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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 221-232, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237303

##### RESUMEN

Along with the striding of the Chinese medicine(CM) manufacturing toward the Industry 4.0, some digital factories have accumulated lightweight industrial big data, which become part of the enterprise assets. These digital assets possess the possibility of solving the problems within the CM production system, like the Sigma gap and the poverty of manufacturing knowledge. From the holistic perspective, a three-tiered architecture of CM industrial big data is put forward, and it consists of the data integration layer, the data analysis layer and the application scenarios layer. In data integration layer, sensing of CM critical quality attributes is the key technology for big data collection. In data analysis and mining layer, the self-developed iTCM algorithm library and model library are introduced to facilitate the implementation of the model lifecycle methodologies, including process model development, model validation, model configuration and model maintenance. The CM quality transfer structure is closely related with the connection mode of multiple production units. The system modeling technologies, such as the partition-integration modeling method, the expanding modeling method and path modeling method, are key to mapping the structure of real manufacturing system. It is pointed out that advance modeling approaches that combine the first-principles driven and data driven technologies are promising in the future. At last, real-world applications of CM industrial big data in manufacturing of injections, oral solid dosages, and formula particles are presented. It is shown that the industrial big data can help process diagnosis, quality forming mechanism interpretations, real time release testing method development and intelligent product formulation design. As renewable resources, the CM industrial big data enable the manufacturing knowledge accumulation and product quality improvement, laying the foundation of intelligent manufacturing.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 233-241, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237304

##### RESUMEN

Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Artemisiae Annuae Herba(LA or Jinqing) alcohol precipitation has various process parameters and complex process mechanism, and is one of the key units for manufacturing Reduning Injection. In order to identify the critical process parameters(CPPs) affecting the weight of the extract produced from the alcohol precipitation process, 259 batches of historical production data from 2017 to 2018 were collected, with a total of 829 318 data points. These data showed characteristics of large data, such as a large data volume, a low value density, and diverse sources. The data cleaning and feature extraction were first performed, and 48 feature variables were selected. The original data points were reduced to 9 936. Then, a combination of Pearson correlation analysis and grey correlation analysis were used to screen out 15 potential critical process parameters(pCPPs). After that, the partial least squares(PLS) was used in prediction of the weight of the extract, proving that the performance of predictive model based on 15 pCMAs is equivalent to that of predictive model based on 48 feature variables. The variable importance in projection(VIP) index was used to identify 9 CPPs, including 2 alcohol precipitation supernatant volume parameters, 4 initial extract weight parameters and 3 added alcohol volume parameters. As a result, the number of data points was 1 863, accounting for 0.28% of the original data. The big data analysis approach from a holistic point of view can effectively increase the value density of the original data. The critical process parameters obtained can help to accurately describe the quality transfer mechanism of the Jinqing alcohol precipitation process.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 242-249, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237305

##### RESUMEN

To control the risks of powder caking and capsule shell embrittlement of Guizhi Fuling Capsules, a predictive model for hygroscopicity of contents in Guizhi Fuling Capsules was built. A total of 90 batches of samples, including raw materials, intermediate powders and capsules, were collected during the manufacturing of Guizhi Fuling Capsules. According to the production sequence, 47 batches were used as the calibration set, and the properties of raw materials and the four intermediate powders were comprehensively characterized by the physical fingerprint. Then, the partial least squares(PLS) model was developed with the content hygroscopicity as the response variable. The variable importance in projection(VIP), variance inflation factor(VIF) and regression coefficients were used to screen out potential critical material attributes(pCMAs). As a result, five pCMAs from 54 physical parameters were screened out. Furthermore, different models were built by different combinations of pCMAs, and their predictive robustness of 43 batches was evaluated on the basis of the validation set. Finally, the tap density(D_c) of wet granules obtained from wet granulation and the angle of repose(α) of raw materials were identified as the critical material attributes(CMAs) affecting the hygroscopicity of the contents of Guizhi Fuling Capsules. The prediction model established with the two CMAs as independent variables had an average relative prediction error of 2.68% for samples in the validation set, indicating a good accuracy of prediction. This paper proved the feasibility of predictive modeling toward the control of critical quality attributes of Chinese medicine oral solid dosage(OSD). The combination of the continuous quality improvement, the industrial big data and the process modeling technique paved the way for the intelligent manufacturing of Chinese medicine oral solid preparations.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 250-258, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237306

##### RESUMEN

In this paper, a real time release testing(RTRT) model for predicting the disintegration time of Tianshu tablets was established on the basis of the concept of quality by design(QbD), in order to improve the quality controllability of the production process. First, 49 batches of raw materials and intermediates were collected. Afterwards, the physical quality attributes of all materials were comprehensively characterized. The partial least square(PLS) regression model was established with the 72 physical quality attributes of raw materials and intermediates as input and the disintegration time(DT) of uncoated tablets as output. Then, the variable screening was carried out based on the variable importance in the projection(VIP) indexes. Moisture content of raw materials(%HR), tapped density of wet masses(D_c), hygroscopicity of dry granules(%H), moisture content of milling granules(%HR) and Carr's index of mixed granules(IC) were determined as the potential critical material attributes(pCMAs). According to the effects of interactions of pCMAs on the performance of the prediction model, it was finally determined that the wet masses' D_c and the dry granules'%H were critical material attributes(CMAs). A RTRT model of the disintegration time prediction was established as DT=34.09+2×D_c+3.59×%H-5.29×%H×D_c,with R~2 equaling to 0.901 7 and the adjusted R~2 equaling to 0.893 3. The average relative prediction error of validation set for the RTRT model was 3.69%. The control limits of the CMAs were determined as 0.55 g·cm~(-3)<D_c<0.63 g·cm~(-3) and 4.77<%H<7.59 according to the design space. The RTRT model of the disintegration time reflects the understanding of the process system, and lays a foundation for the implementation of intelligent control strategy of the key process of Tianshu Tablets.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 259-266, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237307

##### RESUMEN

In this paper, the inline turbidity sensor technology was used to quantify the turbidity of the solution during the dissolution of Chinese medicine granules. The probe measurement position and the magnetic stirring speed were optimized. As a result, the stirring speed was 400 r·min~(-1), and the probe position was at 1/4 of the diameter of the beaker. The measurement results were accurate and reliable. Totally 105 batches of commercially available Chinese medicine granules were collected and dissolved according to the requirements of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. At the time point of 5 min, 57 batches of granules were completely dissolved, and the corresponding turbidity values ranged between 0-70 FTU; 32 batches of granules showed a slight turbidity, and the corresponding turbidity values ranged between 70-350 FTU; 14 batches of granule solution were turbid, and the corresponding turbidity values ranged between 350-2 000 FTU; two batches of granule solution were heavily turbid, and the corresponding turbidity values were >2 000 FTU. Among the above results, the number of batches in line with the pharmacopoeia dissolution requirement was 84.76%, and the dissolution of some granules still needed to be improved. The turbidity sensor recorded the change curve of turbidity value over time(solubility behavior curve). The degree of important of disintegration and dissolution during the dissolution process showed disintegration > dissolution, disintegration≈dissolution, disintegration < dissolution. The dissolution behavior of the granules can be classified into three categories. The analysis of the mechanism in the process of granule solubility provides a basis for product process improvement.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 267-273, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237308

##### RESUMEN

In this study, the texture analyzer acupuncture pressure sensor was used to objectively characterize the "herb soaking with exact amount of water" for moistening process of ginseng. The single factor rotation experiment was used to investigate the effects of puncture speed, puncture depth and puncture site on puncture force and work. According to ginseng processing method in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, ginseng medicinal materials with diameters of about 1 cm and 2 cm were selected, and puncture experiments were carried out at the set measurement time to determine the hardness, work and water absorption of the ginseng moistening process. The endpoint threshold for the ginseng softening process was determined and verified. To reflect the actual internal conditions of the ginseng softening process, the puncture depth was preferably 70%, and the puncture speed was 30 mm·min~(-1). In the ginseng moistening process, the softening hardness and the puncture work were in accordance with the first-order kinetic equation y=a×exp(-k×x). The 0 h initial hardness a of 1 cm and 2 cm ginseng herbs were 289.8 N and 1 227 N, and the rate constants K were 0.149 4 N·h~(-1) and 0.100 7 N·h~(-1), respectively. After the ginseng was completely softened, the force required for puncture was 10 N, which can be used as the standard for "drug penetration". At this time, the water absorption rate of ginseng was 70%-100%. The softening time of ginseng with a diameter of 1 cm was about 20-22 h, and the softening time of ginseng with a diameter of 2 cm was about 40-46 h. A needle-type pressure sensor was used to accurately determine the end point of the softening process of ginseng and reduce the loss of active ingredients. The study results provide reference for the softening process kinetics and the process intelligent monitoring of other dried roots and rhizomes.

7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 274-284, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237309

##### RESUMEN

In this paper, five representative Chinese herbal decoction pieces of Scutellariae Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, vinegar-processed Corydalis Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos were selected to prepare the corresponding fine powder of pieces, extract powder, semi-extract powder and physical mixed powder. The physical properties of 20 kinds of powders, such as related parameters of particle size, density, stability and flowability, were evaluated comprehensively. The compression curves of powder porosity and tensile strength changing with pressure were plotted, and the Heckel equation and the Kawakita equation were used to describe the powder compression behavior. The results showed that compared with the fine powder of pieces, the compressibility of the semi-extract powder and the extract powder was significantly improved. Compared with the extract powder, the particle size and relative uniformity of the semi-extract powder were increased, indicating that the uniformity of the powder was improved. Besides, the semi-extract powder could reduce the hygroscopicity of the powder. Particularly, the semi-extract powder of Scutellariae Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba and vinegar-processed Corydalis Rhizoma could maintain the porous structure of the tablet even under a high tableting pressure, which was beneficial to tablet disintegration. For some traditional Chinese medicines(such as Lonicerae Japonicae Flos), the semi-extract powder could reduce the viscosity, which avoided the sticking in the die compression. The semi-extract powder and the physical mixture powder prepared by the same Chinese herbal decoction pieces had similar physical properties and compression behaviors. Principal component analysis(PCA) was carried out on the 17 physical attributes and 5 compression parameters of the powder. It was found that the first principal component mainly reflected the differences among the material sources, while the second principal component could reflect the differences among fine powder of pieces, extract powder, semi-extract powder and physical mixed powder originating from the same Chinese herbal decoction pieces. In this paper, the mechanism of "unification of drugs and excipients" of Chinese medicine semi-extract powder was explained in terms of physical properties and compression behavior of powders, which provided reference for the formulation design and process development of Chinese medicine tablets.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208611

##### RESUMEN

Manipulating gas bubbles in aqueous ambient is of great importance for applications in water treatment, gas collection, and matter transport. Here, a kind of Janus foam is designed and fabricated by one-step ultrafast laser ablation of one side of the copper film, which is treated to be superhydrophobic. Janus foam exhibits not only the capability of unidirectional transport of underwater bubbles but also gas collection with favorable efficiency up to â¼15 mL cm-2 min-1. The underlying physical mechanism is attributed to the cooperation of the buoyancy, adhesion, and wetting gradient forces imposed on the bubbles. As a paradigm, the underwater chemical reaction between the unidirectional CO2 gas flow and the alkaline phenolphthalein solution is demonstrated via Janus foam. This facile and low-cost fabrication approach for Janus foam will find broad potential applications in effective bubble transport, carbon capture, and controllable chemical reactions under aqueous conditions.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119754

##### RESUMEN

Presently, little is known of how the inter-organelle crosstalk impacts cancer cells owing to the lack of approaches that can manipulate inter-organelle communication in cancer cells. We found that a negatively charged, enzyme cleavable peptide (MitoFlag) enables the trafficking of histone protein H2B, a nuclear protein, to the mitochondria in cancer cells. MitoFlag interacts with the nuclear location sequence of H2B to block it from entering the nucleus. A protease on the mitochondria cleaves the Flag from the MitoFlag/H2B complex to form assemblies that retain H2B on the mitochondria and facilitate H2B entering the mitochondria. Adding NLS, replacing aspartic acid by glutamic acid residues, or changing the l- to d-aspartic acid residue on MitoFlag abolishes the trafficking of H2B into mitochondria of HeLa cells. As the first example of the enzyme-instructed self-assembly of a synthetic peptide for trafficking endogenous proteins, this work provides insights for understanding and manipulating inter-organelle communication in cells.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198676

##### RESUMEN

Simulated microgravity can significantly affect various cell types and multiple systems of the human body, such as cardiovascular system, skeletal muscle system, and immune system, and is known to cause anemia and loss of electrolyte and fluids. Epidermal stem cells (EpSCs) were cultured in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) bioreactor to simulate microgravity. The metabolites of EpSCs were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Compared with normal gravity (NG) group, a total of 57 different metabolites of EpSCs were identified (P < 0.05, VIP > 1), including lipids and lipid-like molecules (51 molecules), amino acids (5 molecules), nucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues (1 molecule). According to the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) score plot, a VIP > 1 and P < 0.05 were obtained for the 57 different metabolites, of which 23 molecules were significantly downregulated and 34 were significantly upregulated in simulated microgravity (SMG) group. These results showed that SMG has a significant impact on different pathways, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis indicated that multiple pathways were involved, mainly the amino acid metabolism pathway, lipid metabolism pathway, membrane transport pathway, and cell growth and death pathways. Thus, the metabolic profile of EpSCs was changed under SMG. Exploring the metabolic profile of EpSCs would be helpful to further understand the growth characteristics of EpSCs under SMG, which will provide a new approach to explore the metabolomics mechanism of stress injury and repair trauma under SMG.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181461

##### RESUMEN

Catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to value-added chemicals under mild conditions is highly desired, albeit with significant challenges. Here, in terms of exposure of abundant active sites and excellent photo-to-thermal conversion properties, flower-like Co2C has been firstly used for effectively catalysing the cycloaddition of CO2 with epoxides to produce cyclic carbonates with yields of up to 95% under solar light. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that Lewis acid sites of the surface Co atoms can activate both CO2 and epoxide, thus opening up the possibility of a CO2-epoxide cycloaddition reaction.

12.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 21, 2020 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183871

##### RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B cell malignancy that can be aggressive and with a poor prognosis; the clinical course is heterogeneous. The epidemiology of MCL in Asia is not well documented but appears to comprise 2-6% of all lymphoma cases based on available data, with variation observed between countries. Although international guidelines are available for the treatment of MCL, there is a lack of published data or guidance on the clinical characteristics and management of MCL in patient populations from Asia. This paper aims to review the available treatment and, where clinical gaps exist, provide expert consensus from the Asian Lymphoma Study Group (ALSG) on appropriate MCL management in Asia. BODY: Management strategies for MCL are patient- and disease stage-specific and aim to achieve balance between efficacy outcomes and toxicity. For asymptomatic patients with clearly indolent disease, observation may be an appropriate strategy. For stage I/II disease, following international guidelines is appropriate, which include either a short course of conventional chemotherapy followed by consolidated radiotherapy, less aggressive chemotherapy regimens, or a combination of these approaches. For advanced disease, the approach is based on the age and fitness of the patient. For young, fit patients, the current practice for induction therapy differs across Asia, with cytarabine having an important role in this setting. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may be justified in selected patients because of the high relapse risk. In elderly patients, specific chemoimmunotherapy regimens available in each country/region are a treatment option. For maintenance therapy after first-line treatment, the choice of approach should be individualized, with cost being an important consideration within Asia. For relapsed/refractory disease, ibrutinib should be considered as well as other follow-on compounds, if available. CONCLUSION: Asian patient-specific data for the treatment of MCL are lacking, and the availability of treatment options differs between country/region within Asia. Therefore, there is no clear one-size-fits-all approach and further investigation on the most appropriate sequence of treatment that should be considered for this heterogeneous disease.

13.
Exp Cell Res ; : 111934, 2020 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126236

##### RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Vascular permeability contributes to disease progression and drug resistance in hematological malignancies, including AML. Thus, targeting angiogenic signaling is a promising treatment strategy, especially for relapsed and resistant AML. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of apatinib, a novel receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively targets VEGFR2. METHODS: Several AML cell lines were exposed to various concentrations of apatinib, and then CCK8 and Annexin V/PI assays were performed to determine IC50 values and apoptosis, respectively. The effect of apatinib against primary AML cells from 57 adult patients and 11 normal controls was also analyzed utilizing an apoptosis assay. Next, we tested the underlying mechanism of apatinib in AML using western blotting and mass cytometry (CyTOF). Finally, the activity of apatinib against tumor growth and angiogenesis was further evaluated in vivo in xenograft models. RESULTS: We found apatinib signiï¬cantly inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis in AML cell lines in vitro. Similarly, apatinib showed cytotoxicity against primary AML cells but didn't affect normal BMMCs. Its effect was highly correlated with several clinical features, such as NPM1 mutation, extramedullary infiltration, relapsed/refractory disease, and M2 and M5 FAB subtypes. In addition, apatinib suppressed AML growth and attenuated angiogenesis in xenograft models. Mechanistically, apatinib-induced cytotoxicity was closely associated with inhibition of the VEGFR2-mediated Src/STAT3 and AKT/mTOR pathways and induction of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Apatinib exerts antileukemia effects by targeting VEGFR2-induced prosurvival signaling and angiogenesis, thus providing a rationale for the application of apatinib in AML.

14.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 20(1): 79, 2020 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111177

##### RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To report a bilateral cystoid macular edema associated with Henoch-Schonleinpurpura. CASE PRESENTATION: A 21-year-old man presented a bilateral, painless, and bilateral blurred vision for 5 weeks with visual acuity (VA) of 6/12 on the right eye and 6/48 on the left. FA and OCT showed bilateral cystoid macular edema, and the fundus photograph showed retinal hemorrhages. Using intravenous dexamethasone could reduce macular edema, but it reoccurred shortly after switching to oral prednisone. Repeated intraocular injection of anti-VEGF in both eyes was performed and VA improved to 6/6 on the right eye and 6/7.5 on the left with the regression of edema after 6 months follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Intraocular anti-VEGF might be an alternative choice to glucocorticoid in cases of bilateral cystoid macular edema associated with Henoch-Schonlein purpura.

15.
Biomater Sci ; 8(7): 2007-2017, 2020 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073106

##### RESUMEN

The combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy has shown great potential for treating solid tumors. Although various combination therapy regimens have been demonstrated to be effective, their implementation in practice always needs separate drugs or modalities, which in turn requires specific and complicated operation procedures. Here, we describe the use of enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA) of a phosphotyrosine-cholesterol (PTC) conjugate to combine immune microenvironment modulation and chemotherapy. The enzymatic dephosphorylation of PTC results in the assembly of its derivatives inside and outside the cells, which leads to repolarization of the macrophage phenotype and direct death of cancer cells. The generation of reactive oxygen species and actin disturbance induced by the assemblies has been verified relative to the macrophage repolarization. We also demonstrate its dual repolarization and inhibition effects in vivo using an ovarian cancer bearing immunocompetent murine model. The EISA of cholesterol conjugates is an effective yet simple approach for the combination of tumor microenvironment immunomodulation and chemotherapy.

16.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 37(3): 509-516, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026199

##### RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Approximately 1% of individuals who carry a balanced reciprocal translocation (BRT) are subfertile. Current karyotyping does not have the resolution to determine whether the breakpoints of the involved chromosomes perturb genes important for fertility. The aim of this study was to apply single-molecule optical mapping (SMOM) to patients presenting for IVF (in vitro fertilization) to ascertain whether the BRT disrupted any genes associated with normal fertility. METHODS: Nine subfertile patients with different BRTs were recruited for the study. Methyltransferase enzyme DLE1 was used to fluorescently label their genomic DNA samples at the recognition motif CTTAAG. The SMOM was performed on the Bionano platform, and long molecules aligned against the reference genome hg19 to identify the breakpoint regions. Mate-pair and PCR-Sanger sequencing were used to confirm the precise breakpoint sequences. RESULTS: Both breakpoint regions in each of the nine BRTs were finely mapped to small regions of approximately 10 Kb, and their positions were consistent with original cytogenetic banding patterns determined by karyotyping. In three BRTs, breakpoints disrupted genes known to be associated with male infertility, namely NUP155 and FNDC3A [46,XY,t(5;13)(p15;q22)], DPY19L1 [46,XY,t(1;7)(p36.3;p15), and BAI3 [46,XY,t(3;6)(p21;q16)]. CONCLUSIONS: The SMOM has potential clinical application as a rapid tool to screen patients with BRTs for underlying genetic causes of infertility and other diseases.

17.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 58(4): 230-241, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053101

##### RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Sofosbuvir is an NS5B nucleotide inhibitor that was approved for hepatitis C treatment. Generic sofosbuvir has been produced to improve the affordability. The present study investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of generic sofosbuvir as well as the effect of food intake on its PK parameters in healthy Chinese subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, dose-escalating, and food effect trial enrolled 12 healthy Chinese subjects. The subjects received a single oral dose of 400 mg of generic sofosbuvir in fasted state or after a high-fat meal, or 800 mg in fasted state, in a three-way crossover design, and then all subjects were administered with 400 mg daily for 8 days. The PK parameters for sofosbuvir and its metabolites were determined, and the safety was monitored. RESULTS: Sofosbuvir was absorbed rapidly into plasma, with a half-life of 0.46 - 0.48 hours. Plasma exposure to sofosbuvir and its metabolite GS-566500 was increased in an approximately proportional manner to the increased dose. Repeated dosing did not result in drug accumulation in the blood. Sofosbuvir was mainly excreted as the metabolite GS-331007 in the urine. Drug administration after a high-fat meal increased the plasma sofosbuvir exposure by 1.29-fold, without substantially altering the absorption rate. No serious adverse events were observed, and all subjects tolerated the doses well. CONCLUSION: This generic sofosbuvir was well absorbed, the plasma concentration was increased with an increased dose, and it was safe in healthy subjects. A high-fat meal appeared to promote the bioavailability of sofosbuvir and the metabolite GS-566500.

18.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(2): 197-201, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007192
19.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003018

##### RESUMEN

In recent years, an increasing number of circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been discovered in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the functions of most circRNAs require further investigation. Here, we found that circBACH1 was significantly upregulated in HCC tissues and that high circBACH1 levels were closely associated with poor prognosis. In addition, circBACH1 could promote HCC growth by accelerating cell cycle progression in vitro and in vivo. We next investigated the cellular and molecular mechanisms and discovered that circBACH1 inhibited p27 translation, which influenced cell cycle progression. Moreover, we revealed that circBACH1 could combine directly with HuR using RNA immunoprecipitation assays, pull-down assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The combination of these molecules facilitated HuR translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm according to the fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence results. Finally, silencing HuR abrogated circBACH1's inhibition of p27 translation and abolished the circBACH1-induced effect on HCC proliferation. In sum, circBACH1 plays a significant role as an oncogene through the circBACH1/HuR/p27 axis in HCC development.

20.
Opt Lett ; 45(5): 1071-1074, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108772

##### RESUMEN

In this Letter, we propose a new (to the best of our knowledge), promising concept of a hybrid femtosecond (fs) laser processing method composed of single-point scanning and holographic light modulation fabrication for manufacturing a tunable-size microtrap chip. The hybrid method not only ensures key microfluidic device precision but also greatly improves the fabrication speed. By using a new asymmetry-bracket-shaped microtrap design with a mechanical strain stretching method, real-time size-tunable trapping is obtained, and a 100% particle trapping retention is realized, ignoring the flow fluctuation. Finally, the microtrap array is successfully applied to trap single yeast cells and hold them for $\sim{10}\;{\rm h}$â¼10h without escaping.