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1.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671260

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mycotoxin binders in reducing the adverse effects of co-occurring dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) on laying hens. Three hundred and sixty 26-week-old Roman laying hens were randomly allocated into four experimental groups with 10 replicates of nine birds each. The four groups received either a basal diet (BD; Control), a BD supplemented with 0.15 mg/kg AFB1 + 1.5 mg/kg DON + 0.12 mg/kg OTA (Toxins), a BD + Toxins with Toxo-HP binder (Toxins + HP), or a BD + Toxins with TOXO XL binder (Toxins + XL) for 12 weeks. Compared to the control, dietary supplementation of mycotoxins decreased (P < 0.10) total feed intake, total egg weight, and egg-laying rate, but increased feed/egg ratio by 2.5-6.1% and mortality during various experimental periods. These alterations induced by mycotoxins were alleviated by supplementation with both TOXO HP and XL binders (P < 0.10). Furthermore, dietary mycotoxins reduced (P < 0.05) eggshell strength by 12.3% and caused an accumulation of 249 µg/kg of DON in eggs at week 12, while dietary supplementation with TOXO HP or XL mitigated DON-induced changes on eggshell strength and prevented accumulation of DON in eggs (P < 0.05). Moreover, dietary mycotoxins increased relative liver weight, but decreased spleen and proventriculus relative weights by 11.6-22.4% (P < 0.05). Mycotoxin exposure also increased alanine aminotransferase activity and reduced immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, and IgG concentrations in serum by 9.2-26.1% (P < 0.05). Additionally, mycotoxin exposure induced histopathological damage and reduced villus height, villus height/crypt depth, and crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and (or) ileum (P < 0.05). Notably, most of these histological changes were mitigated by supplementation with both TOXO HP and XL (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the mycotoxin binders TOXO HP and XL can help to mitigate the combined effects of AFB1, DON, and OTA on laying hen performance, egg quality, and health.

2.
Phytomedicine ; 82: 153458, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486267

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with high morbidity, which leads to poor quality of life. The Xianglian pill (XLP) is a classical Chinese patent medicine and has been clinically proven to be an effective treatment for UC. PURPOSE: The pharmacological mechanism of the key bioactive ingredients of XLP for the treatment of UC was investigated by a network pharmacology and pharmacokinetics integrated strategy. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Network pharmacology was used to analyze the treatment effect of nine quantified XLP ingredients on UC. Key pathways were enriched and analyzed by protein-protein interaction and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses. The effect of XLP on Th17 cell differentiation was validated using a mouse model of UC. The binding of nine compounds with JAk2, STAT3, HIF-1α, and HSP90AB1 was assessed using molecular docking. A simple and reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of nine ingredients from XLP in plasma and applied to a pharmacokinetic study following oral administration. RESULTS: Nine compounds of XLP, including coptisine, berberine, magnoflorine,berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, evodiamine, rutaecarpine, and dehydrocostus lactone, were detected. Network pharmacology revealed 50 crossover genes between the nine compoundsand UC. XLP treats UC mainly by regulating key pathways of the immune system, including Th17 cell differentiation, Jak-Stat, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. An in vivo validation in mice found that XLP inhibits Th17 cell differentiation by suppressing the Jak2-Stat3 pathway, which alleviates mucosal inflammation in UC. Molecular docking confirmed that eight compounds are capable of binding with JAk2, HIF-1α, and HSP90AB1, further confirming the inhibitory effect of XLP on the Jak2-Stat3 pathway. Moreover, apharmacokinetic study revealed that the nine ingredients of XLP are exposed in the plasma and colon tissue, which demonstrates its pharmacological effect on UC. CONCLUSION: This study evaluates the clinical treatment efficacy of XLP for UC. The network pharmacology and pharmacokinetics integrated strategy evaluation paradigm is efficient in discovering the key pharmacological mechanism of herbal formulae.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19001, 2020 11 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149251

RESUMEN

Two epiphytic lichens (Xanthoria alfredii, XAa; X. ulophyllodes, XAu) and soil were sampled at three sites with varied distances to a road in a semiarid sandland in Inner Mongolia, China and analyzed for concentrations of 42 elements to assess the contribution of soil input and road traffic to lichen element burdens, and to compare element concentration differences between the two lichens. The study showed that multielement patterns, Fe:Ti and rare earth element ratios were similar between the lichen and soil samples. Enrichment factors (EFs) showed that ten elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K, P, Pb, S, Sb, and Zn) were enriched in the lichens relative to the local soil. Concentrations of most elements were higher in XAu than in XAa regardless of sites, and increased with proximity to the road regardless of lichen species. These results suggested that lichen element compositions were highly affected by soil input and road traffic. The narrow-lobed sorediate species were more efficient in particulate entrapment than the broad-lobed nonsorediate species. XAa and XAu are good bioaccumulators for road pollution in desert and have similar spatial patterns of element concentrations for most elements as response to road traffic emissions and soil input.

4.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 18(1): 100, 2020 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046085

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Trophoblast cells are required for the establishment of pregnancy and fetal development. Apoptosis is an essential feature for trophoblast invasion. Uncontrolled trophoblast apoptosis is related to some complicate pregnancies. Oxidative stress (OS) is an important inducer of trophoblast apoptosis. Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been shown to promote the activity of trophoblast cells and reduce OS-induced oxidative injury. We investigated the role and mechanism of CsA in oxidative stress-induced trophoblast cell apoptosis. METHODS: JEG-3 cells were cocultured with H2O2 and CsA. Cell viability and morphology were measured by MTT assay and DAPI staining. Cell apoptosis was tested with annexin V/PI staining. The expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2), cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and pro-caspase-3 was assayed by western blotting. The protein expression and phosphorylation of p53 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (JNK, ERK1/2 and p38) were examined by western blotting. RESULTS: CsA increased the viability, alleviated morphological injury and reduced cell apoptosis of the H2O2-treated JEG-3 cells. CsA also attenuated the activation of p53, decreased the expression of Bax and cleavage of PARP, and increased the expression of Bcl-2 and pro-caspase-3 in the JEG-3 treated with H2O2. Furthermore, CsA reduced the activation of JNK and P38 but had no significant effect on the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the H2O2-treated JEG-3 cells. Promoting the activation of JNK and p38 impaired the protective effect of CsA on OS-induced trophoblast apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that CsA protected trophoblast cells from OS-induced apoptosis via the inhibition of the p53 and JNK/p38 signaling pathways.

5.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 1372-1378, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571102

RESUMEN

Gut microbial ß-glucuronidase (GUS) is a potential therapeutic target to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity caused by irinotecan. In this study, the inhibitory effects of 17 natural cinnamic acid derivatives on Escherichia coli GUS (EcGUS) were characterised. Seven compounds, including caffeic acid ethyl ester (CAEE), had a stronger inhibitory effect (IC50 = 3.2-22.2 µM) on EcGUS than the positive control, D-glucaric acid-1,4-lactone. Inhibition kinetic analysis revealed that CAEE acted as a competitive inhibitor. The results of molecular docking analysis suggested that CAEE bound to the active site of EcGUS through interactions with Asp163, Tyr468, and Glu504. In addition, structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the presence of a hydrogen atom at R1 and bulky groups at R9 in cinnamic acid derivatives was essential for EcGUS inhibition. These data are useful to design more potent cinnamic acid-type inhibitors of EcGUS.

6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(9): 8167-8190, 2020 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365333

RESUMEN

Biologically active natural products have been used for the chemoprevention of cutaneous tumors. Lycopene is the main active phytochemical in tomatoes. We herein aimed to assess the cancer preventive effects of lycopene and to find potential molecular targets. In chemically-induced cutaneous tumor mice and cell models, lycopene attenuated cutaneous tumor incidence and multiplicity as well as the tumorigenesis of normal cutaneous cells in phase-selectivity (only in the promotion phase) manners. By utilizing a comprehensive approach combining bioinformatics with network pharmacology, we predicted that intracellular autophagy and redox status were associated with lycopene's preventive effect on cutaneous tumors. Lycopene stimulated the activation of antioxidant enzymes and the translocation of the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) that predominantly maintained intracellular redox equilibrium. The cancer chemopreventive effects were mediated by Nrf2. Further, lycopene enhanced the expression of autophagy protein p62. Therefore this led to the degradation of Keap1(Kelch ECH associating protein 1), the main protein locking Nrf2 in cytoplasm. In conclusion, our study provides preclinical evidence of the chemopreventive effects of lycopene on cutaneous tumors and reveals the mechanistic link between lycopene's stimulation of Nrf2 signaling pathway and p62-mediated degradation of Keap1 via the autophagy-lysosomal pathway.

7.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 25-33, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021196

RESUMEN

Purpose: The purpose was to investigate the differences in spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) of the primary visual cortex (V1) between patients with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and healthy controls (HCs) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Methods: A total of 18 patients with NVG (nine males and nine females) and 18 HCs with similar age and sex background were enrolled in the study and inspected using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The differences in FC of the V1 between the two groups were compared using the independent samples t-test. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to compare the average FC values of NVG subjects with those of HCs. Results: FC in the left V1 and right fusiform gyrus, bilateral cuneus, and left precuneus was significantly decreased in the NVG group compared with that reported in the HC group. Meanwhile, patients with NVG presented increased FC between the right V1 and bilateral middle frontal gyrus. However, they also exhibited declining FC between the right V1 and left precuneus, and bilateral cuneus. The ROC curve analysis of each brain region indicated that the accuracy of the area under the ROC curves regarding NVG was excellent. Conclusion: NVG involves aberrant FC in the V1 in different brain areas, including the visual-related and cognitive-related regions. These findings may assist in unveiling the underlying neural mechanisms of impaired visual function in NVG.

8.
J Nutr ; 150(3): 483-491, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773160

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The metabolic function of selenoprotein V (SELENOV) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of the Selenov knockout (KO) on selenium concentration and mRNA, protein, and/or activity of 4 major selenoproteins [glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 1, GPX4, thioredoxin reductase-1 (TXNRD1), and selenoprotein P (SELENOP)] in the serum, liver, testis, and/or white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed different dietary selenium and fat concentrations. METHODS: In Experiment (Expt) 1, 40 KO and 40 wild-type (WT) mice (males, 8 wk old) were fed (n = 10/genotype) a casein-sucrose basal diet plus 0, 0.3, 1, or 3 mg Se/kg (as sodium selenite) for 32 wk . In Expt 2, 20 KO and 20 WT mice (males, 8 wk old) were fed (n  = 10/genotype) a normal-fat diet (NF; 10% calories from fat) or a high-fat diet (HF; 60% calories from fat) for 19 wk. RESULTS: In Expt 1, the KO caused consistent or substantial decreases (P < 0.05) of mRNA amounts of Gpx1, Txnrd1, and Selenop in the testis (≤52%), but selenium concentrations (19-29%) and GPX activities (≤ 50%) were decreased in the liver across different dietary selenium concentrations . Hepatic and testis GPX1 protein was elevated (≤31%) and decreased (≤45%) by the KO, respectively. In Expt 2, the genotype and dietary fat intake exerted interaction effects ( P < 0.05) on Gpx1 mRNA amounts in the WAT; Gpx1, Txnrd1, and Selenop mRNA amounts and TXNRD activities in the testis; and selenium concentrations in the serum and liver. However, these 2 treatments produced largely independent or additive effects (P < 0.05) on the GPX1 and SELENOP protein amounts in the liver and testis (up to ± 50% changes). CONCLUSIONS: The KO-mediated changes in the tissue selenium concentrations and functional expression of 3 major selenoproteins implied potential for SELENOV in regulating body selenium metabolism in the mouse.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Selenoproteínas/fisiología , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/metabolismo , Animales , Peso Corporal , Glutatión Peroxidasa/sangre , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Hígado/enzimología , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados , ARN Mensajero/genética , Selenio/sangre , Selenio/metabolismo , Selenoproteínas/genética , Testículo/enzimología , Testículo/metabolismo
9.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1418, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803069

RESUMEN

The objectives of this study were to determine the protective effects of organic acids (OA) in broilers exposed to Salmonella Pullorum challenge at early stage and to explore the potential benefits of OA by metabolomics analysis. The treatment groups included non-challenged, S. Pullorum-challenged, challenged group supplemented with virginiamycin, challenged group supplemented with OA in drinking water, challenged group supplemented with OA in feed, and challenged group supplemented with OA in combination in drinking water and feed. Results showed that early Salmonella challenge induced an acute systemic infection of broilers in the starter phase, followed by the grower phase without triggering clinical signs. OA supplementation promoted growth during the grower phase, and while OA in water contributed more, the positive effects of OA in combination were comparable to those of virginiamycin supplementation in challenged birds. Furthermore, OA could modulate the systemic metabolic perturbation caused by challenge as it alleviated stress responses mediated by steroid hormone, potentially attenuated antioxidant or immune defense, and modified intestinal microbiota metabolism. These results show a metabolic mechanism that may partly explain the potential benefits of OA in Salmonella challenged birds, and may contribute to the use of OA to control or reduce S. Pullorum infection in farm animals.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(50): 13892-13903, 2019 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774673

RESUMEN

A novel simple 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-carbohydrazide was reported to discover low-cost and versatile antifungal agents. Bioassay results suggested that a majority of the designed compounds were extremely bioactive against four types of fungi and two kinds of oomycetes. This extreme bioactivity was highlighted by the applausive inhibitory effects of compounds 4b, 4h, 5c, 5g, 5h, 5i, 5m, 5p, 5t, and 5v against Gibberella zeae, affording EC50 values ranging from 0.486 to 0.799 µg/mL, which were superior to that of fluopyram (2.96 µg/mL) and comparable to those of carbendazim (0.947 µg/mL) and prochloraz (0.570 µg/mL). Meanwhile, compounds 4g, 5f, 5i, and 5t showed significant actions against Fusarium oxysporum with EC50 values of 0.652, 0.706, 0.813, and 0.925 µg/mL, respectively. Pharmacophore exploration suggested that the N'-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-carbohydrazide pattern is necessary for the bioactivity. Molecular docking of 5h with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) indicated that it can completely locate the inside of the binding pocket via hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic interactions, revealing that this novel framework might target SDH. This result was further verified by the significant inhibitory effect on SDH activity. In addition, scanning electron microscopy patterns were performed to elucidate the anti-G. zeae mechanism. Given these features, this type of framework is a suitable template for future exploration of alternative SDH inhibitors against plant microbial infections.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores Enzimáticos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Fungicidas Industriales/química , Hidrazinas/química , Oxadiazoles/química , Succinato Deshidrogenasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Fungicidas Industriales/farmacología , Fusarium/efectos de los fármacos , Fusarium/enzimología , Hidrazinas/farmacología , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Oxadiazoles/farmacología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/prevención & control , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Succinato Deshidrogenasa/química
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12696-12708, 2019 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657554

RESUMEN

In this study, a type of thiazolium-labeled 1,3,4-oxadiazole thioether bridged by diverse alkyl chain lengths was constructed. The antimicrobial activity of the fabricated thioether toward plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi was then screened. Antibacterial evaluation indicated that title compounds possess specific characteristics that enable them to severely attack three phytopathogens, namely, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri with minimal EC50 values of 0.10, 3.27, and 3.50 µg/mL, respectively. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship models were established to direct the following excogitation for exploring higher active drugs. The in vivo study against plant bacterial diseases further identified the prospective application of title compounds as alternative antibacterial agents. The proteomic technique, scanning electron microscopy patterns, and fluorescence spectrometry were exploited to investigate the antibacterial mechanism. Additionally, some target compounds performed superior inhibitory actions against three tested fungal strains. In view of their simple molecular architecture and highly efficient bioactivity, these substrates could be further explored as promising surrogates for fighting against plant microbial infections.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Oxadiazoles/farmacología , Sulfuros/farmacología , Antibacterianos/síntesis química , Antibacterianos/química , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Oxadiazoles/síntesis química , Oxadiazoles/química , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Ralstonia/efectos de los fármacos , Sulfuros/síntesis química , Sulfuros/química , Xanthomonas/efectos de los fármacos
12.
Exp Ther Med ; 18(3): 2063-2071, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410162

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study was to explore the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF; a measurement of spontaneous brain activity) in different brain regions of patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and its association with vision changes measurements. A total of 24 RVO patients (12 males and 12 females) and 24 healthy controls (HCs, 12 males and 12 females) were recruited, and they were closely matched regarding age, gender and education level (classified according to nine-year compulsory education in China and higher education, all including primary school, junior school, high school and university). ALFF values of different brain regions were gathered and analyzed, and statistical analysis software was used to explore the correlations between the average ALFF signals and clinical features. The ability of ALFF values to distinguish between subjects with RVO and HCs was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The results indicated that the subjects from the RVO group had higher ALFF values than the HCs in the posterior lobe of the left cerebellum, inferior temporal gyrus, cerebellar anterior lobe, right cerebellum posterior/anterior lobe, and lower ALFF values in the medial frontal gyrus, right precuneus, left middle frontal gyrus, right angular gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus. The ROC curve analysis of each brain region indicated that the accuracy of the area under the ROC curves regarding the prediction of RVO was excellent. The best-corrected visual acuity (VA) in the left eye was positively correlated with the ALFF value of the right precuneus (r=0.767, P=0.004) and the best-corrected VA in the right eye was positively correlated with the ALFF value of the left middle frontal gyrus (r=0.935, P<0.001). The central subfield retinal thickness in the left eye was negatively correlated with the ALFF value of the right precuneus (r=-0.895; P<0.001). The duration of RVO in the right eye was positively correlated with the ALFF value of the left middle frontal gyrus (r=0.868; P<0.001). In conclusion, the present results indicate that RVO is associated with dysfunction of diverse brain regions, including language- and movement-associated areas, which may reflect the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of RVO (trial registry no. CDYFY-LL-2017025).

13.
Acupunct Med ; 37(4): 252-258, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342771

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture stimulation at GV26 during the acute phase of cerebral ischaemia can effectively reduce brain damage induced by ischaemic injury. However, the time course of the effects of acupuncture stimulation has not yet been thoroughly studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of manual acupuncture (MA) on glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) expression in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and determine whether there is a temporal effect of acupuncture on the treatment of cerebral ischaemia. METHODS: We performed thread occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in rats to establish an animal model of MCAO. Simultaneously, during acupuncture treatment, microdialysis was used to continuously and dynamically observe immediate alterations in amino acid metabolism with acupuncture stimulation after cerebral ischaemia in vivo in this rat model of MCAO. RESULTS: We found that, in comparison with an untreated MCAO group, Glu content was significantly decreased during the first acupuncture stimulation and during the course of the acupuncture treatment in the MCAO+MA group (MCAO vs MCAO+MA: day 1, P=0.032; day 2, P=0.021; day 3, P=0.017). These findings were also seen after the end of treatment when acupuncture was no longer applied (MCAO vs MCAO+MA: day 7, P=0.009). Measurements of GABA content following cerebral ischaemic injury showed that GABA peaks 24 hours after damage, falls thereafter and decreases to baseline levels on day 7. In the MCAO+MA group, GABA content on days 1 to day 2 was lower than in the MCAO group (MCAO+MA vs MCAO: day 1, P=0.003; day 2, P=0.001), although it was higher than in the control group (MCAO+MA vs control: day 1, P=0.024; day 2, P=0.009). GABA content on day 3 and day 7 was higher in the MCAO+MA group than in the MCAO group and the control group (MCAO+MA vs MCAO: day 3, P=0.008; day 7, P=0.013; MCAO+MA vs control: day 3, P=0.002; day 7, P=0.009). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture stimulation at GV26 can effectively decrease excessive release of Glu induced by ischaemia and maintain the endogenous inhibitory activity of GABA. This phenomenon was seen during the entire course of acupuncture treatment and continued for some time after the end of acupuncture treatment.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Ácido Glutámico/metabolismo , Ácido gamma-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animales , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Infarto de la Arteria Cerebral Media/metabolismo , Infarto de la Arteria Cerebral Media/terapia , Masculino , Neurotransmisores/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
14.
Front Genet ; 10: 174, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915103

RESUMEN

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with high heritability. Two susceptibility loci have been confirmed in our previous AD genome-wide association study (GWAS). To look for additional genetic factors in Chinese Han ethnicity, we performed a large-scale GWAS follow-up study. Forty-nine top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that had never been reported previously were genotyped using Sequenom Massarray system in an independent cohort, which consist of northern Chinese (1634 cases and 1263 controls) and southern Chinese (2985 cases and 9526 controls). Association analyses were performed using PLINK 2 software. Three SNPs in northern and ten SNPs in southern were found exhibiting association evidence with AD (P < 0.05). Finally, SNP rs224108 on 10q21.2 showed high significance for AD in joint analysis of GWAS and replication study (P meta = 4.55 × 10-9, OR = 1.21), and was confirmed as an independent genetic marker by Linkage disequilibrium calculation and conditional logistic regression analysis. Bioinformatics analysis strongly suggested that rs224108 may have the potential to alter the target gene expression through non-coding epigenetic regulation effects. Meanwhile, SNP rs11150780 on 17q25.3 was also found suggestive association with AD (P meta = 7.64 × 10-7, OR = 1.18). Our findings confirmed a novel susceptibility signal on 10q21.2 for AD in Chinese Han population and advanced the understanding of the genetic contribution to AD.

15.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 43(5): 277-84, 2018 May 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888560

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe the correlation between the referred pain regions of stable angina pectoris (SAP) and the acupoints in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and to investigate the rule of regional sensitized point distribution in rats. METHODS: A total of 1 046 CHD patients with SAP from 8 hospitals in China were recruited in the present study. The tenderness was palpated along the left and right chest, back, shoulder, upper limb, etc. by a specially-assigned researcher in each hospital. Among them, 77 patients accepted pain threshold (PT) measurement by using a hand-held esthesiometer. In animal experiments, 14 SD rats were subjected to occlusion of the left anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery for 4 h for establishing myocardial ischemia (MI) model, and other 4 normal rats were used as the sham-operation control group. Four hours after MI, all the rats accepted tail venous injection of 5% Evans blue (50 mg/kg) for examining the distribution of the blue dye exudation spots at the body surface where the mechanical PT was also detected by a von Frey. RESULTS: In 1 046 CHD patients, 987 (94.36%) were found to have at least one tenderness spot. The tenderness spots were found at the left chest (87.47%), right chest (13.67%), left arm (ulnar side, 41.30%), right upper limb (4.68%), left shoulder back (30.21%), right shoulder back (7.07%), etc., accompanied with rash or pigmentation, subcutaneous induration, cord-like tissue contracture, skin sag, etc. The mechanical PT level was significantly lower at the tenderness spots of the left upper limb than at non-tender points of the right upper limb in CHD patients (P<0.001). Tenderness and cutaneous abnormal changes in angor pectoris patients distributed mostly on the left chest, back, shoulder and upper limb, and some also on the right. Tender points scattered on, near or outside acupoints. A similar distribution of the blue exudation spots and lower mechanical PT spots were found in MI rats, but not in sham-MI rats. CONCLUSION: In the case of MI, a regular "referred sensitization" response frequently occurs in the dermatomere area innervated by the corresponding segments (T 1-T 5) in both CHD patients and MI rats, which may be closely associated with the formation of acupoints in ancient China.


Asunto(s)
Angina Estable , Isquemia Miocárdica , Dolor Referido , Puntos de Acupuntura , Animales , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
16.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 20(5): 373-377, 2018 May.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764573

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and laboratory characteristics of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). METHODS: The clinical characteristics and laboratory results were retrospectively analyzed in 10 children with newly diagnosed JMML. They were compared with those of 28 children with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 44 children with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). RESULTS: Compared with the children with CML or MDS, the children with JMML had significantly higher rates of skin rashes, ecchymosis, and lymphadenectasis, a significantly lower serum cholinesterase (ChE) level, and a significantly higher fetal hemoglobin level (P<0.05). The white blood cell count of children with JMML was significantly higher than that of children with MDS, but significantly lower than that of children with CML (P<0.05). In addition, the myeloid/erythroid ratio and rate of dyshaematopoiesis were significantly lower in children with JMML than those in children with CML or MDS. The children with JMML had a significantly higher expression of mature monocyte marker CD14 than those with CML or MDS (P<0.05). The levels of myeloid markers CD33, CD11b, CD13, and CD15 in children with JMML were significantly higher than those in children with MDS, but significantly lower than those in children with CML (P<0.05). The levels of CD2 and CD7 in children with JMML were higher than those in children with CML, but lower than those in children with MDS (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Skin rashes, ecchymosis, lymphadenectasis, and ChE reduction are more common in children with JMML than in those with CML or MDS, while dyshaematopoiesis is less common. In addition, CD14 level increases significantly in children with JMML.


Asunto(s)
Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/inmunología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/genética , Receptores de Lipopolisacáridos/análisis , Masculino
17.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 384, 2018 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792171

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In avian species, liver is the main site of de novo lipogenesis, and hepatic lipid metabolism relates closely to adipose fat deposition. Using our fat and lean chicken lines of striking differences in abdominal fat content, post-hatch lipid metabolism in both liver and adipose tissues has been studied extensively. However, whether molecular discrepancy for hepatic lipid metabolism exists in chicken embryos remains obscure. RESULTS: We performed transcriptome and proteome profiling on chicken livers at five embryonic stages (E7, E12, E14, E17 and E21) between the fat and lean chicken lines. At each stage, 521, 141, 882, 979 and 169 differentially expressed genes were found by the digital gene expression, respectively, which were significantly enriched in the metabolic, PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism pathways. Quantitative proteomics analysis found 20 differentially expressed proteins related to lipid metabolism, PPAR signaling, fat digestion and absorption, and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Combined analysis showed that genes and proteins related to lipid transport (intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, and apolipoprotein A-I), lipid clearance (heat shock protein beta-1) and energy metabolism (NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 10 and succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit) were significantly differentially expressed between the two lines. CONCLUSIONS: For hepatic lipid metabolism at embryonic stages, molecular differences related to lipid transport, lipid clearance and energy metabolism exist between the fat and lean chicken lines, which might contribute to the striking differences of abdominal fat deposition at post-hatch stages.


Asunto(s)
Grasa Abdominal/metabolismo , Cruzamiento , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/genética , Hígado/embriología , Hígado/metabolismo , Proteómica , Animales , Embrión de Pollo , Pollos
18.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 127: 108-115, 2018 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800654

RESUMEN

Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is a selenium-dependent enzyme that reduces intracellular hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides. While past research explored regulations of gene expression and biochemical function of this selenoperoxidase, GPX1 has recently been implicated in the onset and development of chronic diseases. Clinical data have shown associations of human GPX1 gene variants with elevated risks of diabetes. Knockout and overexpression of Gpx1 in mice may induce types 1 and 2 diabetes-like phenotypes, respectively. This review assembles the latest advances in this new field of selenium biology, and attempts to postulate signal and molecular mechanisms mediating the role of GPX1 in glucose and lipid metabolism-related diseases. Potential therapies by harnessing the beneficial effects of this ubiquitous redox-modulating enzyme are briefly discussed.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/enzimología , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/fisiología , Obesidad/enzimología , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo , Animales , Humanos , Ratones , Ratas
19.
Am J Ther ; 25(5): e517-e523, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26840341

RESUMEN

Etomidate is a widely used hypnotic drug for induction of general anesthesia and sedation, especially in elderly patients and hemodynamically unstable patients. Myoclonus, however, is the most prominent problem during induction of anesthesia with etomidate. Many agents have been used to prevent it and opioid is one of them. This meta-analysis was to evaluate effects of opioids pretreatment for preventing etomidate-induced myoclonus. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases and published studies in English updated to September 2015. Randomized controlled trials of opioids versus placebo/control in patients were included. We evaluated the prophylactic effect of opioids on etomidate-induced myoclonus. All statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Nine randomized controlled trials involving 604 participants were included. The results indicated that compared with placebo/control, opioids allow more patients to experience no myoclonic movements after etomidate injection [risk ratio (RR) 2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-4.37, P < 0.0001]. The numbers of patients with mild myoclonus [(RR) 0.53, 95% (CI) 0.36-0.78, P = 0.001], moderate myoclonus [(RR) 0.36, 95% (CI) 0.23-0.55, P < 0.00001], and severe myoclonus [(RR) 0.20, 95% (CI) 0.08-0.52, P = 0.0009] after etomidate injection were significantly decreased with the pretreatment of opioids. This meta-analysis suggests that pretreatment with opioids before injecting etomidate was effective for preventing etomidate-induced myoclonus and can reduce the intensity of myoclonus without any adverse effects.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Etomidato/efectos adversos , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/efectos adversos , Mioclonía/inducido químicamente , Mioclonía/prevención & control , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
20.
Placenta ; 58: 9-16, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28962702

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Excessive constriction of placental chorionic plate arteries (CPAs) may be associated with preeclampsia (PE). Nitric oxide (NO) as well as intermediate and small Ca2+-activated K+ channels (IKCa and SKCa) plays vital roles in vasodilation of CPAs. We hypothesized that dysregulated IKCa and SKCa channels may be involved in the pathogenesis of PE mediated by the impaired NO system on CPAs. METHODS: The location of IKCa and SKCa channels, activities of NO synthases (NOS), and expression levels of these molecules were studied on CPAs from 30 normal pregnancies and 30 PE. The vasodilating function of CPAs was measured under openers or blockers of IKCa/SKCa channels in the presence or absence of NO donor or inhibitor. RESULTS: IKCa and SKCa channels were located both on endothelium and on smooth muscles of CPAs and the expressions of them were downregulated in PE women comparing to those in normal pregnant women. The protein expressions of endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) were downregulated on CPAs in PE accompanied by decreased activity of eNOS. Notably, the vasodilatory functions mediated by IKCa/SKCa channels and by NO were aberrant on preeclamptic CPAs. In addition, IKCa and SKCa channels were responsible for nitric oxide (NO)-attributable vasorelaxation and activity modulation of NO synthases. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that dysregulated IKCa and SKCa channels might contribute to fetal pathogenesis of PE through direct promotion of vascular constriction of CPAs and through affecting functions of NO and activities of NOS.


Asunto(s)
Arterias/metabolismo , Endotelio Vascular/metabolismo , Canales de Potasio Calcio-Activados/metabolismo , Preeclampsia/metabolismo , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Placenta/irrigación sanguínea , Placenta/metabolismo , Embarazo
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