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1.
Conserv Physiol ; 11(1): coad064, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37732160

RESUMEN

Climate change is expected to increase the intensity and occurrence of drought in tropical regions, potentially affecting the phenology and physiology of tree species. Phenological activity may respond to a drying and warming environment by advancing reproductive timing and/or diminishing the production of flowers and fruits. These changes have the potential to disrupt important ecological processes, with potentially wide-ranging effects on tropical forest function. Here, we analysed the monthly flowering and fruiting phenology of a tree community (337 individuals from 30 species) over 7 years in a lowland tropical rainforest in northeastern Australia and its response to a throughfall exclusion drought experiment (TFE) that was carried out from 2016 to 2018 (3 years), excluding approximately 30% of rainfall. We further examined the ecophysiological effects of the TFE on the elemental (C:N) and stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) composition of leaves, and on the stable isotope composition (δ13C and δ18O) of stem wood of four tree species. At the community level, there was no detectable effect of the TFE on flowering activity overall, but there was a significant effect recorded on fruiting and varying responses from the selected species. The reproductive phenology and physiology of the four species examined in detail were largely resistant to impacts of the TFE treatment. One canopy species in the TFE significantly increased in fruiting and flowering activity, whereas one understory species decreased significantly in both. There was a significant interaction between the TFE treatment and season on leaf C:N for two species. Stable isotope responses were also variable among species, indicating species-specific responses to the TFE. Thus, we did not observe consistent patterns in physiological and phenological changes in the tree community within the 3 years of TFE treatment examined in this study.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23157, 2021 11 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848788

RESUMEN

Fire is an essential component of tropical savannas, driving key ecological feedbacks and functions. Indigenous manipulation of fire has been practiced for tens of millennia in Australian savannas, and there is a renewed interest in understanding the effects of anthropogenic burning on savanna systems. However, separating the impacts of natural and human fire regimes on millennial timescales remains difficult. Here we show using palynological and isotope geochemical proxy records from a rare permanent water body in Northern Australia that vegetation, climate, and fire dynamics were intimately linked over the early to mid-Holocene. As the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) intensified during the late Holocene, a decoupling occurred between fire intensity and frequency, landscape vegetation, and the source of vegetation burnt. We infer from this decoupling, that indigenous fire management began or intensified at around 3 cal kyr BP, possibly as a response to ENSO related climate variability. Indigenous fire management reduced fire intensity and targeted understory tropical grasses, enabling woody thickening to continue in a drying climate.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 05 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941703

RESUMEN

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses are widely used to infer diet and mobility in ancient and modern human populations, potentially providing a means to situate humans in global food webs. We collated 13,666 globally distributed analyses of ancient and modern human collagen and keratin samples. We converted all data to a common "Modern Diet Equivalent" reference frame to enable direct comparison among modern human diets, human diets prior to the advent of industrial agriculture, and the natural environment. This approach reveals a broad diet prior to industrialized agriculture and continued in modern subsistence populations, consistent with the human ability to consume opportunistically as extreme omnivores within complex natural food webs and across multiple trophic levels in every terrestrial and many marine ecosystems on the planet. In stark contrast, isotope dietary breadth across modern nonsubsistence populations has compressed by two-thirds as a result of the rise of industrialized agriculture and animal husbandry practices and the globalization of food distribution networks.


Asunto(s)
Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , Dieta/historia , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Algoritmos , Huesos/química , Colágeno/análisis , Geografía , Cabello/química , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Queratinas/análisis , Uñas/química
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4267, 2020 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123272

RESUMEN

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

5.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 34(10): e8737, 2020 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981268

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Rapid, reliable isolation of pyrogenic carbon (PyC; also known as char, soot, black carbon, or biochar) for the determination of stable carbon isotope (δ13 C) composition and radiocarbon (14 C) dating is needed across multiple fields of research in geoscience, environmental science and archaeology. Many current techniques do not provide reliable isolation from contaminating organics and/or are relatively time-consuming. Hydrogen pyrolysis (HyPy) does provide reliable isolation of PyC, but the current methodology is time consuming. METHODS: We explored the potential for subjecting multiple samples to HyPy analysis by placing up to nine individual samples in custom-designed borosilicate sample vessels in a single reactor run. We tested for cross-contamination between samples in the same run using materials with highly divergent radiocarbon activities (~0.04-116.3 pMC), δ13 C values (-11.9 to -26.5‰) and labile carbon content. We determined 14 C/13 C using accelerator mass spectrometry and δ13 C values using an elemental analyser coupled to a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. RESULTS: Very small but measurable transfer between samples of highly divergent isotope composition was detectable. For samples having a similar composition, this cross-contamination is considered negligible with respect to measurement uncertainty. For samples having divergent composition, we found that placing a sample vessel loaded with silica mesh adsorbent between samples eliminated measurable cross-contamination in all cases for both 14 C/13 C and δ13 C values. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to subject up to seven samples to HyPy in the same reactor run for the determination of radiocarbon content and δ13 C value without diminishing the precision or accuracy of the results. This approach enables an increase in sample throughput of 300-600%. HyPy process background values are consistently lower than the nominal laboratory process background for quartz tube combustion in the NERC Radiocarbon Laboratory, indicating that HyPy may also be advantageous as a relatively 'clean' radiocarbon pre-treatment method.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6392, 2019 04 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024024

RESUMEN

Equatorial Southeast Asia is a key region for global climate change. Here, the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) is a critical driver of atmospheric convection that plays a dominant role in global atmospheric circulation. However, fluctuating sea-levels during the Pleistocene produced the most drastic land-sea area changes on Earth, with the now-drowned continent of Sundaland being exposed as a contiguous landmass for most of the past 2 million years. How vegetation responded to changes in rainfall that resulted from changing shelf exposure and glacial boundary conditions in Sundaland remains poorly understood. Here we use the stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of bat guano and High Molecular Weight n-alkanes, from Saleh Cave in southern Borneo to demonstrate that open vegetation existed during much the past 40,000 yrs BP. This location is at the southern equatorial end of a hypothesized 'savanna corridor' and the results provide the strongest evidence yet for its existence. The corridor would have operated as a barrier to east-west dispersal of rainforest species, and a conduit for north-south dispersal of savanna species at times of lowered sea level, explaining many modern biogeographic patterns. The Saleh Cave record also exhibits a strong correspondence with insolation and sea surface temperatures of the IPWP, suggesting a strong sensitivity of vegetation to tropical climate change on glacial/interglacial timeframes.

7.
Ecol Evol ; 7(21): 8927-8935, 2017 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29152188

RESUMEN

In Australia, dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) have been implicated in the decline and extinction of a number of vertebrate species. The lowland Wet Tropics of Queensland, Australia is a biologically rich area with many species of rainforest-restricted vertebrates that could be threatened by dingoes; however, the ecological impacts of dingoes in this region are poorly understood. We determined the potential threat posed by dingoes to native vertebrates in the lowland Wet Tropics using dingo scat/stomach content and stable isotope analyses of hair from dingoes and potential prey species. Common mammals dominated dingo diets. We found no evidence of predation on threatened taxa or rainforest specialists within our study areas. The most significant prey species were northern brown bandicoots (Isoodon macrourus), canefield rats (Rattus sordidus), and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis). All are common species associated with relatively open grass/woodland habitats. Stable isotope analysis suggested that prey species sourced their nutrients primarily from open habitats and that prey choice, as identified by scat/stomach analysis alone, was a poor indicator of primary foraging habitats. In general, we find that prey use by dingoes in the lowland Wet Tropics does not pose a major threat to native and/or threatened fauna, including rainforest specialists. In fact, our results suggest that dingo predation on "pest" species may represent an important ecological service that outweighs potential biodiversity threats. A more targeted approach to managing wild canids is needed if the ecosystem services they provide in these contested landscapes are to be maintained, while simultaneously avoiding negative conservation or economic impacts.

8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 170, 2017 03 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28279022

RESUMEN

Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) and n-alkane data from sediments in the northern South China Sea reveal variations in material from C4 plants in East Asia over the last ~19 Ma. These data indicate the likely presence of C4 taxa during the earliest part of the record analysed, with C4 species also prominent during the mid and late Miocene and especially the mid Quaternary. Notably the two records diverge after the mid Quaternary, when PyC data indicate a reduced contribution of C4 taxa to biomass burning, whereas plant-derived n-alkanes indicate a greater abundance of C4 plants. This divergence likely reflects differences in the predominant source areas of organic materials accumulating at the coring site, with PyC representing a larger source area that includes material transported in the atmosphere from more temperate (relatively cooler and drier) parts of East Asia. Variations in the relative abundances of C3 and C4 taxa appear to be linked to a combination of environmental factors that have varied temporally and geographically and that are unique to East Asia. A major expansion of C4 biomass in warmer subtropical parts of eastern Asia from ~1 Ma and particularly from ~0.4 Ma is later than other parts of the world.

9.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 26(23): 2690-6, 2012 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23124659

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Pyrogenic carbon (C(P)) is an important component of the global carbon budget. Accurate determination of the abundance and stable isotope composition of C(P) in soils and sediments is crucial for understanding the dynamics of the C(P) cycle and interpreting records of biomass burning, climate and vegetation change in the past. Here we test hydrogen pyrolysis (hypy) as a new technique potentially capable of eliminating labile organic carbon (C(L)) from total organic carbon (C(T)) in a range of matrices in order to enable reliable quantification of both the C(P) component of C(T) and the stable carbon isotope composition of C(P) (δ(13)C(P)). METHODS: We mixed C(P) at a range of concentrations with common C(P)-free matrices (C(L) = cellulose, chitin, keratin, decomposed wood, leaf litter, grass and algae) and determined the amount of residual carbon not removed by hydrogen pyrolysis (C(R)) as a ratio of C(T) (C(R)/C(T)). Mixing C(P) with a unique δ(13)C value provided a natural abundance isotope label from which to precisely determine the ratio of C(P) to residual C(L) remaining after hypy. RESULTS: All C(P)-free matrices contained trace carbon after hypy, indicating that hypy does not remove all the C(L). However, there was a strong correlation between C(R)/C(T) and C(P)/C(T), viz. C(R)/C(T)= 1.02(C(P)/C(T)) + 4.0 × 10(-3), r(2) = 0.99, p <0.001, suggesting that only a small and reasonably constant fraction of C(L) remains after hypy. Uncertainties associated with the correction for contamination of C(R) by residual C(L) are minimal allowing for reliable determinations of both C(P) and δ(13)C(P) in many cases. CONCLUSIONS: Hydrogen pyrolysis appears to be a robust technique for estimating C(P) abundance and δ(13)C(P) across a range of materials. Nevertheless, caution is required in interpreting δ(13)C(P) values when C(P)/C(T) is low, with C(P)/C(T)>4% being required for the determination of the δ(13)C(P) values within an interpretable error under our experimental conditions.

10.
PLoS One ; 7(9): e43538, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22957029

RESUMEN

Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Cabello/metabolismo , Saccharum/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , Conducta Alimentaria , Geografía , Especies Introducidas , Isótopos/análisis , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Queensland , Porcinos , Clima Tropical
11.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 26(6): 639-44, 2012 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22328217

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Quantifying the processes that control dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) dynamics in aquatic systems is essential for progress in ecosystem carbon budgeting. The development of a methodology that allows high-resolution temporal data collection over prolonged periods is essential and is described in this study. METHODS: A novel sampling instrument that sequentially acidifies aliquots of water and utilises gas-permeable ePTFE tubing to measure the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration and δ(13)C(DIC) values at sub-hourly intervals by Cavity Ring-down spectrometry (CRDS) is described. RESULTS: The minimum sensitivity of the isotopic, continuous, automated dissolved inorganic carbon analyser (ISO-CADICA) system is 0.01 mM with an accuracy of 0.008 mM. The analytical uncertainty in δ(13)C(DIC) values is proportional to the concentration of DIC in the sample. Where the DIC concentration is greater than 0.3 mM the analytical uncertainty is ±0.1‰ and below 0.2 mM stability is < ± 0.3‰. The isotopic effects of air temperature, water temperature and CO(2) concentrations were found to either be negligible or correctable. Field trials measuring diel variation in δ(13)C(DIC) values of coral reef associated sea water revealed significant, short-term temporal changes and illustrated the necessity of this technique. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, collecting and analysing large numbers of samples for δ(13)C(DIC) measurements is not trivial, but essential for accurate carbon models, particularly on small scales. The ISO-CADICA enables on-site, high-resolution determination of DIC concentration and δ(13)C(DIC) values with no need for sample storage and laboratory analysis. The initial tests indicate that this system can offer accuracy approaching that of traditional IRMS analysis.

12.
Bioresour Technol ; 102(2): 1886-91, 2011 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20797850

RESUMEN

This study presents baseline data on the physiochemical properties and potential uses of macroalgal (seaweed) biochar produced by pyrolysis of eight species of green tide algae sourced from fresh, brackish and marine environments. All of the biochars produced are comparatively low in carbon content, surface area and cation exchange capacity, but high in pH, ash, nitrogen and extractable inorganic nutrients including P, K, Ca and Mg. The biochars are more similar in characteristics to those produced from poultry litter relative to those derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks. This means that, like poultry litter biochar, macroalgal biochar has properties that provide direct nutrient benefits to soils and thereby to crop productivity, and will be particularly useful for application on acidic soils. However, macroalgal biochars are volumetrically less able to provide the carbon sequestration benefits of the high carbon ligno-cellulosic biochars.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/química , Carbón Orgánico/síntesis química , Eucariontes/química , Especificidad de la Especie , Temperatura
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 107(35): 15508-11, 2010 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20660748

RESUMEN

Today, insular Southeast Asia is important for both its remarkably rich biodiversity and globally significant roles in atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Despite the fundamental importance of environmental history for diversity and conservation, there is little primary evidence concerning the nature of vegetation in north equatorial Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period (LGP). As a result, even the general distribution of vegetation during the Last Glacial Maximum is debated. Here we show, using the stable carbon isotope composition of ancient cave guano profiles, that there was a substantial forest contraction during the LGP on both peninsular Malaysia and Palawan, while rainforest was maintained in northern Borneo. These results directly support rainforest "refugia" hypotheses and provide evidence that environmental barriers likely reduced genetic mixing between Borneo and Sumatra flora and fauna. Moreover, it sheds light on possible early human dispersal events.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Alcanos/metabolismo , Animales , Borneo , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Clima , Geografía , Actividades Humanas , Humanos , Cubierta de Hielo , Indonesia , Insectos/fisiología , Malasia , Océanos y Mares , Dinámica Poblacional , Factores de Tiempo , Árboles/metabolismo , Árboles/parasitología
15.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 22(21): 3393-400, 2008 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18837063

RESUMEN

We report results obtained using a new technique developed to measure the stable-isotope composition of uric acid isolated from bird excreta (guano). Results from a diet-switch feeding trial using zebra finches suggest that the delta(13)C of uric acid in the guano equilibrates with the diet of the bird within 3 days of a change in diet, while the equilibration time for delta(15)N may be longer. The average carbon isotope discrimination between uric acid and food before the diet switch was +0.34 +/- 1 per thousand (1sigma) while after the diet switch this increased slightly to +0.83 +/- 0.7 per thousand (1sigma). Nitrogen isotope discrimination was +1.3 +/- 0.3 per thousand (1sigma) and +0.3 +/- 0.3 per thousand (1sigma) before and after the diet switch; however, it is possible that the nitrogen isotope values did not fully equilibrate with diet switch over the course of the experiment. Analyses of other chemical fractions of the guano (organic residue after uric acid extraction and non-uric acid organics solubilised during extraction) suggest a total range of up to 3 per thousand for both delta(13)C and delta(15)N values in individual components of a single bulk guano sample. The analysis of natural samples from a range of terrestrial and marine species demonstrates that the technique yields isotopic compositions consistent with the known diets of the birds. The results from natural samples further demonstrate that multiple samples from the same species collected from the same location yield similar results, while different species from the same location exhibit a range of isotopic compositions indicative of different dietary preferences. Given that many samples of guano can be rapidly collected without any requirement to capture specimens for invasive sampling, the stable-isotope analysis of uric acid offers a new, simple and potentially powerful tool for studying avian ecology and metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , Heces/química , Pinzones/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ácido Úrico/análisis , Animales , Dieta/métodos , Extracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Ácido Úrico/aislamiento & purificación
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