Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1777, 2022 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365627

RESUMEN

Electrically interfacing atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors (TMDSCs) with metal leads is challenging because of undesired interface barriers, which have drastically constrained the electrical performance of TMDSC devices for exploring their unconventional physical properties and realizing potential electronic applications. Here we demonstrate a strategy to achieve nearly barrier-free electrical contacts with few-layer TMDSCs by engineering interfacial bonding distortion. The carrier-injection efficiency of such electrical junction is substantially increased with robust ohmic behaviors from room to cryogenic temperatures. The performance enhancements of TMDSC field-effect transistors are well reflected by the low contact resistance (down to 90 Ωµm in MoS2, towards the quantum limit), the high field-effect mobility (up to 358,000 cm2V-1s-1 in WSe2), and the prominent transport characteristics at cryogenic temperatures. This method also offers possibilities of the local manipulation of atomic structures and electronic properties for TMDSC device design.

2.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(4): 390-395, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210566

RESUMEN

Twisted heterostructures of two-dimensional crystals offer almost unlimited scope for the design of new metamaterials. Here we demonstrate a room temperature ferroelectric semiconductor that is assembled using mono- or few-layer MoS2. These van der Waals heterostructures feature broken inversion symmetry, which, together with the asymmetry of atomic arrangement at the interface of two 2D crystals, enables ferroelectric domains with alternating out-of-plane polarization arranged into a twist-controlled network. The last can be moved by applying out-of-plane electrical fields, as visualized in situ using channelling contrast electron microscopy. The observed interfacial charge transfer, movement of domain walls and their bending rigidity agree well with theoretical calculations. Furthermore, we demonstrate proof-of-principle field-effect transistors, where the channel resistance exhibits a pronounced hysteresis governed by pinning of ferroelectric domain walls. Our results show a potential avenue towards room temperature electronic and optoelectronic semiconductor devices with built-in ferroelectric memory functions.

3.
Science ; 375(6579): 430-433, 2022 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084955

RESUMEN

In thermodynamic equilibrium, current in metallic systems is carried by electronic states near the Fermi energy, whereas the filled bands underneath contribute little to conduction. Here, we describe a very different regime in which carrier distribution in graphene and its superlattices is shifted so far from equilibrium that the filled bands start playing an essential role, leading to a critical-current behavior. The criticalities develop upon the velocity of electron flow reaching the Fermi velocity. Key signatures of the out-of-equilibrium state are current-voltage characteristics that resemble those of superconductors, sharp peaks in differential resistance, sign reversal of the Hall effect, and a marked anomaly caused by the Schwinger-like production of hot electron-hole plasma. The observed behavior is expected to be common to all graphene-based superlattices.

4.
Sci Adv ; 6(49)2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277256

RESUMEN

In van der Waals heterostructures, electronic bands of two-dimensional (2D) materials, their nontrivial topology, and electron-electron interactions can be markedly changed by a moiré pattern induced by twist angles between different layers. This process is referred to as twistronics, where the tuning of twist angle can be realized through mechanical manipulation of 2D materials. Here, we demonstrate an experimental technique that can achieve in situ dynamical rotation and manipulation of 2D materials in van der Waals heterostructures. Using this technique, we fabricated heterostructures where graphene is perfectly aligned with both top and bottom encapsulating layers of hexagonal boron nitride. Our technique enables twisted 2D material systems in one single stack with dynamically tunable optical, mechanical, and electronic properties.

5.
Sci Adv ; 6(44)2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115746

RESUMEN

The competition between quality and productivity has been a major issue for large-scale applications of two-dimensional materials (2DMs). Until now, the top-down mechanical cleavage method has guaranteed pure perfect 2DMs, but it has been considered a poor option in terms of manufacturing. Here, we present a layer-engineered exfoliation technique for graphene that not only allows us to obtain large-size graphene, up to a millimeter size, but also allows selective thickness control. A thin metal film evaporated on graphite induces tensile stress such that spalling occurs, resulting in exfoliation of graphene, where the number of exfoliated layers is adjusted by using different metal films. Detailed spectroscopy and electron transport measurement analysis greatly support our proposed spalling mechanism and fine quality of exfoliated graphene. Our layer-engineered exfoliation technique can pave the way for the development of a manufacturing-scale process for graphene and other 2DMs in electronics and optoelectronics.

6.
Nature ; 584(7820): 210-214, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788736

RESUMEN

Of the two stable forms of graphite, hexagonal and rhombohedral, the former is more common and has been studied extensively. The latter is less stable, which has so far precluded its detailed investigation, despite many theoretical predictions about the abundance of exotic interaction-induced physics1-6. Advances in van der Waals heterostructure technology7 have now allowed us to make high-quality rhombohedral graphite films up to 50 graphene layers thick and study their transport properties. Here we show that the bulk electronic states in such rhombohedral graphite are gapped8 and, at low temperatures, electron transport is dominated by surface states. Because of their proposed topological nature, the surface states are of sufficiently high quality to observe the quantum Hall effect, whereby rhombohedral graphite exhibits phase transitions between a gapless semimetallic phase and a gapped quantum spin Hall phase with giant Berry curvature. We find that an energy gap can also be opened in the surface states by breaking their inversion symmetry by applying a perpendicular electric field. Moreover, in rhombohedral graphite thinner than four nanometres, a gap is present even without an external electric field. This spontaneous gap opening shows pronounced hysteresis and other signatures characteristic of electronic phase separation, which we attribute to emergence of strongly correlated electronic surface states.

7.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 449-455, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804092

RESUMEN

In situ bending tests of amorphous Si nanowires (a-Si NWs) found different elastic behavior depending on whether they were straight or curved to begin with. The axially straight NWs exhibit pure elastic deformation; however, the axially curved NWs exhibit obvious anelastic behavior when they are bent in the direction of original curvature. On the basis of STEM-EELS analysis, we propose that the underlying mechanism for this anelastic behavior is a bond-switching assisted redistribution of the nonuniform density (structure) in the curved NWs under the inhomogeneous stress field. This mechanism was further supported by the fact that the originally straight a-Si NWs also display similar anelasticity with the as-grown curved NWs after focused ion beam irradiation that can cause nonuniform structure distribution. As compared to what has been reported in other 1D materials, the anelasticity of a-Si NWs can be tuned by modifying their morphology, controlling the loading direction, or irradiating them via ion beam. Our findings suggest that a-Si NWs could be a promising material in the nanoscale damping systems, especially the semiconductor nanodevices.

8.
Nano Lett ; 19(12): 8526-8532, 2019 12 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664847

RESUMEN

In graphite crystals, layers of graphene reside in three equivalent, but distinct, stacking positions typically referred to as A, B, and C projections. The order in which the layers are stacked defines the electronic structure of the crystal, providing an exciting degree of freedom which can be exploited for designing graphitic materials with unusual properties including predicted high-temperature superconductivity and ferromagnetism. However, the lack of control of the stacking sequence limits most research to the stable ABA form of graphite. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to control the stacking order using van der Waals technology. To this end, we first visualize the distribution of stacking domains in graphite films and then perform directional encapsulation of ABC-rich graphite crystallites with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). We found that hBN encapsulation, which is introduced parallel to the graphite zigzag edges, preserves ABC stacking, while encapsulation along the armchair edges transforms the stacking to ABA. The technique presented here should facilitate new research on the important properties of ABC graphite.

9.
Nano Lett ; 19(3): 1736-1742, 2019 03 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720286

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are recently emerged electronic systems with various novel properties, such as spin-valley locking, circular dichroism, valley Hall effect, and superconductivity. The reduced dimensionality and large effective masses further produce unconventional many-body interaction effects. Here we reveal strong interaction effects in the conduction band of MoS2 by transport experiment. We study the massive Dirac electron Landau levels (LL) in high-quality MoS2 samples with field-effect mobilities of 24 000 cm2/(V·s) at 1.2 K. We identify the valley-resolved LLs and low-lying polarized LLs using the Lifshitz-Kosevitch formula. By further tracing the LL crossings in the Landau fan diagram, we unambiguously determine the density-dependent valley susceptibility and the interaction enhanced g-factor from 12.7 to 23.6. Near integer ratios of Zeeman-to-cyclotron energies, we discover LL anticrossings due to the formation of quantum Hall Ising ferromagnets, the valley polarizations of which appear to be reversible by tuning the density or an in-plane magnetic field. Our results provide evidence for many-body interaction effects in the conduction band of MoS2 and establish a fertile ground for exploring strongly correlated phenomena of massive Dirac electrons.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 611, 2019 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723283

RESUMEN

Electrons hopping in two-dimensional honeycomb lattices possess a valley degree of freedom in addition to charge and spin. In the absence of inversion symmetry, these systems were predicted to exhibit opposite Hall effects for electrons from different valleys. Such valley Hall effects have been achieved only by extrinsic means, such as substrate coupling, dual gating, and light illuminating. Here we report the first observation of intrinsic valley Hall transport without any extrinsic symmetry breaking in the non-centrosymmetric monolayer and trilayer MoS2, evidenced by considerable nonlocal resistance that scales cubically with local resistance. Such a hallmark survives even at room temperature with a valley diffusion length at micron scale. By contrast, no valley Hall signal is observed in the centrosymmetric bilayer MoS2. Our work elucidates the topological origin of valley Hall effects and marks a significant step towards the purely electrical control of valley degree of freedom in topological valleytronics.

11.
Sci Adv ; 5(12): eaay8897, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064323

RESUMEN

When two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals are brought into close proximity to form a van der Waals heterostructure, neighbouring crystals may influence each other's properties. Of particular interest is when the two crystals closely match and a moiré pattern forms, resulting in modified electronic and excitonic spectra, crystal reconstruction, and more. Thus, moiré patterns are a viable tool for controlling the properties of 2D materials. However, the difference in periodicity of the two crystals limits the reconstruction and, thus, is a barrier to the low-energy regime. Here, we present a route to spectrum reconstruction at all energies. By using graphene which is aligned to two hexagonal boron nitride layers, one can make electrons scatter in the differential moiré pattern which results in spectral changes at arbitrarily low energies. Further, we demonstrate that the strength of this potential relies crucially on the atomic reconstruction of graphene within the differential moiré super cell.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5392, 2018 12 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568184

RESUMEN

Plasmons, collective oscillations of electron systems, can efficiently couple light and electric current, and thus can be used to create sub-wavelength photodetectors, radiation mixers, and on-chip spectrometers. Despite considerable effort, it has proven challenging to implement plasmonic devices operating at terahertz frequencies. The material capable to meet this challenge is graphene as it supports long-lived electrically tunable plasmons. Here we demonstrate plasmon-assisted resonant detection of terahertz radiation by antenna-coupled graphene transistors that act as both plasmonic Fabry-Perot cavities and rectifying elements. By varying the plasmon velocity using gate voltage, we tune our detectors between multiple resonant modes and exploit this functionality to measure plasmon wavelength and lifetime in bilayer graphene as well as to probe collective modes in its moiré minibands. Our devices offer a convenient tool for further plasmonic research that is often exceedingly difficult under non-ambient conditions (e.g. cryogenic temperatures) and promise a viable route for various photonic applications.

13.
Nanotechnology ; 29(3): 035204, 2018 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29155410

RESUMEN

Atomically-thin black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors show strong-weak localization transition, which is tunable through gate voltages. Hopping transports through charge impurity-induced localized states are observed at low carrier density regime. Variable-range hopping model is applied to simulate scattering behaviors of charge carriers. In the high carrier concentration regime, a negative magnetoresistance indicates weak localization effects. The extracted phase coherence length is power-law temperature-dependent [Formula: see text] and demonstrates inelastic electron-electron interactions and the 2D transport features in few-layer BP field-effect devices. The competition between localization and phase coherence lengths is investigated and analyzed based on observed gate-tunable strong-weak localization transition in few-layer BP.

14.
ACS Nano ; 11(11): 11330-11336, 2017 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023097

RESUMEN

This work reports an experimental study on an antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice of MnPS3 that couples the valley degree of freedom to a macroscopic antiferromagnetic order. The crystal structure of MnPS3 is identified by high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Layer-dependent angle-resolved polarized Raman fingerprints of the MnPS3 crystal are obtained, and the Raman peak at 383 cm-1 exhibits 100% polarity. Temperature dependences of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of the MnPS3 crystal are measured in a superconducting quantum interference device. Anisotropic behaviors of the magnetic moment are explored on the basis of the mean field approximation model. Ambipolar electronic conducting channels in MnPS3 are realized by the liquid gating technique. The conducting channel of MnPS3 offers a platform for exploring the spin/valleytronics and magnetic orders in 2D limitation.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(6): 067702, 2017 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28234544

RESUMEN

We fabricate high-mobility p-type few-layer WSe_{2} field-effect transistors and surprisingly observe a series of quantum Hall (QH) states following an unconventional sequence predominated by odd-integer states under a moderate strength magnetic field. By tilting the magnetic field, we discover Landau level crossing effects at ultralow coincident angles, revealing that the Zeeman energy is about 3 times as large as the cyclotron energy near the valence band top at the Γ valley. This result implies the significant roles played by the exchange interactions in p-type few-layer WSe_{2}, in which itinerant or QH ferromagnetism likely occurs. Evidently, the Γ valley of few-layer WSe_{2} offers a unique platform with unusually heavy hole carriers and a substantially enhanced g factor for exploring strongly correlated phenomena.

16.
Nano Lett ; 16(12): 7768-7773, 2016 12 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960491

RESUMEN

We demonstrate that a field-effect transistor (FET) made of few-layer black phosphorus (BP) encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in vacuum exhibits a room-temperature hole mobility of 5200 cm2/(Vs), being limited just by the phonon scattering. At cryogenic temperatures, the FET mobility increases up to 45 000 cm2/(Vs), which is five times higher compared to the mobility obtained in earlier reports. The unprecedentedly clean h-BN-BP-h-BN heterostructure exhibits Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and a quantum Hall effect with Landau level (LL) filling factors down to v = 2 in conventional laboratory magnetic fields. Moreover, carrier density independent effective mass of m* = 0.26 m0 is measured, and a Landé g-factor of g = 2.47 is reported. Furthermore, an indication for a distinct hole transport behavior with up- and down-spin orientations is found.

17.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12955, 2016 09 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27651106

RESUMEN

In few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), the conduction bands along the ΓK directions shift downward energetically in the presence of interlayer interactions, forming six Q valleys related by threefold rotational symmetry and time reversal symmetry. In even layers, the extra inversion symmetry requires all states to be Kramers degenerate; whereas in odd layers, the intrinsic inversion asymmetry dictates the Q valleys to be spin-valley coupled. Here we report the transport characterization of prominent Shubnikov-de Hass (SdH) oscillations and the observation of the onset of quantum Hall plateaus for the Q-valley electrons in few-layer TMDCs. Universally in the SdH oscillations, we observe a valley Zeeman effect in all odd-layer TMDC devices and a spin Zeeman effect in all even-layer TMDC devices, which provide a crucial information for understanding the unique properties of multi-valley band structures of few-layer TMDCs.

18.
Nanoscale ; 8(5): 2594-600, 2016 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26499039

RESUMEN

The transfer-free synthesis of high-quality, large-area graphene on a given dielectric substrate, which is highly desirable for device applications, remains a significant challenge. In this paper, we report on a simple rapid thermal treatment (RTT) method for the fast and direct growth of high-quality, large-scale monolayer graphene on a SiO2/Si substrate from solid carbon sources. The stack structure of a solid carbon layer/copper film/SiO2 is adopted in the RTT process. The inserted copper film does not only act as an active catalyst for the carbon precursor but also serves as a "filter" that prevents premature carbon dissolution, and thus, contributes to graphene growth on SiO2/Si. The produced graphene exhibits a high carrier mobility of up to 3000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature and standard half-integer quantum oscillations. Our work provides a promising simple transfer-free approach using solid carbon sources to obtain high-quality graphene for practical applications.

19.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7315, 2015 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26099721

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted great attention because of their rich physics and potential applications in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. The family of two-dimensional materials was recently joined by atomically thin black phosphorus which possesses high theoretical mobility and tunable bandgap structure. However, degradation of properties under atmospheric conditions and high-density charge traps in black phosphorus have largely limited its actual mobility thus hindering its future applications. Here, we report the fabrication of stable sandwiched heterostructures by encapsulating atomically thin black phosphorus between hexagonal boron nitride layers to realize ultra-clean interfaces that allow a high field-effect mobility of ∼1,350 cm(2)V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature and on-off ratios exceeding 10(5). At low temperatures, the mobility even reaches ∼2,700 cm(2)V(-1) s(-1) and quantum oscillations in black phosphorus two-dimensional hole gas are observed at low magnetic fields. Importantly, the sandwiched heterostructures ensure that the quality of black phosphorus remains high under ambient conditions.

20.
Nano Lett ; 15(4): 2645-51, 2015 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25807151

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional (2D) atomic-layered heterostructures stacked by van der Waals interactions recently introduced new research fields, which revealed novel phenomena and provided promising applications for electronic, optical, and optoelectronic devices. In this study, we report the van der Waals epitaxial growth of high-quality atomically thin Bi2Se3 on single crystalline hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) by chemical vapor deposition. Although the in-plane lattice mismatch between Bi2Se3 and h-BN is approximately 65%, our transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that Bi2Se3 single crystals epitaxially grew on h-BN with two commensurate states; that is, the (1̅21̅0) plane of Bi2Se3 was preferably parallel to the (1̅100) or (1̅21̅0) plane of h-BN. In the case of the Bi2Se3 (2̅110) ∥ h-BN (11̅00) state, the Moiré pattern wavelength in the Bi2Se3/h-BN superlattice can reach 5.47 nm. These naturally formed thin crystals facilitated the direct assembly of h-BN/Bi2Se3/h-BN sandwiched heterostructures without introducing any impurity at the interfaces for electronic property characterization. Our quantum capacitance (QC) measurements showed a compelling phenomenon of thickness-dependent topological phase transition, which was attributed to the coupling effects of two surface states from Dirac Fermions at/or above six quintuple layers (QLs) to gapped Dirac Fermions below six QLs. Moreover, in ultrathin Bi2Se3 (e.g., 3 QLs), we observed the midgap states induced by intrinsic defects at cryogenic temperatures. Our results demonstrated that QC measurements based on h-BN/Bi2Se3/h-BN sandwiched structures provided rich information regarding the density of states of Bi2Se3, such as quantum well states and Landau quantization. Our approach in fabricating h-BN/Bi2Se3/h-BN sandwiched device structures through the combination of bottom-up growth and top-down dry transferring techniques can be extended to other two-dimensional layered heterostructures.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...