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1.
Andrologia ; : e14039, 2021 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682169

RESUMEN

To assess the diagnostic value of shear wave elastography (SWE) for evaluating the histological spermatogenic function of azoospermic males, 91 patients with azoospermia who underwent standardised greyscale ultrasound and SWE examinations followed by testicular biopsy were retrospectively recruited. Spermatogenic function was classified by biopsy as normal testicular spermatogenesis (n = 61), hypospermatogenesis (n = 18), spermatogenesis arrest (n = 6) and Sertoli cell-only syndrome (n = 6). Significant differences in testicular size and SWE values were observed between these 4 groups (p < .01). The mean SWE value had good discrimination power (AUC = 0.79) with a cut-off value of 1.55 KPa, a sensitivity of 0.58, specificity of 0.85, positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.36 and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.93. Testicular volume had an AUC of 0.75. With a cut-off value of 8.41 ml, the testicular volume had a sensitivity of 0.58, specificity of 0.92, PPV of 0.54 and NPV of 0.93. The mean SWE value and testicular volume efficiently discriminated patients with normal spermatogenesis and hypospermatogenesis from patients with Sertoli cell-only syndrome and spermatogenesis arrest.

2.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 38(1): 461-470, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752538

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors affecting the technical failure of artificial ascites (AA) formation and to evaluate the local control efficacy of percutaneous thermal ablation assisted by the AA for hepatic tumors. METHODS: A total of 341 patients with 362 hepatic tumors who underwent thermal ablation assisted by AA were reviewed retrospectively. The technical success of AA, the volume of liquid, and local efficacy after ablation were assessed. Predictive factors for the technical failure of AA formation and local tumor progression (LTP) were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The technical success rate of AA formation was 81.8% (296/362). The amount of fluid was higher when the tumor was located in the left lobe of the liver than when it was located in the right lobe (median 950 ml versus 700 ml, p < 0.001). Previous hepatic resection (OR: 12.63, 95% CI: 2.93-54.45, p < 0.001), ablation (OR: 6.48, 95% CI: 1.36-30.92, p = 0.019) and upper-abdomen surgery (OR: 11.34, 95% CI: 1.96-65.67, p = 0.007) were the independent risk factors of AA failure. In the AA success group, the complete ablation rate was higher and the LTP rate was lower than that in the AA failure group (98.7 versus 92.4%, p = 0.012; 8.8 versus 21.2%, p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis identified AA failure (p = 0.004), tumor size (>3.0 cm) (p = 0.002) and metastatic liver tumor (p = 0.008) as independent risk factors for LTP. CONCLUSION: History of hepatic resection, ablation and upper abdomen surgery were significant predictive factors affecting the technical failure of AA formation. Successful introduction of AA before thermal ablation can achieve better local tumor control efficacy.

3.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675388

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the inter-reader agreement of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2017 (LI-RADS v2017) categories among radiologists with different levels of experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2014 to December 2014, a total of 326 patients at high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent CEUS were included in this retrospective study. All lesions were classified according to LI-RADS v2017 by six radiologists with different levels of experiences: two residents, two fellows, and two specialists. Kappa coefficient was used to assess consistency of LI-RADS categories and major features among radiologists with different levels of experience. The diagnostic performance of HCC was described by accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Inter-reader agreement among radiologists of different experience levels was substantial agreement for arterial phase hyperenhancement, washout appearance, and early or late washout. Inter-reader agreement for LI-RADS categories was moderate to substantial. When LR-5 was used as criteria to determinate HCC, the AUC of LI-RADS for HCC was 0.67 for residents, 0.72 for fellows, and 0.78 for specialist radiologists. When compared between residents and specialists, accuracy, sensitivity, and AUC were significantly different (all p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in specificity, PPV, and NPV between the two groups. CONCLUSION: CEUS LI-RADS showed good diagnostic consistency among radiologists with different levels of experience, and consistency increased with experience levels. KEY POINTS: • The inter-reader agreement for LI-RADS categories was moderate to substantial agreement (κ, 0.60-0.80). • When compared between residents and specialists, accuracy, sensitivity, and AUC showed significantly different (all p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences for specificity, PPV, and NPV between these two groups. • Among the radiologists with more than 1 year of experience, there was no significant difference in the diagnostic performance of HCC, suggesting that CEUS LI-RADS is a good standardized categorization system for high-risk patients.

4.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 507-515, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522374

RESUMEN

Ligustrazine, an alkaloid monomer extracted from Chuanxiong Rhizoma, has the function of protecting nerve cells. However, the effect and mechanism of ligustrazine on retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury still need to be clarified. In our study, retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) were used to establish a retinal I/R injury model by anaerobic cultivation. Cell viability, autophagy, and apoptosis were evaluated by cell counting kit 8 assay, transmission electron microscopy, and TUNEL staining after treatment with ligustrazine, PI3K inhibitor Ly294002, and/or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, respectively. Besides, the levels of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and autophagy-related proteins were determined by western blot. Moreover, one-way ANOVA was adopted for inter-group comparisons of measurement data. Our results demonstrated that low-concentration ligustrazine significantly enhanced cell viability and suppressed cell autophagy and apoptosis of RGC-5 cells after I/R injury, suggesting the protective effect of low-concentration ligustrazine on retinal I/R injury. Moreover, the alleviating effect of ligustrazine on RGC-5 with retinal I/R injury was mechanistically associated with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In conclusion, low-concentration ligustrazine has a significant protective effect on RGC-5 cells with retinal I/R injury by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

5.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502556

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of pathological factors, such as fibrosis stage and histological grade, on the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) v2017 category of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in patients with high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between June 2015 and December 2016, 441 consecutive patients at high risk of HCC with 460 pathologically proven HCCs were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent a CEUS examination. The major features (arterial phase hyperenhancement, late and mild washout) were assessed, and LI-RADS categories were assigned according to CEUS LI-RADS v2017. CEUS LI-RADS categories and major features were compared in different histological grades and fibrosis stages. RESULTS: The CEUS LR-5 category was more frequently assigned in the low-grade group (151/280) than in the high-grade group (66/159) (p = 0.013), whereas the LR-TIV category was more frequently assigned in the high-grade group (36/159) than in the low-grade group (40/280) (p = 0.035). CEUS LI-RADS category was not significantly different among different fibrosis stages (p ≥ 0.05). Arterial phase hyperenhancement (APHE) and the hepatic fibrosis stage showed a significant correlation in HCCs ≥ 2 cm and the low-grade group (p = 0.027 and p = 0.003, respectively). No major features of CEUS LI-RADS showed statistically significant differences between the low- and high-grade groups (p ≥ 0.05). CONCLUSION: Hepatic fibrosis stage can influence APHE but showed no impact on the CEUS LI-RADS classification, whereas the histological grade of HCC influenced the LR-5 and LR-TIV categories. KEY POINTS: • Histological grade influenced CEUS LR-5 and LR-TIV category (p = 0.013 and p = 0.035 respectively). Low-grade HCCs occurred more frequently in LR-5 category whereas high-grade HCCs occurred more frequently in LR-TIV category. • Fibrosis stage shows significant influence on APHE on HCCs of the size ≥ 2 cm and low-grade group (p = 0.027 and p = 0.003, respectively). • Hepatic fibrosis stage and HCC histological grade exhibited limited impact on CEUS LI-RADS. CEUS LI-RADS may be feasible for diagnosing HCC in patients regardless of histological grade and fibrosis stage.

6.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404697

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Restricted mean survival time (RMST) has been increasingly used to assess the treatment effect. We aimed to evaluate a treatment effect of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) versus liver transplantation (LT) and surgical resection (SR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within Milan criteria by using an adjusted RMST. METHODS: A total of 7,218 HCC patients (RFA, 3,327; LT, 2,332; SR 1,523) within Milan criteria were eligible for this retrospectively study. The RMST using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) adjustment were applied to estimate the treatment effect between RFA and LT, RFA, and SR groups. RESULTS: The 3-, 5-, and 10-year IPTW-adjusted difference in RMST of OS for LT over RFA were + 4.5, + 12.4, and + 36.3 months, respectively. For SR versus RFA group, the survival benefit was + 2.3, + 6.1, and + 15.8 months at 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. But the incremental survival benefit of SR over RFA was only half than that of LT over RFA. In the subgroup of solitary tumor ≤ 2 cm, the adjusted RMST of RFA versus SR was comparable with no statistical differences. Beyond that, in comparison with RFA, a notably greater efficacy of LT and SR was consistently across all subgroups with solitary HCC > 2.0 cm, AFP positive or negative, and fibrosis score 0-4 or 5-6. CONCLUSIONS: RMST provides a measure of absolute survival benefit at a specific time point. Using IPTW-adjusted RMST, we showed that the incremental survival benefit of SR over RFA was about half than that of LT over RFA. KEY POINTS: • The restricted mean survival time offers an intuitive, clinically meaningful interpretation to quantify the treatment effect than the hazard ratio. • Liver transplantation and surgical resection provided better overall survival compared to radiofrequency ablation for HCC patients within Milan criteria, but RFA and SR provide equivalent long-term overall survival for solitary HCC ≤ 2 cm. • The incremental survival benefit of surgical resection over radiofrequency ablation was only half than that of liver transplantation over radiofrequency ablation.

7.
Andrologia ; 53(2): e13927, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355959

RESUMEN

Busulfan-induced testicular injury mouse models are commonly used for experiments on spermatogonial stem cell transplantation, treatments for azoospermia due to spermatogenic failure and preserving male fertility after chemotherapy. Here, we investigated the value of testicular quantitative ultrasound for evaluating spermatogenic function in this model. In this study, testicular ultrasound was performed on mice from day 0 to 126 after busulfan treatment (n = 48), and quantitative data, including the testicular volume, mean pixel intensity and pixel uniformity, were analysed. The results revealed that from day 0 to 36, the testicular volume was positively associated with the testicle-to-body weight ratio (r = .92). On day 63, the pixel uniformity, which remained stable from day 0 to 36, declined significantly compared with that on day 36 (p < .01). On day 126, when the whole progression of spermatogenesis could be observed in most tubules, the mean pixel intensity also returned to normal (p > .05). In conclusion, testicular quantitative ultrasound could be used as a noninvasive and accurate monitoring method for evaluating spermatogenic function in busulfan-induced testicular injury mouse models.

8.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216321

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of biliary atresia (BA) patients with and without hilar cyst on preoperative ultrasound. METHODS: A single center retrospective review of patients of BA with (n = 27) and without hilar cyst (n = 27) over a 5 y period was done. The patients were analyzed using propensity score matching to reduce selection bias. All patients were diagnosed as type III BA by histologic examination and cholangiograms. Clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant intergroup differences between baseline characteristics and outcomes after Kasai portoenterostomy surgery in two groups. BA with hilar cyst group showed comparable survival outcomes to the BA without cyst group (cumulative 1-y, 2-y and 5-y overall survival rates with native liver 61.4% vs. 65.8%, P = 0.041; 45.0% vs. 49.0%, P = 0.57; 45.0% vs. 49.0%, P = 0.57). And the Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed no significant difference in cumulative survival with native liver between the two groups (P = 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Type III BA with hilar cyst had no better prognosis compared with Type III BA without cyst.

10.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 454, 2020 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081697

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore the lesion outline and thermal field distribution of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and laser ablation (LA) in myocardial ablation in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four fresh porcine hearts were ablated with RFA or LA in vitro. The radiofrequency electrode or laser fiber and two parallel thermocouple probes were inserted into the myocardium under ultrasound guidance. The output power for RFA was 20 W/s and for LA was 5 W/s, and the total thermal energies were 1200 J, 2400 J, 3600 J, and 4800 J. The range of ablation lesions was measured, and temperature data were recorded simultaneously. RESULTS: All coagulation zones were ellipsoidal with clear boundaries. The center of LA was carbonized more obviously than that of RFA. With the accumulation of thermal energy and the extended time, all the ablation lesions induced by both RFA and LA were enlarged. By comparing the increase in thermal energy between the two groups, both the short-axis diameter and the volume change showed significant differences between the 1200 J and 3600 J groups and between the 2400 J and 4800 J groups (all P < 0.05). Both the short-axis diameter and the volume of the coagulation necrosis zone formed by LA were always larger than those of RFA at the same accumulated thermal energy. The temperatures of the two thermocouple probes increased with each energy increment. At the same accumulated energy, the temperature of LA was much higher than that of RFA at the same point. The initial temperature increase at 0.5 cm of LA was rapid. The temperature reached 43 °C and the accumulated energy reached 1200 J after approximately 4 min. After that the temperature increased at a slower rate to 70  C. For the RFA at the point of 0.5 cm, the initial temperature increased rapidly to 30 °C with the same accumulated energy of 1200 J after only 1 min. In the range of 4800 J of accumulated thermal energy, only the temperature of LA at the point of 0.5 cm exceeded 60 °C when the energy reached approximately 3000 J. CONCLUSIONS: Both RFA and LA were shown to be reliable methods for myocardial ablation. The lesion outline and thermal field distribution of RFA and LA should be considered when performing thermal ablation in the intramyocardial septum during hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.

11.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1150, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793484

RESUMEN

Purpose: To retrospectively compare the treatment outcome of multiple-electrode switching-based radiofrequency ablation (switching RFA) and the conventional RFA for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: A total of 122 patients with single early-stage HCC ranging from 2.1 to 5.0 cm received ultrasonography-guided percutaneous RFA as the first-line treatment. Seventy-one patients underwent switching RFA, and 51 underwent conventional RFA. Tumor response, major complication, local tumor progression (LTP), and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two groups. Log-rank tests and Cox regression models were used for univariate and multivariate analyses to identify predictors of LTP and OS. Results: The rate of initial local complete response rates were 100% (71/71) in the switching RFA group and 98.0% (50/51) in the conventional RFA group (P > 0.05). No major complication occurred in the switching RFA group, whereas two in the conventional RFA group. After a median follow-up period of 45.9 months (range, 9.8-60.0 months), the rates of LTP in the switching RFA and conventional RFA groups were 19.7% (14/71) and 41.2% (21/51), respectively. The cumulative LTP rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 11.3, 20.5, and 20.5% for switching RFA and 17.6, 38.7, and 46.7% for conventional RFA, respectively (p < 0.001). Switching RFA was an independent factor associated with a lower LTP rate (p = 0.022). Five-year OS rates were 75.8% after switching RFA vs. 66.2% after conventional RFA (p = 0.363). Extrahepatic recurrence was a significant prognostic factor for OS in multivariable analysis. Conclusion: Compared with conventional RFA, switching RFA provides a high local tumor control for single early-stage HCC. An ongoing randomized trial might help to clarify the role of this approach for the treatment of HCC.

12.
Acad Radiol ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622746

RESUMEN

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To develop an ultrasomics model for preoperative pathological grading of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 235 HCCs were retrospectively enrolled, including 65 high-grade and 170 low-grade HCCs. Representative images of four-phase CEUS were selected from the baseline sonography, arterial, portal venous, and delayed phase images. Tumor ultrasomics features were automatically extracted using Ultrasomics-Platform software. Models were built via the classifier support vector machine, including an ultrasomics model using the ultrasomics features, a clinical model using the clinical factors, and a combined model using them both. Model performances were tested in the independent validation cohort considering efficiency and clinical usefulness. RESULTS: A total of 1502 features were extracted from each image. After the reproducibility test and dimensionality reduction, 25 ultrasomics features and 3 clinical factors were selected to build the models. In the validation cohort, the combined model showed the best predictive power, with an area under the curve value of 0.785 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.662-0.909), compared to the ultrasomics model of 0.720 (95% CI 0.576-0.864) and the clinical model of 0.665 (95% CI 0.537-0.793). Decision curve analysis suggested that the combined model was clinically useful, with a corresponding net benefit of 0.760 compared to the other two models. CONCLUSION: We presented an ultrasomics-clinical model based on multiphase CEUS imaging and clinical factors, which showed potential value for the preoperative discrimination of HCC pathological grades.

13.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(6): 102625, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668355

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance and malignancy risk stratification among guidelines set forth by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) in 2015, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), the American College of Endocrinology (ACE) and the Association Medici Endocrinologi (AME) in 2016, and the American College of Radiology (ACR) in 2017. METHODS: The retrospective study was approved by the hospital ethics committee, and the informed consent requirement was waived. From October 2015 to March 2016, a total of 230 patients with 230 consecutive thyroid nodules were enrolled in this study. Each nodule was classified by one junior and one senior radiologist separately according to ACR TI-RADS, AACE/ACE/AME and ATA guidelines. The malignancy diagnostic performance and the number of FNA recommendations were pairwise compared among three guidelines using chi-square tests. RESULTS: Of the 230 thyroid nodules, 137 were malignant, and 93 were benign. However, 19.6% of the nodules (45 of 230) did not match any pattern using the ATA guidelines but with a high risk of malignancy (68.9%). The ACR TI-RADS derived the highest diagnostic performance, from both junior radiologist (AUC 0.815) and senior radiologist (AUC 0.864). The ACR guidelines also showed the greatest level of sensitivity (junior: 86.1%, senior: 94.9%), compared with AACE/ACE/AME and ATA guidelines. The number of thyroid nodules recommended to fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was the lowest (37.8%, 40.4%) by ACR TI-RADS, and meanwhile, the malignant detection rate within these nodules was highest (64.4%, 68.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The ACR guidelines present a higher level of diagnostic indicators and may offer a meaningful reduction in FNA recommendations with a higher malignancy detection rate.

14.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 37(1): 592-599, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484012

RESUMEN

Objective: The study aimed to compare effectiveness and safety of thermal ablation and hepatic resection in patients with liver metastases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).Method: A total of 55 patients (27 in the ablation group and 28 in the surgery group) with liver metastases were included. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed with Kaplan-Meier's survival estimate curves. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were carried out to identify potential prognostic factors.Results: The median OS was 102.0 months in the ablation group and 117.0 months in the surgery group (p = .875). The 1-, 3- and 5-year OS rates were 100%, 88.9% and 74.1% in the ablation group and 92.8%, 82.1% and 78.6% in the surgery group, respectively. The 1-, 3- and 5-year PFS rates were 48.1%, 25.9% and 18.5% in the ablation group and 67.8%, 64.3% and 64.3% in the surgery group, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment (progressive disease, PD) (HR, 13.985; 95% CI, 1.791-109.187; p = .012) was the only significant independent prognostic factor for OS. Tumor number (HR, 1.318; 95% CI, 1.021-1.702; p = .034) was identified as an independent predictor for PFS in multivariate analysis. There were fewer postoperative complications (18.5% vs. 78.6%, p = .001) and shorter lengths of hospital stay (8.0 vs. 16.5 days, p = .001) in the ablation group.Conclusion: Compared with resection, thermal ablation offered comparable OS for liver metastases of GISTs. Furthermore, thermal ablation had the advantages of fewer complications and shorter lengths of hospital stay.

15.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2020 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564210

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Ultrasomics is a radiomics technique that extracts high-throughput quantitative data from ultrasound imaging. The aim of this study was to differentiate malignant from benign focal liver lesions (FLLs) using two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE)-based ultrasomics. METHODS: A total of 175 FLLs in 169 patients were prospectively analyzed. The study population was divided into a training cohort (n = 122) and a validation cohort (n = 53). The maxima, minima, mean, and standard deviation of 2D-SWE measurements were expressed in kilopascals (Emax, Emin, Emean, and ESD). The ultrasonics technique was used to extract the features from the 2D-SWE images. Support vector machine was used to establish two prediction models: the ultrasomics score (ultrasomics features only) and the combined score (SWE measurements and ultrasomics features). The diagnostic performance of the models in differentiating FLLs was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1044 features were extracted and 15 features were selected. The AUC for the combined score, ultrasomics score, Emax, Emean, Emin and ESD were 0.94, 0.91, 0.92, 0.89, 0.67, and 0.89, respectively. The combined score had the best diagnostic performance. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, +LR, LR of the combined score were 92.59%, 87.50%, 94.59%, 82.50%, 7.35%, and 0.09%, respectively. The decision curve analysis results showed that when the threshold probability was > 29%, the combined score showed improved benefits for patients compared to using the ultrasomics score and 2D-SWE measurements. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrated that the combined score had good diagnostic accuracy in differentiating malignant from benign FLLs.

16.
BMC Med Imaging ; 20(1): 46, 2020 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362278

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the urinary bladder is an uncommon malignant bladder tumor, and the overall prognosis is poor. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) provides a new effective modality for tumor detection and diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old man complained of repeated painless gross haematuria for half a month. Conventional ultrasound demonstrated a hypoechoic solitary lesion with hyperechoic margins measuring 3.4 × 3.1 cm in the anterior wall of the bladder. Superb microvascular imaging (SMI) showed a strong flow signal in the mass. CEUS revealed that the lesion was characterized by hyper-enhancement in the early phase and hypo-enhancement in the late phase. The entire bladder wall was disrupted by homogeneous hyper-enhanced tumor tissue on CEUS. Time-intensity curves (TICs) showed a rapid wash-in with a high maximum signal intensity (SI) and quick wash-out. Finally, partial cystectomy was performed and the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCNEC with invasion into the whole layer of the bladder wall. CONCLUSION: This case suggested that CEUS was a valuable imaging method to detect and diagnose LCNEC in the bladder, and that CEUS can provide information related to the depth of wall invasion and the microvasculature.

17.
Neurochem Res ; 45(8): 1902-1912, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415404

RESUMEN

Brain matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been recently implicated in alcohol addiction; however, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an extrasynaptic protease, is the best described MMP that is thought to regulate addictive behavior. In the present study, the effect of MMP-9 overexpression on hippocampal neuron plasticity and alcoholic behavior was assessed in spontaneous alcohol drinking mice. Two-bottle choice model showed that the overexpression of MMP-9 in the hippocampus developed by adeno-associated virus (AAV) could decrease alcohol consumption and preference, but did not affect taste preference, which was tested using saccharin or quinine solutions. Dendritic spines number of hippocampal neurons was observed by Golgi staining. Compared with the alcohol treatment group, the density of dendritic spines in the hippocampus of alcohol drinking mice was decreased in alcohol + MMP-9 group. Western blot analysis indicated that GluN1 expression in the hippocampus of alcohol drinking group was lower than that in the control group, while the expression of GluN1 was increased in MMP-9 overexpressing mice. MMP-9 also regulated the depolymerization of actin filaments, which induced behavioral changes in mice. Taken together, overexpression of MMP-9 in the hippocampal neurons of mice resulted in decreased dendritic spine density and F-actin/G-actin ratio, which might be the crucial reason for the significant decrease in alcohol consumption in alcohol drinking mice. MMP-9 might be considered as a novel target studying the molecular mechanism of alcohol drinking.

18.
J Cancer ; 11(13): 3903-3909, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328194

RESUMEN

Objectives: To assess the performance of elastography (ES) and ultrasound (US) in predicting the malignancy of breast lesions and to compare their combined diagnostic value with that of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: The study prospectively enrolled 242 female patients with dense breasts treated in 35 heath care facilities in China between November 2018 and October 2019. Based on conventional US and elastography, radiologists classified the degree of suspicion of breast lesions according to the US Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) criteria. The diagnostic value was compared between US BI-RADS and MRI BI-RADS, with pathological results used as the reference standard. Results: The results demonstrated that irregular tumor shape, a nonparallel growth orientation, indistinct margins, angular contours, microcalcifications, color Doppler flow and ES score on US imaging were significantly related to breast cancer in dense breasts (P=0.001; P=0.001; P=0.008; P<0.001; P=0.019; P=0.008; P=0.002, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, accuracy and AUC of US BI-RADS category were 94.7%, 90.7%, 95.8%, 88.0%, 93.4% and 0.93 (95%CI, 0.88-0.97), respectively, while those of MRI BI-RADS category were 98.2%, 57.5%, 84.3%, 83.3%, 86.0% and 0.78 (95%CI, 0.71-0.85), respectively. MRI BI-RADS showed a significantly higher sensitivity than US BI-RADS (98.2% vs 94.7%, P=0.043), whereas US BI-RADS showed significantly higher specificity (90.7% vs 57.5%, P<0.001). US BI-RADS showed better diagnostic efficiency in differentiating nodules in dense breasts than MRI BI-RADS (AUC 0.93 vs 0.78, P<0.001). Conclusion: By combining the use of ES and conventional US, US BI-RADS had better diagnostic efficiency in differentiating nodules in dense breasts than MRI. For the diagnosis of malignant tumors in patients with dense breasts, MRI and US BI-RADS can be used as supplemental diagnostic tools to detect lesions, with US BI-RADS considered the preferred adjunctive resource.

19.
Radiol Med ; 125(8): 697-705, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200455

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To test the technical reproducibility of acquisition and scanners of CT image-based radiomics model for early recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We included primary HCC patient undergone curative therapies, using early recurrence as endpoint. Four datasets were constructed: 109 images from hospital #1 for training (set 1: 1-mm image slice thickness), 47 images from hospital #1 for internal validation (sets 2 and 3: 1-mm and 10-mm image slice thicknesses, respectively), and 47 images from hospital #2 for external validation (set 4: vastly different from training dataset). A radiomics model was constructed. Radiomics technical reproducibility was measured by overfitting and calibration deviation in external validation dataset. The influence of slice thickness on reproducibility was evaluated in two internal validation datasets. RESULTS: Compared with set 1, the model in set 2 indicated favorable prediction efficiency (the area under the curve 0.79 vs. 0.80, P = 0.47) and good calibration (unreliability statistic U: P = 0.33). However, in set 4, significant overfitting (0.63 vs. 0.80, P < 0.01) and calibration deviation (U: P < 0.01) were observed. Similar poor performance was also observed in set 3 (0.56 vs. 0.80, P = 0.02; U: P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: CT-based radiomics has poor reproducibility between centers. Image heterogeneity, such as slice thickness, can be a significant influencing factor.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagen , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patología , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagen , Interpretación de Imagen Radiográfica Asistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/instrumentación , Adulto , Anciano , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores de Tumor/análisis , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirugía , Medios de Contraste , Femenino , Hepatectomía , Humanos , Yohexol/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirugía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo
20.
Front Chem ; 8: 1, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117862

RESUMEN

Supramolecular nanoparticles for photothermal therapy (PTT) have shown promising therapeutic efficacy in the primary tumor and great potential for turning the whole-body immune microenvironment from "cold" to "hot," which allows for the simultaneous treatment of the primary tumor and the metastatic site. In this work, we develop a liposome-based PTT nanoparticle through the self-assembly of FDA-approved intravenous injectable lipids and a photothermal agent, indocyanine green (ICG). The obtained ICG-liposome shows long-term storage stability, high ICG encapsulation efficiency (>95%), and enhanced near-infrared (NIR) light-triggered photothermal reaction both in vitro and in vivo. The ICG-liposome efficiently eradicated the primary tumor upon laser irradiation in two colon cancer animal models (CT26 and MC38) and promoted the infiltration of CD8 T cells to distant tumors. However, PTT from ICG-liposome shows only a minimal effect on the inhibition of distant tumor growth in long-term monitoring, predicting other immunosuppressive mechanisms that exist in the distant tumor. By immune-profiling of the tumor microenvironment, we find that the distant tumor growth after PTT highly correlates to compensatory upregulation of immune checkpoint biomarkers, including program death-1 (PD-1), T-cell immunoglobulin, and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3), in tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells. Based on this mechanism, we combine dual PD-1 and TIM-3 blockade with PTT in an MC38 tumor model. This combo successfully clears the primary tumor, generates a systemic immune response, and inhibits the growth of the distant tumor. The ICG-liposome-combined PD-1/TIM-3 blockade strategy sheds light on the future clinical use of supramolecular PTT for cancer immunotherapy.

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