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1.
Front Mol Biosci ; 11: 1252058, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584705

RESUMEN

The noninvasive detection technique using serum for large-scale screening is useful for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC). Herein, we employed liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to determine the serum proteome signatures and related pathways in individuals with gastric precancerous (pre-GC) lesions and GC and explore the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Differentially expressed proteins in GC and pre-GC compared with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG) group were identified. APOA4, a protein associated with metaplastic differentiation, and COMP, an extracellular matrix protein, were increased in the serum of patients with pre-GC lesions and GC. In addition, several inflammation-associated proteins, such as component C3, were decreased in the GC and pre-GC groups, which highlight a tendency for the inflammatory response to converge at the gastric lesion site during the GC cascade. Moreover, the abundance of proteins associated with oxidant detoxification was higher in the GC group compared with that in the NAG group, and these proteins were also increased in the serum of the H. pylori-positive GC group compared with that in the H. pylori-negative GC patients, reflecting the importance of oxidative stress pathways in H. pylori infection. Collectively, the findings of this study highlight pathways that play important roles in GC progression, and may provide potential diagnostic biomarkers for the detection of pre-GC lesions.

2.
J Genet Genomics ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575111

RESUMEN

The dysfunction of innate immunity components is one of the major drivers for ulcerative colitis (UC), and increasing reports indicate that gut microbiome serves as an intermediate between genetic mutations and UC development. Here, we find that the IL-17 receptor subunit, CMTM4, is reduced in UC patients and DSS-induced colitis. The deletion of CMTM4 (Cmtm4-/-) in mice leads to a higher susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis in comparison to wildtype, and the gut microbiome significantly changes in the composition. The causal role of gut microbiome is confirmed with co-housing experiment. We further identify that S100a8/9 is significantly up-regulated in Cmtm4-/- colitis, with the block of its receptor RAGE that reverses the phenotype associated with the CMTM4 deficiency. CMTM4 deficiency rather suppresses S100a8/9 expression in vitro via the IL17 pathway, further supporting that the elevation of S100a8/9 in vivo is most likely a result of microbial dysbiosis. Taken together, the results suggest that CMTM4 is involved in the maintenance of the intestinal homeostasis, suppression of S100a8/9, and prevention of the colitis development. Our study further shows CMTM4 as a crucial innate immunity component, confirming its important role in the UC development and providing insights into potential targets for development of future therapies.

3.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559024

RESUMEN

Bioluminescent indicators are power tools for studying dynamic biological processes. In this study, we present the generation of novel bioluminescent indicators by modifying the luciferin molecule with an analyte-binding moiety. Specifically, we have successfully developed the first bioluminescent indicator for potassium ions (K+), which are critical electrolytes in biological systems. Our approach involved the design and synthesis of a K+-binding luciferin named potassiorin. Additionally, we engineered a luciferase enzyme called BRIPO (bioluminescent red indicator for potassium) to work synergistically with potassiorin, resulting in optimized K+-dependent bioluminescence responses. Through extensive validation in cell lines, primary neurons, and live mice, we demonstrated the efficacy of this new tool for detecting K+. Our research demonstrates an innovative concept of incorporating sensory moieties into luciferins to modulate luciferase activity. This approach has great potential for developing a wide range of bioluminescent indicators, advancing bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and enabling the study of various analytes in biological systems.

4.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 38(12): e9755, 2024 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600731

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (AP-MALDI) mass spectrometry has enabled the untargeted analysis and imaging of neuropeptides and proteins in biological tissues under ambient conditions. Sensitivity in AP-MALDI can be improved by using sample-specific preparation methods. METHODS: A comprehensive and detailed optimization strategy including instrument parameters, matrix spraying and sample tissue washing pretreatment was implemented to enhance the sensitivity and coverage of neuropeptides in mouse pituitary tissues by commercial AP-MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). RESULTS: The sensitivity of a commercial AP-MALDI system for endogenous neuropeptides in mouse pituitary was enhanced by up to 15.2-fold by shortening the transmission gap from the sample plate to the inlet, attaching copper adhesive tape to an indium tin oxide-coated glass slide, optimizing the matrix spray solvent and using sample tissue washing pretreatment. Following careful optimization, the distributions of nine endogenous neuropeptides were successfully visualized in the pituitary. Furthermore, the quantitative capability of AP-MALDI for neuropeptides was evaluated and the concentrations of neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin in the pituitary posterior lobe were increased approximately twofold under hypertonic saline stress. CONCLUSION: Mouse pituitary neuropeptides have emerged as important signaling molecules due to their role in stress response. This work indicates the potential of modified AP-MALDI as a promising AP MSI method for in situ visualization and quantification of neuropeptides in complex biological tissues.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1354806, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601461

RESUMEN

Lung injury leads to respiratory dysfunction, low quality of life, and even life-threatening conditions. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are endogenous RNAs produced by selective RNA splicing. Studies have reported their involvement in the progression of lung injury. Understanding the roles of circRNAs in lung injury may aid in elucidating the underlying mechanisms and provide new therapeutic targets. Thus, in this review, we aimed to summarize and discuss the characteristics and biological functions of circRNAs, and their roles in lung injury from existing research, to provide a theoretical basis for the use of circRNAs as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for lung injury.

6.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1333519, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38463230

RESUMEN

Background: ALK-positive histiocytosis is an exceptionally rare neoplasm of histiocytes that predominantly involves the nervous system and can also affect the skin and other parts of the body. Previous relevant literature has provided limited information regarding the imaging manifestations of this disease with neurological involvement. Methods: We reported a case of ALK-positive histiocytosis with multisystem involvement. Together with a comprehensive literature review, the imaging characteristics of this disease in the nervous system were summarized. Results: A 3-year-old girl with abdominal pain and ambulation difficulty checked in at the Department of Pediatric Neurology. The initial diagnosis was "acute cerebellitis with ataxia" based on the elevated protein level in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, despite 3 months of treatment, her condition deteriorated. MRI showed an oval-shaped, intradural extramedullary nodule at the T6-T7 level. The patient was ultimately diagnosed as ALK-positive histiocytosis, accompanied by cauda equina and skin involvement. The literature review showed a total of 23 patients who had involvement of the nervous system and provided imaging descriptions. Together with our case, the imaging features were summarized as follows: iso-dense or slightly hyperdense on computed tomography (CT), isointense or iso-hypointense on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), moderate homogeneous enhancement with mildly/markedly punctate enhancement or/and smooth ring enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), restricted diffusion on diffuse weighted imaging (DWI), and elevated fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Conclusion: The multimodal imaging findings of ALK-positive histiocytosis exhibit distinct characteristics, familiarity with which will enhance radiologists' expertise and facilitate accurate diagnosis of this disease.

8.
Small ; : e2310031, 2024 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483041

RESUMEN

High efficient dispersant that meanwhile possesses additional functions is highly desirable for the fabrication of graphene-based composite. In this paper, a new reactive dispersant, multi-silanols grafted naphthalenediamine (MSiND), is synthesized, which shows superiority compared with conventional dispersants. It can not only stabilize graphene in water at a high concentration of up to 16 mg mL-1 , but also simultaneously be applicable for ethanol medium, in which the graphene concentration can be as high as 12 mg mL-1 at the weight ratio of 1:1 (MSiND:graphene). The dispersion is compatible with multi-matrixes and affinity to various substrates. In addition, MSiND exhibits excellent reactivity due to the existence of high-density silanol groups. Tough graphene coatings are constructed on glass slides and non-woven fabric simply by direct painting and dip-coating. Moreover, with the assistance of MSiND, graphene-doped phase-change coatings on hydrophobic non-woven fabric (e.g., functional mask) are prepared via the spray method. The composite coatings show enhanced mechanical strength and excellent energy storage performance, exhibiting great potential in heat preservation and thermotherapy.

9.
Curr Zool ; 70(1): 24-33, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38476130

RESUMEN

Endotherms recently expanding to cold environments generally exhibit strong physiological acclimation to sustain high body temperature. During this process, gut microbes likely play a considerable role in host physiological functions, including digestion and thermogenesis. The light-vented bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis represents one such species. It used to be restricted to the Oriental realm but expanded its distribution range north to the Palearctic areas during the past few decades. Here, we explored the seasonal dynamics of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and microbiota for local and newly colonized populations of the species. Our results showed that the mass-adjusted RMR and body mass were positively correlated with latitude variations in both seasons. Consistently, the gut microbiota showed a corresponding variation to the northern cold environments. In the two northern populations, the alpha diversity decreased compared with those of the two southern populations. Significant differences were detected in dominant phyla, such as Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Desulfobacterota in both seasons. The core microbiota showed geographic differences in the winter, including the elevated relative abundance of 5 species in northern populations. Finally, to explore the link between microbial communities and host metabolic thermogenesis, we conducted a correlation analysis between microbiota and mass-adjusted RMR. We found that more genera were significantly correlated with mass-adjusted RMR in the wintering season compared to the breeding season (71 vs. 23). These results suggest that microbiota of the lighted-vented bulbul linked with thermogenesis in diversity and abundance under northward expansion.

10.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2024 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526213

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: An optimal follow-up schedule for small (≤3 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) remains unclear in clinical guidelines. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of follow-up strategies in patients with small HCC after RFA. METHODS: In total, 11,243 patients were collected from global institutions to calculate recurrence rates. Subsequently, a Markov model covering a 10-year period was developed to compare 25 surveillance strategies involving different surveillance techniques (computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography [US] and alpha-fetoprotein [AFP]) and intervals (3 or 6 months). The study endpoint was incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which represented additional cost per incremental quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Sensitivity analysis was conducted by varying the values of input parameters to observe the ICER. RESULTS: In a base case analysis, the dominant strategy was CT every three months during an initial two years, followed by semi-annual CT, and then switch to biannual the combination of US screening and AFP testing after five years (m3_CT-m6_CT-m6_USAFP), with an ICER of $68,570.92 compared to the "not followed" strategy. One-way sensitivity analysis showed the ICER consistently remained below the willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $100,000.00. In a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, m3_CT-m6_CT-m6_USAFP was the most cost-effective approach in 95.6% of simulated scenarios at a WTP threshold. CONCLUSIONS: For small HCC after RFA, the recommended follow-up strategy is CT, with scans scheduled every three months for the first two years, every six months thereafter, and transition to biannual the combination of US screening and AFP testing after five years.

11.
Neurol Sci ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532189

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) exhibited significant clinical heterogeneities. However, the clinical features, radiographic changes, and prognosis of patients with encephalitis-like NIID have yet to be systematically elucidated. METHODS: Clinical data including medical history, physical examination, and laboratory examinations were collected and analyzed. Skin and sural nerve biopsies were conducted on the patient. Repeat-primed PCR (RP-PCR) and fluorescence amplicon length PCR (AL-PCR) were used to detect the expansion of CGG repeat. We also reviewed the clinical and genetic data of NIID patients with cortical enhancement. RESULTS: A 54-year-old woman presented with encephalitis-like NIID, characterized by severe headache and agitative psychiatric symptoms. The brain MRI showed cortical swelling in the temporo-occipital lobes and significant enhancement of the cortical surface and dura, but without hyperintensities along the corticomedullary junction on diffusion-weighted image (DWI). A biopsy of the sural nerve revealed a demyelinating pathological change. The intranuclear inclusions were detected in nerve and skin tissues using the p62 antibody and electron microscopy. RP-PCR and AL-PCR unveiled the pathogenic expansion of CGG repeats in the NOTCH2NLC gene. A review of the literature indicated that nine out of the 16 patients with cortical lesions and linear enhancement exhibited encephalitis-like NIID. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that patients with encephalitis-like NIID typically exhibited headache and excitatory psychiatric symptoms, often accompanied by cortical edema and enhancement of posterior lobes, and responded well to glucocorticoid treatment. Furthermore, some patients may not exhibit hyperintensities along the corticomedullary junction on DWI, potentially leading to misdiagnosis.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1339422, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516015

RESUMEN

Objective: In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the intestinal microbiota of preterm infants, and then analyzed the effects of probiotics supplementation on intestinal microbiota in preterm infants. Methods: This study enrolled 64 infants born between 26 and 32 weeks gestational age (GA) and 22 full-term infants. 34 premature infants received oral probiotic supplementation for 28 days. Stool samples were obtained on the first day (D1) and the 28th day (D28) after birth for each infant. Total bacterial DNA was extracted and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq Sequencing System, specifically targeting the V3-V4 hyper-variable regions of the 16S rDNA gene. The sequencing results were then used to compare and analyze the composition and diversity index of the intestinal microbiota. Results: There was no significant difference in meconium bacterial colonization rate between premature and full-term infants after birth (p > 0.05). At D1, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus in the stool of preterm infants was lower than that of full-term infants, and the relative abundance of Acinetobacter was higher than that of full-term infants. The Shannon index and Chao1 index of intestinal microbiota in preterm infants are lower than those in full-term infants (p < 0.05). Supplementation of probiotics can increase the relative abundance of Enterococcus and Enterobacter, and reduce the relative abundance of Escherichia and Clostridium in premature infants. The Chao1 index of intestinal microbiota decreased in preterm infants after probiotic supplementation (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The characteristics of intestinal microbiota in preterm infants differ from those in full-term infants. Probiotic supplementation can reduce the relative abundance of potential pathogenic bacteria and increase the abundance of beneficial microbiota in premature infants.

13.
Anal Chem ; 96(14): 5489-5498, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527864

RESUMEN

Laser-based high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging at ambient conditions has promising applications in life science. However, the ion yield during laser desorption/ablation is poor. Here, transmission atmospheric pressure laser desorption ionization combined with a compact postphotoionization (t-AP-LDI/PI) assembly with a krypton discharge lamp was developed for the untargeted imaging of various biomolecules. The spatial distributions of numerous lipid classes, fatty acids, neurotransmitters, and amino acids in the subregions of mouse cerebellum tissue were obtained. Compared with single laser ablation, the sensitivities for most analytes were increased by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude by dopant-assisted postphotoionization. After careful optimization, a spatial resolution of 4 µm could be achieved for the metabolites in mouse hippocampus tissue. Finally, the melanoma tissue slices were analyzed using t-AP-LDI/PI MSI, which revealed the metabolic heterogeneity of the melanoma microenvironment and exhibited the phenomenon of abnormal proliferation and invasion trends in tumor cells.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Animales , Ratones , Espectrometría de Masas , Espectrofotometría , Imagen Molecular , Rayos Láser , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral
14.
Ophthalmol Ther ; 2024 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441856

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to quantitatively assess diffuse chorioretinal atrophy (DCA) in pathologic myopia and establish a standardized classification system utilizing artificial intelligence. METHODS: A total of 202 patients underwent comprehensive examinations, and 338 eyes were included in the study. The methodology involved image preprocessing, sample labeling, employing deep learning segmentation models, measuring and calculating the area and density of DCA lesions. Lesion severity of DCA was graded using statistical methods, and grades were assigned to describe the morphology of corresponding fundus photographs. Hierarchical clustering was employed to categorize diffuse atrophy fundus into three groups based on the area and density of diffuse atrophy (G1, G2, G3), while high myopic fundus without diffuse atrophy was designated as G0. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric tests were conducted to assess the statistical association with different grades of DCA. RESULTS: On the basis of the area and density of DCA, the condition was classified into four grades: G0, G1 (0 < density ≤ 0.093), G2 (0.093 < density ≤ 0.245), and G3 (0.245 < density ≤ 0.712). Fundus photographs depicted a progressive enlargement of atrophic lesions, evolving from punctate-shaped to patchy with indistinct boundaries. DCA atrophy lesions exhibited a gradual shift in color from brown-yellow to yellow-white, originating from the temporal side of the optic disc and extending towards the macula, with severe cases exhibiting widespread distribution throughout the posterior pole. Patients with DCA were significantly older [34.00 (27.00, 48.00) vs 29.00 (26.00, 34.00) years], possessed a longer axial length (28.85 ± 1.57 vs 27.11 ± 1.01 mm), and exhibited a more myopic spherical equivalent [- 13.00 (- 16.00, - 10.50) vs - 9.09 ± 2.41 D] compared to those without DCA (G0) (all P < 0.001). In eyes with DCA, a trend emerged as grades increased from G1 to G3, showing associations with older age, longer axial length, deeper myopic spherical equivalent, larger area of parapapillary atrophy, and increased fundus tessellated density (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The novel grading system for DCA, based on assessments of area and density, serves as a reliable measure for evaluating the severity of this condition, making it suitable for widespread application in the screening of pathologic myopia.

15.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2024 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553639

RESUMEN

This comprehensive review explores the intricate mechanisms of PANoptosis and its implications in cancer. PANoptosis, a convergence of apoptosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis, plays a crucial role in cell death and immune response regulation. The study delves into the molecular pathways of each cell death mechanism and their crosstalk within PANoptosis, emphasizing the shared components like caspases and the PANoptosome complex. It highlights the significant role of PANoptosis in various cancers, including respiratory, digestive, genitourinary, gliomas, and breast cancers, showing its impact on tumorigenesis and patient survival rates. We further discuss the interwoven relationship between PANoptosis and the tumor microenvironment (TME), illustrating how PANoptosis influences immune cell behavior and tumor progression. It underscores the dynamic interplay between tumors and their microenvironments, focusing on the roles of different immune cells and their interactions with cancer cells. Moreover, the review presents new breakthroughs in cancer therapy, emphasizing the potential of targeting PANoptosis to enhance anti-tumor immunity. It outlines various strategies to manipulate PANoptosis pathways for therapeutic purposes, such as targeting key signaling molecules like caspases, NLRP3, RIPK1, and RIPK3. The potential of novel treatments like immunogenic PANoptosis-initiated therapies and nanoparticle-based strategies is also explored.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439593

RESUMEN

Biallelic mutations in the coenzyme Q7 (COQ7) encoding gene were recently identified as a genetic cause of distal hereditary motor neuropathy. Here, we explored the clinical, electrophysiological, pathological, and genetic characteristics of a Chinese patient with spastic paraplegia associated with recessive variants in COQ7. This patient carried a novel c.322C>A (p.Pro108Thr) homozygous variant. Sural biopsy revealed mild mixed axonal and demyelinating degeneration. Immunoblotting showed a significant decrease in the COQ7 protein level in the patient's fibroblasts. This study confirmed that COQ7 variant as a genetic cause of HSP, and further extended spastic paraplegia to the phenotypic spectrum of COQ7-related disorders.

17.
J Hepatol ; 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460791

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: NOTCH signaling in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) regulates liver fibrosis, a pathological feature of chronic liver diseases. POFUT1 is an essential regulator of NOTCH signaling. Here, we investigated the role of LSECs-expressed POFUT1 in liver fibrosis. METHODS: Endothelial-specific Pofut1 knockout mice were generated and subjected to experimental liver fibrosis by chronic carbon tetrachloride exposure or by common bile duct ligation. Liver samples were assessed by ELISA, histology, electron microscopy, immunostaining and RNA in situ hybridization. LSECs and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were isolated for gene expression analysis by RNA-seq, qPCR, and Western blotting. Signaling crosstalk between LSECs and HSCs was investigated by treating HSCs with supernatant from LSECs cultures. Liver single-cell RNA-seq data sets from cirrhotic patients and healthy individuals were analyzed to evaluate the clinical relevance of gene expression changes observed in mouse studies. RESULTS: POFUT1 loss promoted injury-induced LSECs capillarization and HSC activation, leading to aggravated liver fibrosis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that POFUT1 deficiency upregulated fibrinogen expression in LSECs. Consistently, fibrinogen was elevated in LSECs of cirrhotic patients. HSCs treated with supernatant from LSECs of Pofut1 null mice showed exacerbated activation compared to treatment with supernatant from control LSECs, and this effect was attenuated by knockdown of fibrinogen or by pharmacological inhibition of fibrinogen receptor signaling, altogether suggesting that LSEC-derived fibrinogen induced the activation of HSCs. Mechanistically, POFUT1 loss augmented fibrinogen expression by enhancing NOTCH/HES1/STAT3 signaling. CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial POFUT1 prevents injury-induced liver fibrosis by repressing the expression of fibrinogen which function as a profibrotic paracrine signal to activate HSCs. Therapies targeting the POFUT1/NOTCH/HES1/STAT3/fibrinogen axis offer a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of fibrotic liver diseases.

18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 263(Pt 1): 130316, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382778

RESUMEN

Natural resistant starch (RS) in rice provides human health benefits, and its concentration in rice is influenced by the structure and physicochemical properties of starch. The native starch structures and physicochemical properties of three rice varieties, QR, BR58, and BR50, and their relationships to in vitro digestibility were studied. The starch granules in all three varieties were irregular or polyhedral in shape. There were a few oval granules and a few pinhole structures in QR, no oval granules but a higher number of pinholes in BR58, and no oval granules and pinholes in BR50. QR is a low-amylose (13.8 %), low-RS (0.2 %) variety. BR58 is a low-amylose (15.3 %), high-RS (6.5 %) variety. BR50 is a high-amylose (26.7 %), high-RS (8.3 %) variety. All three starches exhibited typical A-type diffraction patterns. Starch molecular weight, chain length distribution, starch branching degree, pasting capabilities, and thermal properties differed considerably between the rice starches. The RS contents of the rice starch varieties were positively correlated with AAC, Mw/Mn, Mz/Mn, peak 3, B, PTime, and Tp and negatively correlated with Mn, peak 2, DB, PV, and BD, according to Pearson's correlation analysis. These findings may be helpful for the breeding and development of high-RS rice varieties.


Asunto(s)
Oryza , Almidón , Humanos , Almidón/química , Amilosa/química , Oryza/química , Fitomejoramiento , Peso Molecular , Almidón Resistente , Viscosidad
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 272: 116067, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325270

RESUMEN

In order to comprehend the underlying mechanisms contributing to the development and exacerbation of asthma resulting from exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), we established an asthmatic model in fat mass and obesity-associated gene knockdown mice subjected to PM2.5 exposure. Histological analyses using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining revealed that the down-regulation of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (Fto) expression significantly ameliorated the pathophysiological alterations observed in asthmatic mice exposed to PM2.5. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Fto gene expression effectively attenuated damage to the airway epithelial barrier. Additionally, employing in vivo and in vitro models, we elucidated that PM2.5 modulated FTO expression by inducing oxidative stress. Asthmatic mice exposed to PM2.5 exhibited elevated Fto expression, which correlated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Similarly, when cells were exposed to PM2.5, FTO expression was up-regulated in a ROS-dependent manner. Notably, the administration of N-acetyl cysteine successfully reversed the PM2.5-induced elevation in FTO expression. Concurrently, we performed transcriptome-wide Methylated RNA immunoprecipitation Sequencing (MeRIP-seq) analysis subsequent to PM2.5 exposure. Through the implementation of Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and m6A-IP-qPCR, we successfully identified inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta (IKBKB) as a target gene regulated by FTO. Interestingly, exposure to PM2.5 led to increased expression of IKBKB, while m6A modification on IKBKB mRNA was reduced. Furthermore, our investigation revealed that PM2.5 also regulated IKBKB through oxidative stress. Significantly, the down-regulation of IKBKB effectively mitigated epithelial barrier damage in cells exposed to PM2.5 by modulating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Importantly, we discovered that decreased m6A modification on IKBKB mRNA facilitated by FTO enhanced its stability, consequently resulting in up-regulation of IKBKB expression. Collectively, our findings propose a novel role for FTO in the regulation of IKBKB through m6A-dependent mRNA stability in the context of PM2.5-induced oxidative stress. Therefore, it is conceivable that the utilization of antioxidants or inhibition of FTO could represent potential therapeutic strategies for the management of asthma exacerbated by PM2.5 exposure.


Asunto(s)
Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato , Asma , Quinasa I-kappa B , Animales , Ratones , Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Asma/inducido químicamente , Asma/genética , Quinasa I-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidad , Estrés Oxidativo/genética , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Estabilidad del ARN , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo
20.
Cell Metab ; 36(2): 408-421.e5, 2024 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325336

RESUMEN

Statins are currently the most common cholesterol-lowering drug, but the underlying mechanism of statin-induced hyperglycemia is unclear. To investigate whether the gut microbiome and its metabolites contribute to statin-associated glucose intolerance, we recruited 30 patients with atorvastatin and 10 controls, followed up for 16 weeks, and found a decreased abundance of the genus Clostridium in feces and altered serum and fecal bile acid profiles among patients with atorvastatin therapy. Animal experiments validated that statin could induce glucose intolerance, and transplantation of Clostridium sp. and supplementation of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) could ameliorate statin-induced glucose intolerance. Furthermore, oral UDCA administration in humans alleviated the glucose intolerance without impairing the lipid-lowering effect. Our study demonstrated that the statin-induced hyperglycemic effect was attributed to the Clostridium sp.-bile acids axis and provided important insights into adjuvant therapy of UDCA to lower the adverse risk of statin therapy.


Asunto(s)
Intolerancia a la Glucosa , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas , Resistencia a la Insulina , Microbiota , Humanos , Animales , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/farmacología , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/uso terapéutico , Atorvastatina/farmacología , Atorvastatina/uso terapéutico , Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón , Intolerancia a la Glucosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Ácidos y Sales Biliares , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/farmacología , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/uso terapéutico
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