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1.
Mycoses ; 67(5): e13745, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767273

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on mixed mould infection with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the prevalence of co-existent CAPA in CAPM (mixed mould infection) and whether mixed mould infection is associated with early mortality (≤7 days of diagnosis). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the data collected from 25 centres across India on COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. We included only CAPM and excluded subjects with disseminated or rhino-orbital mucormycosis. We defined co-existent CAPA if a respiratory specimen showed septate hyphae on smear, histopathology or culture grew Aspergillus spp. We also compare the demography, predisposing factors, severity of COVID-19, and management of CAPM patients with and without CAPA. Using a case-control design, we assess whether mixed mould infection (primary exposure) were associated with early mortality in CAPM. RESULTS: We included 105 patients with CAPM. The prevalence of mixed mould infection was 20% (21/105). Patients with mixed mould infection experienced early mortality (9/21 [42.9%] vs. 15/84 [17.9%]; p = 0.02) and poorer survival at 6 weeks (7/21 [33.3] vs. 46/77 [59.7%]; p = 0.03) than CAPM alone. On imaging, consolidation was more commonly encountered with mixed mould infections than CAPM. Co-existent CAPA (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 19.1 [2.62-139.1]) was independently associated with early mortality in CAPM after adjusting for hypoxemia during COVID-19 and other factors. CONCLUSION: Coinfection of CAPA and CAPM was not uncommon in our CAPM patients and portends a worse prognosis. Prospective studies from different countries are required to know the impact of mixed mould infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/mortalidad , Mucormicosis/mortalidad , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Coinfección/mortalidad , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/microbiología , India/epidemiología , Adulto , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/complicaciones , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/mortalidad , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Enfermedades Pulmonares Fúngicas/mortalidad , Enfermedades Pulmonares Fúngicas/complicaciones , Enfermedades Pulmonares Fúngicas/epidemiología
2.
J Med Virol ; 96(4): e29601, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597375

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated mucormycosis (CAM) was reported predominantly from India during the second wave of COVID-19  and has a high mortality rate. The present study aims to understand the fungal community composition of the nasopharyngeal region of CAM-infected individuals and compare it with severe COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. The fungal community composition was decoded by analyzing the sequence homology of the internal transcribed spacer-2-(ITS-2) region of metagenomic DNA extracted from the upper respiratory samples. The alpha-diversity indices were found to be significantly altered in CAM patients (p < 0.05). Interestingly, a higher abundance of Candida africana, Candida haemuloni, Starmerella floris, and Starmerella lactiscondensi was observed exclusively in CAM patients. The interindividual changes in mycobiome composition were well supported by beta-diversity analysis (p < 0.05). The current study provides insights into the dysbiosis of the nasal mycobiome during CAM infection. In conclusion, our study shows that severe COVID-19 and CAM are associated with alteration in mycobiome as compared to healthy controls. However, the sequential alteration in the fungal flora which ultimately leads to the development of CAM needs to be addressed by future studies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Micobioma , Humanos , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Nariz , India/epidemiología
4.
J Mycol Med ; 34(2): 101467, 2024 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432117

RESUMEN

A 3-year-old boy presented with acute headache, vomiting and right focal clonic seizures without history of fever, joint pain or altered sensorium. Neuroimaging showed multifocal contrast enhancing lesions with significant perilesional edema. CECT chest and abdomen showed multiple variable sized nodules in the lungs and hypodense lesion in liver with mesenteric lymphadenopathy. There was persistent eosinophilia with maximum upto 35 %. Liver biopsy and brain biopsy revealed Cladophialophora bantiana. He was treated with IV liposomal amphotericin and voriconazole for 6 weeks with repeat neuroimaging showing more than 50 % resolution of the intracranial lesions. He was transitioned to oral combination of flucytosine and voriconazole. At 14 months follow-up, he remained symptom free with complete radiological resolution of the lesions and no eosinophilia. High suspicion, an aggressive approach in obtaining microbiological diagnosis and timely combination antifungal therapy may give satisfactory outcome without surgery.

5.
J Infect ; 88(5): 106147, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555035

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Invasive mould infections (IMIs) are a leading cause of death in patients with compromised immune systems. Proven invasive mould infection requires detection of a fungus by histopathological analysis of a biopsied specimen, sterile culture, or fungal DNA amplification by PCR in tissue. However, the clinical performance of a PCR assay on blood samples taken from patients suspected of invasive mould disease has not been fully evaluated, particularly for the differential diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and invasive Mucormycosis (IM). OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic utility of our previously validated in-house real-time PCR in blood samples for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis in patients with suspected invasive mould infection. METHODS: All patients with suspected invasive mould infection were prospectively enrolled from May 2021 to July 2021. Conventional fungal diagnosis was performed using tissue and respiratory samples. In-house PCR was performed on blood samples and its diagnostic performance evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 158 cases of suspected invasive mould infection were enrolled in the study. The sensitivity and specificity of in-house PCR performed on blood samples was found to be 92.5% and 81.4% respectively for diagnosis of probable IA, and 65% and 84.62% respectively for diagnosis of proven and probable IM. It was also able to detect 3 out of 5 cases of possible IM where no other microbiological evidence of IM was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: This assay could be helpful in minimally invasive diagnosis of IMIs for patients in whom invasive sampling is not feasible, especially as a preliminary or screening test. It can help in early diagnosis, anticipating conventional laboratory confirmation by days or weeks. Possible correlation between fungal load and mortality can help in initiating aggressive treatment for patients with high initial fungal load.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Fúngicas Invasoras , Mucormicosis , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Humanos , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/microbiología , Mucormicosis/sangre , Adulto , Estudios Prospectivos , Anciano , Infecciones Fúngicas Invasoras/diagnóstico , Infecciones Fúngicas Invasoras/microbiología , Infecciones Fúngicas Invasoras/sangre , ADN de Hongos/sangre , ADN de Hongos/genética , Aspergilosis/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis/microbiología , Aspergilosis/sangre , Diagnóstico Precoz , Adulto Joven , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Diagnóstico Diferencial
6.
Med Mycol ; 62(2)2024 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327232

RESUMEN

Mucormycosis is a rare disease with scarce diagnostic methods for early intervention. Available strategies employing direct microscopy using calcofluor white-KOH, culture, radiologic, and histopathologic testing often are time-intensive and demand intricate protocols. Nucleic Acid Amplification Test holds promise due to its high sensitivity combined with rapid detection. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection offers an ultrasensitive technique that does not require complicated thermocyclers like in polymerase chain reaction, offering a straightforward means for improving diagnoses as a near-point-of-care test. The study introduces a novel magnetic nanoparticle-based LAMP assay for carryover contaminant capture to reduce false positives. Solving the main drawback of LAMP-based diagnosis techniques. The assay targets the cotH gene, which is invariably specific to Mucorales. The assay was tested with various species of Mucorales, and the limit of detections for Rhizopus microsporus, Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus homothallicus, and Cunninghamella bertholletiae were 1 fg, 1 fg, 0.1 pg, 0.1 pg, and 0.01 ng, respectively. This was followed by a clinical blindfolded study using whole blood and urine samples from 30 patients diagnosed with Mucormycosis. The assay has a high degree of repeatability and had an overall sensitivity of > 83%. Early Mucormycosis detection is crucial, as current lab tests from blood and urine lack sensitivity and take days for confirmation despite rapid progression and severe complications. Our developed technique enables the confirmation of Mucormycosis infection in < 45 min, focusing specifically on the RT-LAMP process. Consequently, this research offers a viable technique for quickly identifying Mucormycosis from isolated DNA of blood and urine samples instead of invasive tissue samples.


Mucormycosis is a challenging disease to diagnose early. This study introduces a sensitive and rapid diagnostic approach using Loop-mediated isothermal amplification technology. Testing blood and urine samples from 30 patients revealed promising sensitivity and repeatability, indicating its potential for non-invasive diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Mucorales , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/veterinaria , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/veterinaria , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinaria , Mucorales/genética
7.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e54672, 2024 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363632

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fungal infections are now a great public health threat, especially in those with underlying risk factors such as neutropenia, diabetes, high-dose steroid treatment, cancer chemotherapy, prolonged intensive care unit stay, and so on, which can lead to mycoses with higher mortality rates. The rates of these infections have been steadily increasing over the past 2 decades due to the increasing population of patients who are immunocompromised. However, the data regarding the exact burden of such infection are still not available from India. Therefore, this registry was initiated to collate systematic data on invasive fungal infections (IFIs) across the country. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study is to create a multicenter digital clinical registry and monitor trends of IFIs and emerging fungal diseases, as well as early signals of any potential fungal outbreak in any region. The registry will also capture information on the antifungal resistance patterns and the contribution of fungal infections on overall morbidity and inpatient mortality across various conditions. METHODS: This multicenter, prospective, noninterventional observational study will be conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research through a web-based data collection method from 8 Advanced Mycology Diagnostic and Research Centers across the country. Data on age, gender, clinical signs and symptoms, date of admission, date of discharge or death, diagnostic tests performed, identified pathogen details, antifungal susceptibility testing, outcome, and so on will be obtained from hospital records. Descriptive and multivariate statistical methods will be applied to investigate clinical manifestations, risk variables, and treatment outcomes. RESULTS: These Advanced Mycology Diagnostic and Research Centers are expected to find the hidden cases of fungal infections in the intensive care unit setting. The study will facilitate the enhancement of the precision of fungal infection diagnosis and prompt treatment modalities in response to antifungal drug sensitivity tests. This registry will improve our understanding of IFIs, support evidence-based clinical decision-making ability, and encourage public health policies and actions. CONCLUSIONS: Fungal diseases are a neglected public health problem. Fewer diagnostic facilities, scanty published data, and increased vulnerable patient groups make the situation worse. This is the first systematic clinical registry of IFIs in India. Data generated from this registry will increase our understanding related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of fungal diseases in India by addressing pertinent gaps in mycology. This initiative will ensure a visible impact on public health in the country. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/54672.

9.
Mycoses ; 67(1): e13695, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38282361

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) galactomannan (GM) is commonly used to diagnose Aspergillus-related lung diseases. However, unlike serum GM, which is measured in undiluted blood, BAL-GM is estimated using variable aliquots and cumulative volume of instillates during bronchoscopy. OBJECTIVE: Since different studies have reported varying diagnostic accuracy and cut-offs for BAL-GM in CPA, we hypothesized that the total volume of instillate and 'order/label' of aliquots significantly affects the BAL-GM values, which was evaluated as part of this study. PATIENTS & METHODS: We obtained 250 BAL samples from 50 patients (five from each) with suspected chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. BAL fluid was collected after instilling sequential volumes of 40 mL of normal saline each for the first four labels and a fifth label was prepared by mixing 1 mL from each of the previous labels. The GM level of each label was measured by PLATELIA™ ASPERGILLUS Ag enzyme immunoassay. This study measured the discordance, level of agreement, diagnostic characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and AUROC) and best cut-offs for BAL-GM in the different aliquots of lavage fluid. RESULTS: The study population, classified into CPA (28%) and non-CPA (72%) groups, based on ERS/ESCMID criteria (excluding BAL-GM) were not different with respect to clinico-radiological characteristics. The discordance of BAL-GM positivity (using a cut-off of >1) between the serial labels for the same patient ranged between 10% and 22%, while the discordance between classification using BAL-GM positivity (using a cut-off of ≥1) and clinic-radio-microbiological classification ranged between 18% and 30%. The level of agreement for serial labels was at best fair (<0.6 for all except one 'label'). The AUROC for the serial samples ranged between 0.595 and 0.702, with the '40 mL and the 'mix' samples performing the best. The best BAL-GM cut-off also showed significant variation between serial labels of varying dilutions (Range:1.01 - 4.26). INTERPRETATION: This study highlights the variation in BAL-GM measured and the 'positivity' between different 'labels' of aliquots of BAL, with the first aliquot and the mixed sample showing the best performances for diagnosis of CPA. Future studies should attempt to 'standardise' the instilled volume for BAL-GM estimation to standardise the diagnostic yield.


Asunto(s)
Galactosa/análogos & derivados , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva , Aspergilosis Pulmonar , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Lavado Broncoalveolar , Líquido del Lavado Bronquioalveolar/microbiología , Mananos , Infección Persistente , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/microbiología
10.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 10(1)2024 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38248951

RESUMEN

A well-structured digital database is essential for any national priority project as it can provide real-time data analysis and facilitate quick decision making. In recent times, particularly after the COVID-19 pandemic, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have emerged as a significant public health challenge in India, affecting vulnerable population, including immunocompromised individuals. The lack of comprehensive and well-structured data on IFIs has hindered efforts to understand their true burden and optimize patient care. To address this critical knowledge gap, the ICMR has undertaken a Pan-India pioneer initiative to develop a network of Advanced Mycology Diagnostic research centres in different geographical zones of the country (ICMR-MycoNet). Under the aegis of this project, a clinical registry on IFIs in the ICUs is initiated. This process paper presents a detailed account of the steps involved in the establishment of a web-based data entering and monitoring platform to capture data electronically, ensuring robust and secure data collection and management. This system not only allows participating ICMR-MycoNet centres to enter patient information directly into the database using standardized Case Report Form (CRF) but also includes data validation checks to ensure the accuracy and completeness of entered data. It is complemented by a real-time, web-based, and adaptable data visualization platform. This registry aims to provide crucial epidemiological insights, promote evidence-based hospital infection control programs, and ultimately improve patient outcomes in the face of this formidable healthcare challenge.

11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 30(3): 368-374, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081413

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis (CAROM), ascertain factors associated with CAPM among patients with COVID-19, and identify factors associated with 12-week mortality in CAPM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study. All study participants had COVID-19. We enrolled CAPM, CAROM, and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis (controls; age-matched). We collected information on demography, predisposing factors, and details of COVID-19 illness. Univariable analysis was used to compare CAPM and CAROM. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with CAPM (with hypoxemia during COVID-19 as the primary exposure) and at 12-week mortality. RESULTS: We included 1724 cases (CAPM [n = 122], CAROM [n = 1602]) and 3911 controls. Male sex, renal transplantation, multimorbidity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, intensive care admission, and cumulative glucocorticoid dose for COVID-19 were significantly higher in CAPM than in CAROM. On multivariable analysis, COVID-19-related hypoxemia (aOR, 2.384; 95% CI, 1.209-4.700), male sex, rural residence, diabetes mellitus, serum C-reactive protein, glucocorticoid, and zinc use during COVID-19 were independently associated with CAPM. CAPM reported a higher 12-week mortality than CAROM (56 of the 107 [52.3%] vs. 413 of the 1356 [30.5%]; p = 0.0001). Hypoxemia during COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI], 3.70 [1.34-10.25]) and Aspergillus co-infection (aOR [95% CI], 5.40 [1.23-23.64]) were independently associated with mortality in CAPM, whereas surgery was associated with better survival. DISCUSSION: CAPM is a distinct entity with a higher mortality than CAROM. Hypoxemia during COVID-19 illness is associated with CAPM. COVID-19 hypoxemia and Aspergillus co-infection were associated with higher mortality in CAPM.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Masculino , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Glucocorticoides , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , India/epidemiología , Hipoxia/complicaciones
12.
J Microsc Ultrastruct ; 11(3): 145-149, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38025182

RESUMEN

Introduction: Mucormycosis is a lethal disease which bewildered the health-care community of India during the ongoing second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The diagnosis is challenging considering the poor isolation in culture. Aims: The aim of the study was to emphasize the utility of potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount examination using conventional light microscopy for early diagnosis of mucormycosis in resource-limited settings. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of results for all the samples including tissue biopsies, swabs, and pus received in the laboratory for KOH microscopy was done, and results were recorded. The clinical and demographic details of the patients were collected from the hospital information system. Results: A total of 75 samples from 50 patients were received in the laboratory. Out of these, 43 samples from 35 patients showed fungal hyphae (38 patients with only nonseptate hyaline hyphae, 2 with septate hyaline hyphae, and 3 samples with mixed infections). All patients except one were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. The most common age group was 45-59 years (40%), followed by 30-44 years (34.28%) with a male predominance. There was a significant difference in hemoglobin A1C (P = 0.005) and ferritin (P = 0.017) levels between laboratory-confirmed mucormycosis patients and clinically suspected mucormycosis patients without confirmation. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and initiation of targeted therapy is the cornerstone for treating mucormycosis patients. Hence, a rapid and reliable mode of diagnosis is the need of the hour. Conventional microscopy is such a tool that may be used, especially in resource-limited settings.

13.
Mycopathologia ; 188(6): 1041-1053, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37857979

RESUMEN

The diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is established by combined clinic-radio-microbiological criteria. Out of the different microbiological criteria, a positive serology for Aspergillus-specific IgG levels is the cornerstone of diagnosis. Alternatively, other microbiological evidence are sometimes sought viz., positive Aspergillus antigen (broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, i.e., BALF galactomannan ≥ 1.0), histopathological demonstration of the fungi following lung biopsy or resection, demonstration of hyaline septate hyphae in direct microscopy resembling Aspergillus spp. or its growth on a respiratory specimen. However, the exact roles of BALF- GM and the newer BALF-PCR have not been confirmed by studies till date. This study enrolled 210 patients with suspected CPA. Of the participants, 88 patients met the criteria for CPA, whereas 122 patients had an alternative diagnosis. The sensitivity-specificity of AsperGenius® PCR and "in-house" PCR were 52.27(36.69-67.54) %-33.78 (23.19-45.72) % and 36.36 (22.41-52.23) %-39.19 (28.04-51.23) % respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of BALF (> 1.0) and serum galactomannan (> 1.0) were 46.55% (33.34-60.13)/64.08% (54.03-73.3) and 29.82% (22.05-37.6)/86.84% (81.1-92.59) respectively. The optimal cut-off values for BALF-Galactomannan and serum galactomannan in diagnosing CPA were found to be 0.69 (sensitivity: 64%; specificity: 53%) and 0.458 (sensitivity: 67%; specificity: 64%) respectively. This results of this study suggests that Aspergillus PCR from BAL may not be a good "rule-in" test for diagnosing CPA. While the performances of GM in BAL and serum may be better than PCR, it should be best used in conjunction with other clinical, radiological, and other microbiological characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva , Aspergilosis Pulmonar , Humanos , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Aspergillus/genética , Mananos , Líquido del Lavado Bronquioalveolar/microbiología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 72(8)2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37624041

RESUMEN

Introduction. Invasive mucormycosis (IM) is a potentially fatal infection caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. Histopathology, culture, and radiology are the mainstays of diagnosis, but they are not sufficiently sensitive, resulting in delayed diagnosis and intervention. Recent studies have shown that PCR-based techniques can be a promising way to diagnose IM.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. Early diagnosis of fungal infections using molecular diagnostic techniques can improve patient outcomes, especially in invasive mucormycosis.Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of our in-house mould-specific real time PCR assay (qPCR) in comparison with the commercially available real time PCR (MucorGenius PCR), for the early diagnosis of mucormycosis in tissue samples from patients with suspicion of invasive mucormycosis (IM). This in-house assay can detect and distinguish three clinically relevant mould species, e.g. Aspergillus spp., Mucorales and Fusarium spp. in a single reaction with only one pair of primers, without the need for sequencing.Methodology. We enrolled 313 tissue samples from 193 patients with suspected IM in this prospective study. All cases were classified using EORTC/MSGERC guidelines. All samples were tested using traditional methods, in-house qPCR, and MucorGenius PCR.Results. Using direct microscopy as a gold standard, the overall sensitivity and specificity of in-house qPCR for detection of IM was 92.46% and 80% respectively, while that of the MucorGenius PCR was 66.67% and 90% respectively. However, co-infection of IM and IA adversely affected the performance of MucorGenius PCR in detection of IM.The in-house PCR detected Aspergillus spp. in 14 cases and Fusarium spp. in 4 cases which showed clinical and radiological features of fungal sinusitis. The in-house qPCR also performed better in detecting possible cases of IM. This aids early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to improve patient outcomes.Conclusion. Because the in-house PCR is not only sensitive and specific, but also entirely based on SYBR Green for detection of targets, it is less expensive than probe-based assays and can be used on a regular basis for the diagnosis of IM in resource-constrained settings. It can be used to distinguish between mucormycosis and fungal sinusitis caused by Aspergillus and Fusarium in high-risk patients, as well as to accurately detect Mucorales in fungal co-infection cases.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfección , Fusarium , Mucorales , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Estudios Prospectivos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Mucorales/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Prueba de COVID-19
16.
Med Mycol Case Rep ; 40: 40-43, 2023 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37283720

RESUMEN

Lodderomyces elongisporus is a rare cause of invasive fungal infections. Most phenotypic tests that are routinely used for identification of yeasts fail to identify this organism. However, chromogenic media for yeasts, MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequencing can be used for correct identification. We report a case of fungemia complicated by infective endocarditis and intracerebral bleeding in a pediatric patient with previous cardiac surgery.

17.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 75(1): 49-53, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37007877

RESUMEN

We conducted this study to determine if serum galactomannan (GM) can be used as a marker to implicate the invasiveness of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS), and correlate this value with the aggressiveness of disease documented via computed tomography (CT). All paranasal CT scans done for AFRS patients prospectively over a five-year period (2015-2019) were included. An indigenous 20-point score was used to document the extent of bone erosion seen on CT, wherein a higher score meant a greater extent of bone erosion. It was then correlated with serum GM scores. The median CT scores of galactomannan-positive (GM+) patients were compared with the median CT scores of galactomannan-negative (GM-) patients 3 using Mann-Whitney U test. The patients were divided into five groups based on the extent of disease-No bone erosion, erosion of only sinus wall/orbit, 3 erosion of orbit and skull base, erosion of only skull base and lateral extension of disease into infratemporal fossa (ITF). Subgroup analysis was conducted over mean GM values in these groups using ANOVA test. p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25.0. A total of 92 patients were included (56 males, 36 females). No statistically significant difference was found (p-value = 0.42) between the CT scores of galactomannan-positive (GM+) group and galactomannan-negative (GM-) group. The mean GM scores amongst the five sub-groups did not show a statistically significant difference. Serum galactomannan values correlate poorly with aggressiveness of disease quantified on non-contrast CT of paranasal sinuses.

18.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 42: 25-29, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36967211

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Candida albicans is the major cause of fungal UTI in neonates and infants but nowadays non albicans Candida is also increasing and these are mostly multidrug resistant. So it's important to know the species of candidal UTI for the proper management. This study was undertaken to determine the Candida species distribution in UTI along with their susceptibility pattern and outcome in infants and neonates admitted in different wards and ICU of our hospital. We also assess the incidence rate of candiduria in ICUs. METHOD: Urine samples were collected from infants and neonates presented in pediatrics and neonatal ICU (intensive care units) and clinical wards with a clinical suspicion of candiduria and infants at risk of invasive candidiasis were also included in the study. Identification of Candida sp. was done by Gram's staining, germ tube test, chlamydospore formation on corn meal agar, color appearance on CHROM agar and also confirmed by MALDI-TOF Assay. Antifungal susceptibility was performed by using broth microdilution method as per the CLSI M27-A3/M27-S4. RESULT: Urine samples were received from 219 infants, and Candida was isolated from samples from 52 infants (isolation rate 23.75%), of which 30 were admitted in pediatric or neonatal ICU and 22 in the wards. The incidence rate of candiduria in ICU was 3.25%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species from the samples of infants in the wards (13/22 i.e. 59%), while Candida tropicalis was most frequently isolated from samples of infants in the ICUs (13/30 i.e. 43.34%). Candida glabrata was the least commonly isolated species and was only encopuntered in the ICU. There was no discrepancy between the results of conventional methods of identification and MALDI-TOF. Antifungal susceptibility was performed for 18 randomly selected isolates. All were found to be susceptible to caspofungin, micafungin, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B. CONCLUSION: High suspicion of candiduria is needed especially in ICU admitted infants and identification of candida at species level along with the susceptibility pattern is important for the better management of patients.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos , Candidiasis Invasiva , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Lactante , Niño , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Agar , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Fluconazol , Candida , Candida albicans , Candidiasis Invasiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Candidiasis Invasiva/microbiología , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Farmacorresistencia Fúngica
19.
J Mycol Med ; 33(2): 101355, 2023 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529086

RESUMEN

Medicopsis romeroi is a rare, dematiaceous fungus that is difficult to identify using conventional fungal tests. Although uncommon, immunocompromised patients are particularly susceptible to this opportunistic fungus. Here, we report the case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with painful disseminated subcutaneous and soft tissue lesions. Sequencing of the Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA identified the fungus as Medicopsis romeroi. Additionally, tissue samples from a non-healing wound on the left forearm grew Rhizopus spp. on Sabouraud dextrose agar, indicating a Mucormycosis superinfection. The patient's condition improved with surgical intervention and antifungal therapy with Posaconazole and Terbinafine. This case demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion in order to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and thus reduce the risk of dissemination.


Asunto(s)
Ascomicetos , Trasplante de Riñón , Mucormicosis , Feohifomicosis , Humanos , Trasplante de Riñón/efectos adversos , Feohifomicosis/microbiología , Ascomicetos/genética , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico
20.
Int J STD AIDS ; 34(2): 130-136, 2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426734

RESUMEN

AIM: To assess the prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) with CD4 ≤100/mm3. DESIGN: This observational study was performed on PLHA with laboratory-confirmed CD4 ≤100/mm3. All PLHA were recruited irrespective of their duration of HIV diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve, or ART failure. METHODS: The prevalence of cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) was assessed in 102 PLHA, with CD4 ≤100/mm3, using a latex agglutination test on serum samples. All the subjects were followed up for 3 months. RESULTS: Amongst 102 PLHA, 62 (60.8%) and 40 (39.2%) patients were ART-naïve and ART failures, respectively, with 2.9% (n = 3) having clinical features of meningitis and 6.8% (n = 7) patients being asymptomatic CrAg-positive. At the 3 month follow-up, total mortality was 10.8%, of which 33.3% and 8.8% were among CrAg-positive and negative patients (p = 0.05). Mortality in asymptomatic and meningitis symptomatic CrAg-positive patients was 1.03% (n = 1) and 2.06% (n = 2), respectively. Of note, five patients were lost to follow-up. CONCLUSION: Cryptococcal antigenemia is common among patients with CD4 ≤100/mm3 who were either ART naïve or had treatment failure. Asymptomatic patients who underwent pre-emptive therapy demonstrated good clinical outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Cryptococcus , Infecciones por VIH , Meningitis Criptocócica , Humanos , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Meningitis Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Meningitis Criptocócica/epidemiología , Meningitis Criptocócica/tratamiento farmacológico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Antígenos Fúngicos
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