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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114611, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537280

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ilex pubescens (I. pubescens), has been widely used to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) in South China. Several studies have revealed aspect of its phytochemistry and pharmacological activities in cardiovascular diseases, but its active compounds and mechanisms of action are still unclear. The aim of this study was to search for the active compounds and the pharmacological mechanisms of I. pubescens for myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MI/RI) by an integrative pharmacology-based investigation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The main targets of compounds in I. pubescens were predicted using the TargetNet webserver (http://targetnet.scbdd.com). The network between compounds and predicted targets related to MI/RI and compounds was constructed. Functional enrichment analysis was performed to investigate the specific functions and pathways involved in the candidate I. pubescens targets acting on MI/RI, which were further validated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. RESULTS: A total of 191 targets were predicted for 64 chemical compounds in I. pubescens. Following Venn's analysis, we found that 38 candidate targets of I. pubescens were associated with protective effects against MI/RI. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses showed that these targets were related to estrogen signaling pathway. Importantly, the cardioprotective effects of I. pubescens and its active compounds were evaluated and the regulatory effects on key targets of heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1 (HSP90AA1) and Estrogen receptor 1 (ESRα) in estrogen signaling pathway were validated in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: Our discoveries revealed that I. pubescens ameliorated MI/RI by regulating HSP90AA1 and ESRα in estrogen signaling pathway.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126736, 2022 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333411

RESUMEN

Nitrogen removal from mainstream wastewater via DEnitrifying AMmonium OXidation (DEAMOX) is often challenged by undulated actual temperature and high loading rate. Here, we discovered NH2OH addition (HA) and bio-augmentation (BA) tactics on start-up and operation performance of DEAMOXs (R1 and R2) under ambient temperature (11.3-31.7 °C). Over 340-day operation suggested that R2 received 10 mg/L HA and 1:25 BA ratio (v/v, anammox/partial denitrification sludge) achieved desirable nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of 97.22% after 145-day, while R1 under higher BA ratio of 1:12.5 without HA obtained lower NRE (90.86%) after 184-day. Batch tests revealed that nitrate-nitrite transformation ratio reached 98.64% at low COD/NO3--N of 2.6 with HA. Significantly, compared with R2, R1 recovered quickly with satisfactory effluent total nitrogen of 4.21 mg/L despite nitrogen loading rate greater than 0.15 kg N/m3/d and temperature decreased to 14.6 °C. The abundant narG represented high nitrate reduction potential, hzsA and hdh were extensively detected as the symbolisation of anammox metabolism. Thauera, Denitratisoma and unclassified f Comamonadaceae dominated nitrite accumulation. Ca. Brocadia as the dominant anammox bacteria, and its population maintained stable against low temperature and load shocks by NH2OH intensification. Overall, this study offers an opportunity for the wide-applications of DEAMOX treating mainstream wastewater.

3.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(25): 7605-7613, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616833

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Both periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) and severe femoral segmental defects are catastrophic complications of total hip arthroplasty (THA), and both present a significant challenge in revisional surgery. There are limited data available to guide clinical decision making when both occur concurrently. CASE SUMMARY: A 61-year-old woman presented with a 6-mo history of a sinus tract at the site of her original THA incision. Radiological imaging revealed a total hip joint implant with an ipsilateral segmental femoral defect. Based on histological, radiological, laboratory, and clinical features, a diagnosis of concurrent chronic PJI and segmental femoral defect (Type IIIB, Paprosky classification) was made. After multidisciplinary team discussion, three-dimensional (3D)-printed, custom-made antibiotic spacers were created that could be used to mold antibiotic-loaded cement spacer. These were placed following PJI debridement in the first stage of revision surgery. After the PJI was eliminated, a 3D-printed, custom-made, femoral prosthesis was created to repair the considerable femoral defect. After 20-mo follow-up, the patient had excellent functional outcomes with a near-normal range of hip movement. So far, neither evidence of recurrent infection nor loosening of the prosthesis has been observed. CONCLUSION: We describe a case of "two-stage, custom-made" total hip revision to treat PJI with a concurrent segmental femoral defect. Use of a personalized, 3D-printed spacer and proximal femoral prosthesis led to satisfactory hip function and no early postoperative complications. Use of a customized implant provides surgeons with an alternative option for patients where no suitable spacer or implant is available. However, the long-term function, longevity, and cost-effectiveness of the use of custom-made prostheses have yet to be fully explored.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623283

RESUMEN

Network embedding is to learn low-dimensional representations of nodes while preserving necessary information for network analysis tasks. Though representations preserving both structure and attribute features have achieved in many real-world applications, learning these representations for networks with attribute information is difficult due to the heterogeneity between structure and attribute information. Many existing methods have been proposed to preserve explicit proximities between nodes, with optimization limited to node pairs with large structure and attribute proximities, which may lead to overfitting. To address the above problems, we adopt an attribute augmented network to represent attribute and structure information in a unified framework. Specifically, we study the problem of attribute augmented network embedding that exploits the strength of generative adversarial nets (ANGANs) in capturing the latent distribution of data to learn robust and informative representations of nodes. The ANGAN method obtains the low-dimensional representations of nodes through adversarial learning between the generative and discriminative models. The generative model approximates the underlying connectivity and attributes distributions of nodes by using the distributions generated from the learned representations. It is implemented by utilizing the properties of the attribute augmented network to improve the traditional Skip-gram model. The discriminative model is designed as a binary classifier to distinguish the truly connected node pairs from the generated ones. The pre-training algorithm and the teacher forcing approach are adopted to improve training efficiency and stability. Empirical results show that ANGAN generally outperforms state-of-the-art methods in various real-world applications, which demonstrates the effectiveness and generality of our method.

5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 475, 2021 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600466

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Correctly classifying the subtypes of cancer is of great significance for the in-depth study of cancer pathogenesis and the realization of personalized treatment for cancer patients. In recent years, classification of cancer subtypes using deep neural networks and gene expression data has gradually become a research hotspot. However, most classifiers may face overfitting and low classification accuracy when dealing with small sample size and high-dimensional biology data. RESULTS: In this paper, a laminar augmented cascading flexible neural forest (LACFNForest) model was proposed to complete the classification of cancer subtypes. This model is a cascading flexible neural forest using deep flexible neural forest (DFNForest) as the base classifier. A hierarchical broadening ensemble method was proposed, which ensures the robustness of classification results and avoids the waste of model structure and function as much as possible. We also introduced an output judgment mechanism to each layer of the forest to reduce the computational complexity of the model. The deep neural forest was extended to the densely connected deep neural forest to improve the prediction results. The experiments on RNA-seq gene expression data showed that LACFNForest has better performance in the classification of cancer subtypes compared to the conventional methods. CONCLUSION: The LACFNForest model effectively improves the accuracy of cancer subtype classification with good robustness. It provides a new approach for the ensemble learning of classifiers in terms of structural design.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Expresión Génica , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Neoplasias/genética , RNA-Seq , Tamaño de la Muestra
6.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e932228, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593750

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND This study assessed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of acute and chronic partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears using maximum knee flexion in the lateral decubitus position compared with routine knee positioning in 204 patients at a single center. MATERIAL AND METHODS Based on the time interval from injury to MRI examination, the 204 patients in this study were divided into 3 groups: subacute (6 weeks to 3 months), intermediate (3 months to 1 year), and chronic (>1 year). All patients received both routine MRI (MRI R) and maximum knee flexion in the lateral decubitus position MRI (MRI S) examination, followed by knee arthroscopy. Three radiologists blinded to patient groups evaluated the MRI scans and made a diagnosis. Results of knee arthroscopy were referenced as the criterion standard. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI R and MRI S groups were calculated and compared. RESULTS The MRI S diagnostic rate was comparable to that of knee arthroscopy. MRI S had significantly higher sensitivity than MRI R for partial ACL tears, especially in the intermediate group (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS MRI of partial ACL tears using maximum knee flexion in the lateral decubitus position improved the diagnostic rate relative to routine MRI examination, particularly in patients in the intermediate group.

7.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-34, 2021 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637646

RESUMEN

The numerous health benefits of pectins justify their inclusion in human diets and biomedical products. This review provides an overview of pectin extraction and modification methods, their physico-chemical characteristics, health-promoting properties, and pharmaceutical/biomedical applications. Pectins, as readily available and versatile biomolecules, can be tailored to possess specific functionalities for food, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, through judicious selection of appropriate extraction and modification technologies/processes based on green chemistry principles. Pectin's structural and physicochemical characteristics dictate their effects on digestion and bioavailability of nutrients, as well as health-promoting properties including anticancer, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, intestinal microflora-regulating, immune barrier-strengthening, hypercholesterolemia-/arteriosclerosis-preventing, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, antitussive, analgesic, anticoagulant, and wound healing effects. HG, RG-I, RG-II, molecular weight, side chain pattern, and degrees of methylation, acetylation, amidation and branching are critical structural elements responsible for optimizing these health benefits. The physicochemical characteristics, health functionalities, biocompatibility and biodegradability of pectins enable the construction of pectin-based composites with distinct properties for targeted applications in bioactive/drug delivery, edible films/coatings, nano-/micro-encapsulation, wound dressings and biological tissue engineering. Achieving beneficial synergies among the green extraction and modification processes during pectin production, and between pectin and other composite components in biomedical products, should be key foci for future research.

8.
Adv Mater ; : e2104246, 2021 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608672

RESUMEN

Despite the high theoretical capacity of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, a high cell-level energy density and a long cycling life are barely achieved, mainly due to the large electrolyte-to-sulfur ratio, polysulfide (PS) shuttle causing the loss of active sulfur, and the formation of passivation layers on the Li anode. To raise the energy density, holding PS in the cathode has been the most popular approach. Still, it has failed, particularly, when the sulfur loading is high enough to have energy densities similar to those of commercial Li-ion batteries. Here, a practical approach of achieving high "cell-level" energy densities is attempted using lithium PS (LPS)-containing electrolytes instead of a pure electrolyte, reducing the electrolyte-to-sulfur ratio and PS diffusion out of the cathode due to concentration differences. Meanwhile, the persistent problems including PS passivation and Li dendrites are suppressed using Li2 S-phobic artificial solid-electrolyte interphase (A-SEI) layers on Li metal. The synergistic effects from the LPS additives and A-SEI result in a superior cell-level volumetric energy density of 650 Wh L-1 as well as large cumulative energy densities considering cycling life. This approach provides an important stepping stone to realize commercial Li-S batteries rivaling the current Li-ion batteries.

9.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(7): 150-152, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595030
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 196: 113721, 2021 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673482

RESUMEN

2-Aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent isomer of adenine, is a popular fluorescent tag for DNA-based biosensors. The fluorescence of 2-AP is highly dependent on its microenvironment, i.e., almost non-fluorescent and merely fluorescent in dsDNA and ssDNA, respectively, but can be greatly brightened as mononucleotide. In most 2-AP-based biosensors, DNA transformation from dsDNA to ssDNA was employed, while selective digestion of 2-AP-labeled DNA with nucleases represents an appealing approach for improving the biosensor sensitivity. However, some detailed fundamental information, such as the reason for nuclease digestion, the influence of the labeling site, neighboring bases, or the label number of 2-AP for final signal output, are still largely unknown, which greatly limits the utility of 2-AP-based biosensors. In this work, using both steady- and excited-state fluorescence (lifetime), we demonstrated that nuclease digestion resulted in almost full liberation of 2-AP mononucleotides, and was free from labeling site and neighboring bases. Furthermore, we also found that nuclease digestion could lead to multiplexed sensitivity from increasing number of 2-AP labelling, but was not achievable for the conventional biosensors without full liberation of 2-AP. Considering the popularity of 2-AP in biosensing and other related applications, the above obtained information in sensitivity boosting is fundamentally important for future design of 2-AP-based biosensors.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(41): 48764-48773, 2021 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633806

RESUMEN

A catalyst with high-entropy oxide (HEO)-stabilized single-atom Pt can afford low-temperature activity for catalytic oxidation and remarkable durability even under harsh conditions. However, HEO is easy to harden during sintering, which results in a few defective sites for anchoring single-atom metals. Herein, we present a sol-gel-assisted mechanical milling strategy to achieve a single-atom catalyst of Pt-HEO/Al2O3. The strong interaction between HEO and Al2O3 effectively inhibits the growth of HEO microparticles, which leads to generation of more surface defects because of the nanoscale effect. Meanwhile, another strong interaction between Pt and HEO stabilizes single-atom Pt on HEO. Temperature-programmed techniques further verify that the reactivity of surface lattice oxygen species is enhanced because of the Pt-O-M bonds on the surface of HEO. Unlike conventional single-atom Pt catalysts, Pt-HEO/Al2O3 as a heterogeneous catalyst not only exhibits superior stability against hydrothermal aging but also presents long-term reaction stability for CO catalytic oxidation, which exceeds 540 h. The present work opens a new door for rational design of hydrothermally stable single-atom Pt catalysts, which are highly promising in practical applications.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672067

RESUMEN

Described herein is a novel Brønsted acid-catalyzed intramolecular hydroalkoxylation/Claisen rearrangement, allowing practical and atom-economical synthesis of a range of valuable spiro lactams from readily available ynamides in generally good to excellent yields with excellent diastereoselectivities and broad substrate scope. Importantly, an unexpected dearomatization of nonactivated arenes and heteroaromatic compounds is involved in this tandem sequence. Moreover, the asymmetric version of this tandem cyclization is also achieved via efficient kinetic resolution by chiral phosphoric acid catalysis. In addition, [3,3]-rearrangement is proved to be kinetically preferred over the related [1,3]-rearrangement by theoretical calculations.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20706, 2021 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667219

RESUMEN

Higher magnetic fields are always favoured in the magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT) due to its superior control of the plasma profile and acceleration process. This paper introduces the world's first integrated study on the 150 kW level AF-MPDT equipped with a superconductive coil. A completely new way of using superconducting magnet technology to confine plasma with high energy and extremely high temperatures is proposed. Using the PIC method of microscopic particle simulation, the plasma magnetic nozzle effect and performance of the MPDT under different magnetic-field conditions were studied. The integrated experiment used demonstrated that, in conjunction with the superconducting coil, greater homogeneity and a stronger magnetic field not only caused more even cathode ablation and improved its lifespan but also improved the performance of the MPDT (maximum thrust was 4 N at 150 kW, 0.56 T). Maximum thrust efficiency reached 76.6% and the specific impulse reached 5714 s.

14.
Cell Tissue Res ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669021

RESUMEN

Cardiac hypertrophy is considered as a common pathophysiological process in various cardiovascular diseases. CUG triplet repeat-binding protein 1 (CELF1) is an RNA-binding protein that has been shown to be an important post-transcription regulator and involved in several types of cancer, whereas its role in cardiac remodeling remains unclear. Herein, we found that the expression of CELF1 was significantly increased in pressure overload-induced hypertrophic hearts and angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced neonatal cardiomyocytes. Based on transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy model, CELF1 deficiency markedly ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Accordingly, CELF1 deficiency alleviated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis of neonatal cardiomyocytes via inhibition of Raf1, TAK1, ERK1/2, and p38 phosphorylation. Mechanistically, depletion or overexpression of CELF1 negatively regulated the protein expression of phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 (PEBP1), while the mRNA expression of PEBP1 remained unchanged. RNA immunoprecipitation revealed that CELF1 directly interacted with PEBP1 mRNA. Biotin pull-down analysis and dual-luciferase assay showed that CELF1 directly bound to the fragment 1 within 3'UTR of PEBP1. Moreover, knockdown of PEBP1 partially enhanced the production of ROS and apoptosis of neonatal cardiomyocytes inhibited by CELF1 deficiency. In conclusion, CELF1 binds to the 3'UTR of PEBP1 and acts as an endogenous activator of MAPK signaling pathway. Inhibition of CELF1 attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, thus could be a potential therapeutic strategy of pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

15.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 4211-4222, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675715

RESUMEN

Purpose: The aim of this paper was to build a performance evaluation index system for the combination of medical and old-age care services in pension institutions of China. Methods: A two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to evaluate the performance of 30 pension institutions in China. Results: The results show that the two-stage DEA accounted for a relatively high affiance of medical and nursing care services, but resource allocation still needs to be further optimized. Institutions with ineffective DEA need to reduce the five factors of operations, management, fixed assets, technology and services in the input dimension. Conclusion: In the output dimension, the service evaluation effect and safety management effect need to be improved. The performance of combined old-age care and medical care in old-age institutions can be improved in terms of investment in fixed assets, methods of capital subsidies, supervision and management, as well as standardized operations.

16.
Anal Chem ; 93(38): 13014-13021, 2021 09 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524814

RESUMEN

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease, and its etiology is closely related to the overproduction of hypochlorous acid (HClO). However, early detection of RA using an activatable near-infrared-II (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) fluorescent probe remains challenging. Herein, we first report an "OFF-ON" NIR-II fluorescent probe named PTA (phenothiazine triphenylamine) for imaging HClO in deep-seated early RA. Electron-rich phenothiazine in the core of PTA was utilized as both an HClO-recognition moiety and a precursor of electron acceptors, displaying a typical donor-acceptor-donor structure with excellent NIR-II emission at 936/1237 nm once reacted with HClO. The probe PTA exhibited good water solubility, high photostability, and rapid response capability toward HClO within 30 s. Moreover, it was able to sensitively and specifically detect exogenous and endogenous HClO in living cells in both visible and NIR-II windows. Notably, PTA enabled the sensitive and rapid visualization of HClO generation in an inflammatory RA mouse model, showing a 4.3-fold higher NIR-II fluorescence intensity than that in normal hindlimb joints. These results demonstrate that PTA holds great promise as a robust platform for diagnosis of HOCl-mediated inflammatory disorders.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide , Ácido Hipocloroso , Animales , Artritis Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagen , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Colorantes Fluorescentes , Ratones
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(19): 13186-13197, 2021 10 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521194

RESUMEN

The performance of fresh (PdV/TiO2), sulfur poisoned (Used-S and Used-H), and regenerated (Used-RS and Used-RH) multi-active center catalysts for chlorobenzene catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic reduction (CBCO + SCR) reaction is investigated. The reaction on the catalyst surface is blocked after sulfur poisoning owing to the occupation and deposition of catalyst active centers (mainly Pd centers) by PdSO4 (and/or PdS in a dry environment) and NH4HSO4 species, especially the CBCO process. Sulfates (mainly NH4HSO4) on the sulfur poisoned catalyst surface are partially decomposed after 400 °C thermal regeneration, while the deactivation caused by the formation of PdSO4 species is irreversible. Density functional theory calculation results show that in the PdSO4 and NH4HSO4 generation paths, each step of the elementary reaction has just a small energy barrier to overcome, and the stability of the product for each elementary reaction increases gradually. Even worse, SO2 is easily combined with H2O gas molecules to form H2SO3 in a humid environment, and the energy barrier for conversion of SO32- to SO42- is just 0.041 eV. The two oxygen vacancies (VOx-1 or TiOx-1) provide adsorption sites for CBCO + SCR reaction gas molecules but do not exhibit adsorption properties for SO2, which gives a possible idea for optimization of sulfur resistance. The present work is favorable for further synergistic removal of CB/NOx by the catalyst for anti-SO2 poisoning modification and application in the manufacture industry.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco , Titanio , Catálisis , Clorobencenos , Oxidación-Reducción
18.
Neurol Res ; : 1-7, 2021 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581255

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of bovine serum albumin nanoparticles loaded with isoniazid and rifampicin (INH-RFP-BSA-NPs) in the treatment of spinal tuberculosis in rabbits. METHODS: 35 spinal tuberculosis rabbit models were grouped into three groups, including 14 in group A and group B respectively and 7 in group C.All rabbits in group A were treated by INH-RFP-BSA-NPs's injection and in group B were treated with classic dosage form of INH and RFP, while in group C normal saline was given as the blank control. After intervention, the body weighing and CT scan, as well as concentration's measurement of INH and RFP in blood and tissues, were performed in all rabbits at the time of the 6thweek and 12th week, respectively. RESULTS: In group A, rabbits' weight increased by 0.44 kg and 0.27 kg within 6 weeks and 12 weeks' treatment respectively. The bactericidal concentrations of 1.64 µg•g-1 for INH and 21.36 µg•g-1 for RFP were measured in focus vertebral body 6 weeks post-injection and six weeks later the concentrations of INH and RFP in vertebral body still maintained at the level of 1.96 µg•g-1 and 22.35 µg•g-1respectively. After 12 weeks therapy, CT-scanned showed all the necrotic tissue was replaced by normal bone tissue. In group B, all rabbits had no significant increment of body weight and 4 rabbits had paralysis of hind leg. The concentrations of INH and RFP in vertebral body and focus were much lower than group A. CT-scanned showed the focus vertebral body was only partially repaired after 12 weeks' therapy. CONCLUSION: The INH-RFP-BSA-NPs has the characteristics of sustained release in vivo and target biodistribution in focus vertebral body. Its therapeutic effect in rabbit spinal tuberculosis is much better than common INH and RFP.

19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17503, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471173

RESUMEN

Soil properties, such as organic carbon, pH and clay content, are critical indicators of ecosystem function. Visible-near infrared (vis-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been widely used to cost-efficiently estimate such soil properties. Multivariate modelling, such as partial least squares regression (PLSR), and machine learning are the most common methods for modelling soil properties with spectra. Often, such models do not account for the multiresolution information presented in the vis-NIR signal, or the spatial variation in the data. To address these potential shortcomings, we used wavelets to decompose the vis-NIR spectra of 226 soils from agricultural and forested regions in south-western Western Australia and developed a wavelet geographically weighted regression (WGWR) for estimating soil organic carbon content, clay content and pH. To evaluate the WGWR models, we compared them to linear models derived with multiresolution data from a wavelet decomposition (WLR) and PLSR without multiresolution information. Overall, validation of the WGWR models produced more accurate estimates of the soil properties than WLR and PLSR. Around 3.5-49.1% of the improvement in the estimates was due to the multiresolution analysis and 1.0-5.2% due to the integration of spatial information in the modelling. The WGWR improves the modelling of soil properties with spectra.

20.
Neurobiol Stress ; 15: 100390, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527794

RESUMEN

Emerging evidence has shown that stress responsivity and psychiatric diseases are associated with alterations in N6-methyladenosine (m6A) mRNA epigenetic modifications. Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) is an m6A demethylase that has been linked to increased body mass and obesity. Here, we show that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) with weight-gain side effects, such as imipramine and amitriptyline, directly increased FTO expression and activated its epigenetic function in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). VTA-specific genetic disruption of FTO increased stress vulnerability and abolished the antidepressant activity of TCAs, whereas erasing m6A modification in the VTA by FTO overexpression or cycloleucine led to significant antidepressant activity. Mechanistically, both transcriptome sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed that overexpression of FTO in the VTA decreased the transcription of stress-related neuropeptides, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and urocortin, in the social defeat model, which was mimicked by imipramine, suggesting an m6A-dependent transcription mechanism of stress-related neuropeptides may underlie the responses to antidepressant. Collectively, our results demonstrate that inhibiting m6A-dependent transcription of stress-related genes may work as a novel antidepressant strategy and highlight a previously unrecognized activator of FTO-dependent epigenetic function that may be used for the treatment of other neurological diseases.

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