genética
3.
Ir Med J ; 115(3): 560, 2022 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532732

RESUMEN

Aim Physical Activity (PA) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) both have positive effects on medical student well-being. The 'MED-WELL' programme is a curricular intervention that combines PA and education on exercise as medicine. This trial evaluates whether there is a mean difference in outcomes of participants of an exercise intervention, the 'MED-WELL' programme, versus a control group which engages in a MBSR programme. Methods All second-year medical students were voluntarily allocated into the intervention or control group. Data on overall health and well-being, sleep quality, loneliness, current level of PA, and confidence in prescribing exercise as medicine was analysed from both groups at baseline and after eight weeks. Results Within groups the intervention and control groups showed statistically significant improvements in overall well-being (p=0.010, p=0.005 respectively) and in sleep quality (p<0.001, p=0.007 respectively). The intervention group had statistically significant improvements in levels of PA (p=0.003) and confidence in prescribing exercise (p<0.001). However, there were no statistically significant differences in changes in outcome measures between groups. Conclusion This study has shown that participants in an exercise intervention, the 'MED-WELL' programme, had similar improvements in overall wellbeing and sleep quality to those in a control group who participated in a MBSR programme of the same duration.


Asunto(s)
Atención Plena , Estudiantes de Medicina , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Atención Plena/métodos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 657, 2022 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578247

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Southern Province of Sri Lanka is endemic with dengue, with frequent outbreaks and occurrence of severe disease. However, the economic burden of dengue is poorly quantified. Therefore, we conducted a cost analysis to assess the direct and indirect costs associated with hospitalized patients with dengue to households and to the public healthcare system. METHODS: From June 2017-December 2018, we prospectively enrolled children and adults with acute dengue hospitalized at the largest, public tertiary-care (1800 bed) hospital in the Southern Province, Sri Lanka. We administered a structured questionnaire to obtain information regarding direct costs spent by households on medical visits, medications, laboratory testing, and travel for seeking care for the illness. Indirect costs lost by households were estimated by identifying the days of work lost by patients and caregivers and school days lost by children. Direct hospital costs were estimated using gross costing approach and adjusted by multiplying by annual inflation rates in Sri Lankan rupees and converted to US dollars. RESULTS: A total of 1064 patients with laboratory-confirmed dengue were enrolled. The mean age (SD) was 35.9 years (15.6) with male predominance (66.2%). The mean durations of hospitalization for adults and paediatric patients were 3.86 (SD = 1.51) and 4 (SD = 1.32) days, respectively. The per-capita direct cost borne by the healthcare system was 233.76 USD, and was approximately 14 times greater than the per-capita direct cost borne by households (16.29 USD, SD = 14.02). The per-capita average number of loss of working days was 21.51 (SD = 41.71), with mean per-capita loss of income due to loss of work being 303.99 USD (SD = 569.77), accounting for over 70% of average monthly income. On average, 10.88 days (SD = 10.97) of school days were missed due to the dengue episode. School misses were expected to reduce future annual income of affected children by 0.44%. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue requiring hospitalization had a substantial economic burden on the public healthcare system in Sri Lanka and the affected households. These findings emphasize the importance of strengthening dengue control activities and improved use of hospital-based resources for care to reduce the economic impact of dengue in Sri Lanka.


Asunto(s)
Dengue , Hospitalización , Adulto , Niño , Dengue/epidemiología , Dengue/terapia , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Costos de Hospital , Humanos , Masculino , Sri Lanka/epidemiología
5.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 158: 111157, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504226

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Tracheomalacia is a common congenital condition causing stridor in young children. However, the evaluation of these children remains poorly standardised across institutions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all children undergoing an elective laryngotracheobronchoscopy at a single tertiary paediatric institution between March 2010 and December 2018. Emergency bronchoscopies and children with tracheostomies were excluded. 1163 children undergoing an elective bronchoscopy were included in this study, and 545 children also had an airway fluoroscopy. RESULTS: The median age at bronchoscopy was 17 months, and the majority of children were male. Tracheomalacia was diagnosed in 21.6% of children at bronchoscopy, of these 48.5% had tracheomalacia diagnosed on a previous airway fluoroscopy. Overall, airway fluoroscopy had a low sensitivity (62.3%) and a low specificity (67.5%) for diagnosis of tracheomalacia when compared with bronchoscopy. Increasing severity of tracheomalacia on airway screen significantly predicted a diagnosis of tracheomalacia on bronchoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Airway fluoroscopy has a low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of tracheomalacia and should be used judiciously rather than as a screening tool for children with stridor. However, this imaging technique may be beneficial in investigating children with severe symptoms who have had other conditions such as laryngomalacia excluded.


Asunto(s)
Traqueomalacia , Broncoscopía/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , Anomalías Congénitas , Femenino , Fluoroscopía/métodos , Humanos , Lactante , Laringe/anomalías , Masculino , Ruidos Respiratorios/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Traqueomalacia/complicaciones , Traqueomalacia/diagnóstico por imagen
6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(20): 202501, 2021 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860042

RESUMEN

Two long-standing puzzles in the decay of ^{185}Bi, the heaviest known proton-emitting nucleus are revisited. These are the nonobservation of the 9/2^{-} state, which is the ground state of all heavier odd-A Bi isotopes, and the hindered nature of proton and α decays of its presumed 60-µs 1/2^{+} ground state. The ^{185}Bi nucleus has now been studied with the ^{95}Mo(^{93}Nb,3n) reaction in complementary experiments using the Fragment Mass Analyzer and Argonne Gas-Filled Analyzer at Argonne National Laboratory's ATLAS facility. The experiments have established the existence of two states in ^{185}Bi; the short-lived T_{1/2}=2.8_{-1.0}^{+2.3} µs, proton- and α-decaying ground state, and a 58(2)-µs γ-decaying isomer, the half-life of which was previously attributed to the ground state. The reassignment of the ground-state lifetime results in a proton-decay spectroscopic factor close to unity and represents the only known example of a ground-state proton decay to a daughter nucleus (^{184}Pb) with a major shell closure. The data also demonstrate that the ordering of low- and high-spin states in ^{185}Bi is reversed relative to the heavier odd-A Bi isotopes, with the intruder-based 1/2^{+} configuration becoming the ground, similar to the lightest At nuclides.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(16): 162501, 2021 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723594

RESUMEN

We report an improved measurement of the free neutron lifetime τ_{n} using the UCNτ apparatus at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. We count a total of approximately 38×10^{6} surviving ultracold neutrons (UCNs) after storing in UCNτ's magnetogravitational trap over two data acquisition campaigns in 2017 and 2018. We extract τ_{n} from three blinded, independent analyses by both pairing long and short storage time runs to find a set of replicate τ_{n} measurements and by performing a global likelihood fit to all data while self-consistently incorporating the ß-decay lifetime. Both techniques achieve consistent results and find a value τ_{n}=877.75±0.28_{stat}+0.22/-0.16_{syst} s. With this sensitivity, neutron lifetime experiments now directly address the impact of recent refinements in our understanding of the standard model for neutron decay.

8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(2): 023305, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648127

RESUMEN

In this paper, we report studies of the Fermi potential and loss per bounce of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) on a deuterated scintillator (Eljen-299-02D). These UCN properties of the scintillator enable its use in a wide variety of applications in fundamental neutron research.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 347, 2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436620

RESUMEN

When two-dimensional crystals are brought into close proximity, their interaction results in reconstruction of electronic spectrum and crystal structure. Such reconstruction strongly depends on the twist angle between the crystals, which has received growing attention due to interesting electronic and optical properties that arise in graphene and transitional metal dichalcogenides. Here we study two insulating crystals of hexagonal boron nitride stacked at small twist angle. Using electrostatic force microscopy, we observe ferroelectric-like domains arranged in triangular superlattices with a large surface potential. The observation is attributed to interfacial elastic deformations that result in out-of-plane dipoles formed by pairs of boron and nitrogen atoms belonging to opposite interfacial surfaces. This creates a bilayer-thick ferroelectric with oppositely polarized (BN and NB) dipoles in neighbouring domains, in agreement with our modeling. These findings open up possibilities for designing van der Waals heterostructures and offer an alternative probe to study moiré-superlattice electrostatic potentials.

10.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(2): 206-210, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951975

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify styles of play in the National Rugby League (NRL) relative to season and end of season rank (position on the NRL ladder) across the 2015-2019 seasons. DESIGN: Retrospective, longitudinal analysis of performance indicators. METHODS: Forty-eight performance indicators (e.g. runs, tackles) from all NRL teams and matches during the 2015-2019 seasons (n=2010) were quantified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was then used to identify styles of play based on dimensions (Factors) of performance indicators. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was then used to explain these emergent styles of play relative to 'season' and 'end of season rank'. RESULTS: The PCA revealed nine Factors (six attacking, two defensive and one contested style) accounting for ∼51% of seasonal team performance variance. These nine Factors differed across 'seasons', with four showing an effect against 'end of season rank'. From these four, two Factors (ball possession and player efforts) impacted upon the combined effects of 'season' and 'end of season rank'. CONCLUSIONS: The PCA identified nine Factors reflecting a spread of attacking, defensive and contested styles of play within the NRL. These styles differed relative to season and a team's end of season ranking. These results may assist practitioners with the recognition of more contemporary styles of play in the NRL, enabling the development of strategies to exploit competition trends.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Fútbol Americano/fisiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Acondicionamiento Físico Humano , Análisis de Componente Principal , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estaciones del Año
11.
Diabet Med ; 38(6): e14412, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997841

RESUMEN

AIMS: To establish the impact of uncomplicated type 2 diabetes on cognitive and neuropsychological performance in midlife. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of middle-aged adults with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes and a cohort of healthy control participants. General cognition was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test and neuropsychological assessment was undertaken using a detailed neuropsychological assessment battery. RESULTS: A total of 152 participants (102 with type 2 diabetes and 50 controls) were recruited (mean age 52 ± 8 years, 51% women). Participants with midlife type 2 diabetes were more than twice as likely to make an error on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test [incidence rate ratio 2.44 (95% CI 1.54 to 3.87); P < 0.001]. Further, type 2 diabetes was also associated with significantly lower memory composite score [ß: -0.20 (95% CI -0.39 to -0.01); P = 0.04] and paired associates learning score [ß: = -1.97 (95% CI -3.51, -0.43); P = 0.01] on the neuropsychological assessment battery following adjustment for age, sex, BMI, educational attainment and hypercholesterolaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Even in midlife, type 2 diabetes was associated with small but statistically significant cognitive decrements. These statistically significant decrements, whilst not clinically significant in terms of objective cognitive impairment, may have important implications in selecting out individuals most at risk of later cognitive decline for potential preventative interventions in midlife.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Memoria/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicología , Escolaridad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Irlanda/epidemiología , Masculino , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Factores de Riesgo
13.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 280, 2020 07 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650803

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is often diagnosed at an advanced stage because the disease often causes minimal symptoms other than metastasis to neck lymph nodes. Better tools are required to assist with the early detection of OPSCC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are potential biomarkers for early head and neck squamous cell cancer diagnosis, prognosis, recurrence, and presence of metastatic disease. However, there is no widespread agreement on a panel of miRNAs with clinically meaningful utility for head and neck squamous cell cancers. This could be due to variations in the collection, storage, pre-processing, and isolation of RNA, but several reports have indicated that the selection and reproducibility of biomarkers has been widely affected by the methods used for data analysis. The primary analysis issues appear to be model overfitting and the incorrect application of statistical techniques. The purpose of this study was to develop a robust statistical approach to identify a miRNA signature that can distinguish controls and patients with inflammatory disease from patients with human papilloma virus positive (HPV +) OPSCC. METHODS: Small extracellular vesicles were harvested from the serum of 20 control patients, 20 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD), and 40 patients with locally advanced HPV + OPSCC. MicroRNAs were purified, and expression profiled on OpenArray™. A novel cross validation method, using lasso regression, was developed to stabilise selection of miRNAs for inclusion in a prediction model. The method, named StaVarSel (for Stable Variable Selection), was used to derive a diagnostic biomarker signature. RESULTS: A standard cross validation approach was unable to produce a biomarker signature with good cross validated predictive capacity. In contrast, StaVarSel produced a regression model containing 11 miRNA ratios with potential clinical utility. Sample permutations indicated that the estimated cross validated prediction accuracy of the 11-miR-ratio model was not due to chance alone. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a novel method, StaVarSel, that was able to identify a panel of miRNAs, present in small extracellular vesicles derived from blood serum, that robustly cross validated as a biomarker for the detection of HPV + OPSCC. This approach could be used to derive diagnostic biomarkers of other head and neck cancers.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Vesículas Extracelulares , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , MicroARNs , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/genética , Humanos , MicroARNs/genética , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/genética , Papillomaviridae , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Suero , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/genética
14.
Cell Rep ; 32(3): 107941, 2020 07 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697988

RESUMEN

By studying healthy women who do not request analgesia during their first delivery, we investigate genetic effects on labor pain. Such women have normal sensory and psychometric test results, except for significantly higher cuff pressure pain. We find an excess of heterozygotes carrying the rare allele of SNP rs140124801 in KCNG4. The rare variant KV6.4-Met419 has a dominant-negative effect and cannot modulate the voltage dependence of KV2.1 inactivation because it fails to traffic to the plasma membrane. In vivo, Kcng4 (KV6.4) expression occurs in 40% of retrograde-labeled mouse uterine sensory neurons, all of which express KV2.1, and over 90% express the nociceptor genes Trpv1 and Scn10a. In neurons overexpressing KV6.4-Met419, the voltage dependence of inactivation for KV2.1 is more depolarized compared with neurons overexpressing KV6.4. Finally, KV6.4-Met419-overexpressing neurons have a higher action potential threshold. We conclude that KV6.4 can influence human labor pain by modulating the excitability of uterine nociceptors.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de Parto/metabolismo , Canales de Potasio con Entrada de Voltaje/metabolismo , Subunidades de Proteína/metabolismo , Adulto , Alelos , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Analgésicos/farmacología , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cognición , Estudios de Cohortes , Emociones , Femenino , Ganglios Espinales/metabolismo , Heterocigoto , Humanos , Activación del Canal Iónico/genética , Dolor de Parto/genética , Dolor de Parto/fisiopatología , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Mutación/genética , Nociceptores/metabolismo , Umbral del Dolor , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Canales de Potasio con Entrada de Voltaje/química , Canales de Potasio con Entrada de Voltaje/genética , Embarazo , Multimerización de Proteína , Células Receptoras Sensoriales/metabolismo , Canales de Potasio Shab/metabolismo , Fracciones Subcelulares/metabolismo , Útero/inervación
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(24): 27758-27764, 2020 Jun 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442370

RESUMEN

Commensurability effects play a crucial role in the formation of electronic properties of novel layered heterostructures. The interest in these moiré superstructures has increased tremendously since the recent observation of a superconducting state (Nature 2018, 556, 43-50) and metal-insulator transition (Nature 2018, 556, 80-84) in twisted bilayer graphene. In this regard, a straightforward and efficient experimental technique for detection of the alignment of layered materials is desired. In this work, we use optical second harmonic generation, which is sensitive to the inversion symmetry breaking, to investigate the alignment of graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures. To achieve that, we activate a commensurate-incommensurate phase transition by a thermal annealing of the sample. We find that this structural change in the system can be directly observed via a strong modification of a nonlinear optical signal. Unambiguous interpretation of obtained results reveals the potential of a second harmonic generation technique for probing of structural changes in layered systems.

16.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(9): 891-896, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146082

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to: 1) examine recent seasonal changes in performance indicators for different National Rugby League (NRL) playing positions; and 2) determine the accuracy of performance indicators to classify and discriminate positional groups in the NRL. DESIGN: Retrospective, longitudinal analysis of individual performance metrics. METHODS: 48 performance indicators (e.g. passes, tackles) from all NRL games during the 2015-2019 seasons were collated for each player´s match-related performance. The following analyses were conducted with all data: (i) one-way ANOVA to identify seasonal changes in performance indicators; (ii) principal component analysis (PCA) to group performance indicators into factors; (iii) two-step cluster analysis to classify playing positions using the identified factors; and (iv) discriminant analysis to discriminate the identified playing positions. RESULTS: ANOVA showed significant differences in performance indicators across seasons (F=2.3-687.7; p=0-0.05; partial η2=0.00-0.075). PCA pooled all performance indicators and identified 14 factors that were included in the two-step cluster analysis (average silhouette=0.5) that identified six positional groups: forwards, 26.7%, adjustables, 17.2%, interchange, 23.2%, backs, 20.9%, interchange forwards, 5.5% and utility backs, 6.5%. Lastly, discriminant analysis revealed five discriminant functions that differentiated playing positions. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that player's performance demands across different playing positions did significantly change over recent seasons (2015-2019). Cluster analysis yielded a high-level of accuracy relative to playing position, identifying six clusters that best discriminated positional groups. Unsupervised analytical approaches may provide sports scientists and coaches with meaningful tools to evaluate player performance and future positional suitability in RL.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/clasificación , Fútbol Americano/clasificación , Visualización de Datos , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas
17.
Nanoscale ; 11(30): 14354-14361, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332419

RESUMEN

The knowledge of the mechanism of stress transfer from a polymer matrix to a 2-dimensional nano-inclusion such as a graphene flake is of paramount importance for the design and the production of effective nanocomposites. For efficient reinforcement the shape of the inclusion must be accurately controlled since the axial stress transfer from matrix to the inclusion is affected by the axial-shear coupling observed upon loading of a flake of irregular geometry. Herein, we study true axial phenomena on regular- exfoliated-graphene micro-ribbons which are perfectly aligned to the loading direction. We exploit the strain sensitivity of vibrational wave numbers in order to map point-by-point the strain built up along the length of graphene. By considering the balance of shear-to-axial forces, we identify the shear stress at the interface and develop a universal inverse-length parameter that governs the stress transfer process at the nanoscale. An important parameter that has come out of this approach is the prediction and measurement of the transfer length that is required for efficient stress in these systems.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(9): 092701, 2019 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932526

RESUMEN

We report the first measurement of low-energy proton-capture cross sections of ^{124}Xe in a heavy-ion storage ring. ^{124}Xe^{54+} ions of five different beam energies between 5.5 and 8 AMeV were stored to collide with a windowless hydrogen target. The ^{125}Cs reaction products were directly detected. The interaction energies are located on the high energy tail of the Gamow window for hot, explosive scenarios such as supernovae and x-ray binaries. The results serve as an important test of predicted astrophysical reaction rates in this mass range. Good agreement in the prediction of the astrophysically important proton width at low energy is found, with only a 30% difference between measurement and theory. Larger deviations are found above the neutron emission threshold, where also neutron and γ widths significantly impact the cross sections. The newly established experimental method is a very powerful tool to investigate nuclear reactions on rare ion beams at low center-of-mass energies.

19.
Cell Rep ; 26(13): 3522-3536.e5, 2019 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917309

RESUMEN

In humans, many cases of congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) are caused by mutations of components of the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway, which is required for survival and specification of nociceptors and plays a major role in pain processing. Mutations in PRDM12 have been identified in CIP patients that indicate a putative role for this transcriptional regulator in pain sensing. Here, we show that Prdm12 expression is restricted to developing and adult nociceptors and that its genetic ablation compromises their viability and maturation. Mechanistically, we find that Prdm12 is required for the initiation and maintenance of the expression of TrkA by acting as a modulator of Neurogenin1/2 transcription factor activity, in frogs, mice, and humans. Altogether, our results identify Prdm12 as an evolutionarily conserved key regulator of nociceptor specification and as an actionable target for new pain therapeutics.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Portadoras/fisiología , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/fisiología , Neurogénesis/fisiología , Nociceptores/citología , Animales , Apoptosis , Factores de Transcripción con Motivo Hélice-Asa-Hélice Básico/metabolismo , Proteínas Portadoras/genética , Línea Celular , Evolución Molecular , Femenino , Ganglios Sensoriales/citología , Técnicas de Inactivación de Genes , Células Madre Embrionarias Humanas , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/genética , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/metabolismo , Cresta Neural/citología , Nociceptores/metabolismo , Receptor trkA/metabolismo , Tretinoina/fisiología , Xenopus laevis
20.
Sci Adv ; 5(12): eaay8897, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064323

RESUMEN

When two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals are brought into close proximity to form a van der Waals heterostructure, neighbouring crystals may influence each other's properties. Of particular interest is when the two crystals closely match and a moiré pattern forms, resulting in modified electronic and excitonic spectra, crystal reconstruction, and more. Thus, moiré patterns are a viable tool for controlling the properties of 2D materials. However, the difference in periodicity of the two crystals limits the reconstruction and, thus, is a barrier to the low-energy regime. Here, we present a route to spectrum reconstruction at all energies. By using graphene which is aligned to two hexagonal boron nitride layers, one can make electrons scatter in the differential moiré pattern which results in spectral changes at arbitrarily low energies. Further, we demonstrate that the strength of this potential relies crucially on the atomic reconstruction of graphene within the differential moiré super cell.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...