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1.
Genome Biol Evol ; 16(1)2024 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38109923

RESUMEN

Several hundred disease-causing mutations are currently known in domestic dogs. Breeding management is therefore required to minimize their spread. Recently, genetic methods such as direct-to-consumer testing have gained popularity; however, their effects on dog populations are unclear. Here, we aimed to evaluate the influence of genetic testing on the frequency of mutations responsible for canine degenerative myelopathy and assess the changes in the genetic structure of a Pembroke Welsh corgi population from Japan. Genetic testing of 5,512 dogs for the causative mutation in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) (c.118G>A (p.E40K)) uncovered a recent decrease in frequency, plummeting from 14.5% (95/657) in 2019 to 2.9% (24/820) in 2022. Weir and Cockerham population differentiation (FST) based on genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of 117 selected dogs detected the SNP with the highest FST located in the intron of SOD1 adjacent to the c.118G>A mutation, supporting a selection signature on SOD1. Further genome-wide SNP analyses revealed no obvious changes in inbreeding levels and genetic diversity between the 2019 and 2022 populations. Our study highlights that genetic testing can help inform improved mating choices in breeding programs to reduce the frequency of risk variants and avoid inbreeding. This combined strategy could decrease the genetic risk of canine degenerative myelopathy, a fatal disease, within only a few years.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de la Médula Espinal , Superóxido Dismutasa , Perros , Animales , Superóxido Dismutasa-1/genética , Superóxido Dismutasa/genética , Endogamia , Mutación , Enfermedades de la Médula Espinal/genética , Enfermedades de la Médula Espinal/veterinaria
2.
IDCases ; 33: e01881, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37680215

RESUMEN

As part of an epidemiologic survey, we screened remnant samples collected for STI testing for mpox virus. We identified two cases of presumed MPXV infection in pregnant, heterosexual cisgender women. Here, we describe their pregnancy and birth outcomes. Both patients required induction of labor and experienced labor complicated by chorioamnionitis.

3.
J Clin Virol ; 164: 105493, 2023 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37220710

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite the sharp increase in mpox (formerly monkeypox) incidence and the wide geographic spread of mpox during the 2022 outbreak, the community prevalence of infection remains poorly characterized. This study is a retrospective epidemiologic survey to estimate mpox prevalence. METHODS: Samples obtained for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing from April to September 2022 in the public hospital and clinic system of San Mateo County, California were screened for mpox virus (MPXV) using polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: 16/1,848 samples from 11/1,645 individuals were positive for MPXV by qPCR. 4/11 individuals with positive MPXV testing were cisgender women, 2 of whom were pregnant at the time of sample collection. Both deliveries were complicated by chorioamnionitis. Anorectal and oropharyngeal samples were the most likely to be positive for MPXV (4/60 anorectal samples and 4/66 oropharyngeal samples compared with 5/1,264 urine samples and 3/445 vaginal samples). CONCLUSIONS: Our study is one of the first epidemiologic surveys for MPXV infection outside of sexual health/STI clinic settings. Relatively high rates of MPXV from oropharyngeal and anorectal samples reinforces the importance of MPXV testing at various anatomic sites, particularly if patients are presenting with non-lesional symptoms (pharyngitis, proctitis). However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not yet authorized non-lesional MPXV testing. The identification of MPXV in women in our cohort suggests that the rates of mpox in women may have previously been underestimated and highlights the risk of pregnancy complications associated with mpox.


Asunto(s)
Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , California/epidemiología , Virus de la Viruela de los Monos
4.
J Clin Virol ; 162: 105444, 2023 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37043903

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 variant surveillance informs vaccine composition and decisions to de-authorize antibody therapies. Though detailed genetic characterization requires whole-genome sequencing, targeted mutation analysis may complement pandemic surveillance efforts. METHODS: This study investigated the qualitative performance of a multiplex oligonucleotide ligation assay targeting 19 spike mutations using 192 whole genome sequenced upper respiratory samples representing SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. RESULTS: Initial valid results were obtained from 95.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 92.0 - 98.2; 184/192] of samples. All eight invalid samples were valid on repeat testing. When comparing SARS-CoV-2 oligonucleotide ligase assay SARS-CoV-2 variant calls with whole genome sequencing, overall positive percent agreement was 100% (95% CI: 98.1 - 100.0; 192/192), as was the positive and negative percent agreement for each of the tested variants; Gamma, Delta, Omicron BA.1, BA.2, and BA.4/BA.5. CONCLUSIONS: This multiplexed oligonucleotide ligation assays demonstrated accurate SARS-CoV-2 variant typing compared to whole genome sequencing. Such an approach has the potential to provide improved turnaround compared to sequencing and more detailed mutation coverage than RT-qPCR.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Bioensayo , Mutación , Oligonucleótidos
5.
J Mol Diagn ; 25(7): 490-501, 2023 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37068736

RESUMEN

Plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is an established biomarker for endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, existing real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays are limited by poor interlaboratory reproducibility. This is a barrier to biomarker integration into staging systems and management. It was hypothesized that EBV digital PCR (dPCR) would have similar sensitivity but improved precision relative to qPCR. Using the World Health Organization EBV standard and patient specimens, the NRG-HN001 BamHI-W qPCR, two commercial EBNA-1 qPCR assays, and two laboratory-developed dPCR assays amplifying the BamHI-W, EBNA-1, and EBER targets were compared. Testing was conducted in the North American reference laboratory for the NRG-HN001 randomized trial. The EBV dPCR assays achieved similar performance compared with qPCR. Although dPCR does not require quantitation standards, different dPCR thresholding algorithms yielded significant qualitative and quantitative variation. This was most evident with low levels of EBV DNA. No-template control-informed thresholding (ddpcRquant) mitigated false-positive/false-negative findings. The NRG-HN001 BamHI-W qPCR and laboratory-developed BamHI-W droplet dPCR offered higher sensitivity, lower limit of blank, higher precision at low plasma EBV DNA levels (≤1500 IU/mL), and higher overall agreement with clinical specimens versus single-copy qPCR/dPCR targets (EBNA-1/EBER). These data confirm the rationale for using the BamHI-W target to define prognostic thresholds and indicate that both qPCR and dPCR methods harmonized to the World Health Organization standard can provide the necessary analytical performance.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , ADN Viral/análisis , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(4): 848-850, 2023 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36918374

RESUMEN

We retrospectively screened oropharyngeal and rectal swab samples originally collected in California, USA, for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing for the presence of monkeypox virus DNA. Among 206 patients screened, 17 (8%) had samples with detectable viral DNA. Monkeypox virus testing from mucosal sites should be considered for at-risk patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia , Gonorrea , Humanos , California/epidemiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , ADN , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Virus de la Viruela de los Monos/genética , Virus de la Viruela de los Monos/aislamiento & purificación , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Retrospectivos , /diagnóstico
8.
bioRxiv ; 2022 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380757

RESUMEN

The emergence of the highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has jeopardized the efficacy of vaccines based on the ancestral spike. The bivalent COVID-19 mRNA booster vaccine within the United States is comprised of the ancestral and the Omicron BA.5 spike. Since its approval and distribution, additional Omicron subvariants have been identified with key mutations within the spike protein receptor binding domain that are predicted to escape vaccine sera. Of particular concern is the R346T mutation which has arisen in multiple subvariants, including BA.2.75.2 and BQ.1.1. Using a live virus neutralization assay, we evaluated serum samples from individuals who had received either one or two monovalent boosters or the bivalent booster to determine neutralizing activity against wild-type (WA1/2020) virus and Omicron subvariants BA.1, BA.5, BA.2.75.2, and BQ.1.1. In the one monovalent booster cohort, relative to WA1/2020, we observed a reduction in neutralization titers of 9-15-fold against BA.1 and BA.5 and 28-39-fold against BA.2.75.2 and BQ.1.1. In the BA.5-containing bivalent booster cohort, the neutralizing activity improved against all the Omicron subvariants. Relative to WA1/2020, we observed a reduction in neutralization titers of 3.7- and 4-fold against BA.1 and BA.5, respectively, and 11.5- and 21-fold against BA.2.75.2 and BQ.1.1, respectively. These data suggest that the bivalent mRNA booster vaccine broadens humoral immunity against the Omicron subvariants.

9.
Mol Cancer ; 21(1): 154, 2022 07 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902864

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) exhibits unusual geographic restriction despite ubiquitous lifelong infection. Screening programs can detect most NPC cases at an early stage, but existing EBV diagnostics are limited by false positives and low positive predictive value (PPV), leading to excess screening endoscopies, MRIs, and repeated testing. Recent EBV genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that EBV BALF2 variants account for more than 80% of attributable NPC risk. We therefore hypothesized that high-risk BALF2 variants could be readily detected in plasma for once-lifetime screening triage. METHODS: We designed and validated a multiplex genotyping assay to detect EBV BALF2 polymorphisms in human plasma. Targeted next-generation sequencing was used to validate this assay, conduct association studies with clinical phenotype, and longitudinally genotype plasma to assess within-host haplotype stability. We examined the association between NPC and BALF2 haplotypes in a large non-endemic population and three prior EBV GWAS. Finally, we estimated NPC mortality reduction, resource utilization, and cost-effectiveness of BALF2 variant-informed screening using a previously-validated cohort model. RESULTS: Following analytical validation, the BALF2 genotyping assay had 99.3% concordance with sequencing in a cohort of 24 NPC cases and 155 non-NPC controls. BALF2 haplotype was highly associated with NPC in this non-endemic population (I613V: odds ratio [OR] 7.9; V317M: OR 178.8). No other candidate BALF2 polymorphisms were significantly associated with NPC or hematologic disorders. Longitudinal genotyping revealed 97.8% within-host haplotype concordance, indicative of lifelong latent infection. In a meta-analysis of 755 NPC cases and 981 non-NPC controls, BALF2 I613V and V317M were significantly associated with NPC in both endemic and non-endemic populations. Modeled variant-informed screening strategies achieved a 46% relative increase in PPV with 7% decrease in effective screening sensitivity, thereby averting nearly half of screening endoscopies/MRIs among endemic populations in east/southeast Asia. CONCLUSIONS: EBV BALF2 haplotypes are temporally stable within hosts and can be readily detected in plasma via an inexpensive multiplex genotyping assay that offers near-perfect sequencing concordance. In endemic and non-endemic populations, I613V and V317M were highly associated with NPC and could be leveraged to develop variant-informed screening programs that mitigate false positives with small reductions in screening sensitivity.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Proteínas de Unión al ADN , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/complicaciones , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/genética , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Genotipo , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patología , Proteínas Virales
10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 896352, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677819

RESUMEN

Since March 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has plagued the world with COVID-19 and individuals of all ages have experienced varying symptoms of disease. Older adults were experiencing more severe disease compared to children and were prioritized by vaccination efforts. While biologic therapies and vaccinations were implemented, there were changes in public health restrictions with subsequent surges resulting in more infected children. During these surges there was a rise of different SARS-CoV-2 variants with the dominant variant initially alpha (B.1.1.7 and other Pango lineages) and epsilon (B.1.427/B.1.429) in early 2021 and a dramatic shift to delta (B.1.617.2 and other Pango lineages) by mid-summer 2021. In this study we aimed to characterize the clinical severity and host factors associated with disease by SARS-CoV-2 variant and evaluate if there are differences in disease severity by circulating variant. We retrospectively included all individuals 0-25 years of age who presented to our center and had a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, SARS-CoV-2 variant mutation testing, and documented clinical notes from 1 January 2021 through 31 December 2021. We identified 745 individuals who met inclusion criteria and found the delta variant was associated with severe/critical disease compared to the other variants studied. The results of the model showed that underlying respiratory disease and diabetes were risk factors for progression to severe disease. These insights are important when evaluating public health measures and treatment options for children as more variants arise.

11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(5): e0017822, 2022 05 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465708

RESUMEN

The ability to distinguish between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) is of ongoing interest due to differences in transmissibility, responses to vaccination, clinical prognosis, and therapy. Although detailed genetic characterization requires whole-genome sequencing (WGS), targeted nucleic acid amplification tests can serve a complementary role in clinical settings, as they are more rapid and accessible than sequencing in most laboratories. We designed and analytically validated a two-reaction multiplex reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay targeting spike protein mutations L452R, E484K, and N501Y in reaction 1 and del69-70, K417N, and T478K in reaction 2. This assay had 95 to 100% agreement with WGS for 502 upper respiratory tract swab samples collected between 26 April 2021 and 1 August 2021, consisting of 43 Alpha, 2 Beta, 20 Gamma, 378 Delta, and 59 non-VOC infections. Validation in a separate group of 230 WGS-confirmed Omicron variant samples collected in December 2021 and January 2022 demonstrated 100% agreement. This RT-qPCR-based approach can be implemented in clinical laboratories already performing SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification tests to assist in local epidemiological surveillance and clinical decision-making.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex , Mutación , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Transcripción Reversa , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética
12.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 21(10): 1303-1313, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418260

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A recent 3-year post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study reaffirmed the safety and effectiveness of linagliptin in linagliptin-naïve Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We present further analyses from this study by body mass index (BMI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Safety and effectiveness were assessed across BMI subgroups (<25, 25 to <30, and ≥30 kg/m2). RESULTS: Data were available for 876, 566, and 201 patients in the BMI subgroups, respectively. Incidence of adverse drug reactions [ADR] with linagliptin was 11.42%, 11.31%, 10.45%, respectively. The most common ADR of special interest was hepatic disorders (n [%]: 6 [0.68], 7 [1.24], and 3 [1.49], respectively). Additional use of glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) increased with BMI (15.0%, 19.1%, 24.4% of patients; P < 0.001). In the overall population, HbA1c change (adjusted mean %±SE) until week 156 was -0.71±0.04, -0.68±0.04 and -0.74±0.09. In patients receiving linagliptin with no additional GLDs, HbA1c changes were -0.58%±0.04, -0.62%±0.04, and -0.77%±0.11. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of linagliptin in Japanese patients with T2D, across BMI subgroups no new safety concerns were observed. The proportion of patients with additional GLD use increased with baseline BMI. Decreases in HbA1c were observed in all subgroups, including in patients with no additional GLD use. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01650259.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Linagliptina , Humanos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Hemoglobina Glucada , Japón , Linagliptina/efectos adversos , Vigilancia de Productos Comercializados
13.
Neurosci Res ; 180: 90-98, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257837

RESUMEN

Recent evidence suggests that soluble amyloid-ß oligomers (AßOs) act as a key factor in the pathogenetic mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AßOs induce neurotoxic and synaptotoxic effects probably through binding to certain receptors, however it remains unclarified which receptors are most critically involved. In addition, dysregulation in glutamatergic signaling is implicated in AD. In this study, we used a rat primary cortical neuron model to investigate AßO-induced aberrations of synaptic proteins and binding of extracellular AßOs to candidate receptors in the glutamatergic system. Immunocytochemical analyses showed that both presynaptic (SNAP-25, synapsin I) and postsynaptic (spinophilin, homer 1b/c) proteins appeared to aberrantly dislocate from synapses upon AßO treatment. Double immunofluorescence staining of AßO-treated neurons without permeabilization pretreatment revealed that extracellular AßOs exist over neuronal soma and neurites and clearly colocalized with GluN1 and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1), but not with NMDA GluN2A subunits and mGluR5. AßO treatment altered neither total protein levels nor intracellular localizations of these receptors. These results suggest that extracellular AßOs specifically bind to both NMDA receptors containing GluN2B subunits and mGluR1. It is likely that binding of AßOs to these receptors induces various pathological responses, consequently leading to synaptic disruptions. Our study thus highlights the important roles of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and mGluR1 receptors in the synapse pathology in AD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animales , Neuronas/metabolismo , Ratas , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Sinapsis/fisiología
15.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 21(3): 425-434, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711126

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Safety and tolerability of glucose-lowering drugs is a key consideration for use in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We evaluated the safety and tolerability of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin in Asian patients with T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a post-hoc, descriptive pooled analysis of 21 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of linagliptin in T2D patients lasting ≤52 weeks. We evaluated adverse events (AEs) and laboratory parameters in Asian participants living in Asia, both overall and in the East Asian subgroup. RESULTS: This analysis included 4457 Asian patients overall (2712 receiving linagliptin; 1745 receiving placebo) and 3057 (68.6%) East Asians. AEs were reported in 1510 (55.7%) Asian patients receiving linagliptin and 1032 (59.1%) receiving placebo but were considered drug-related in only 13.0% of each group. Serious AEs occurred in 109 (4.0%) linagliptin patients and 90 (5.2%) placebo patients. The most common AEs were nasopharyngitis (6.4% linagliptin, 7.3% placebo), upper respiratory tract infection (5.7% linagliptin, 6.5% placebo), and hypoglycemia (7.3% linagliptin, 6.3% placebo). One linagliptin patient had pancreatitis; none had bullous pemphigoid. No clinically relevant mean changes in laboratory parameters occurred. These findings were consistent in East Asians. CONCLUSIONS: Linagliptin is well tolerated in Asian T2D patients, including East Asians, with low risk for AEs.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV , Pueblo Asiatico , Glucemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/uso terapéutico , Método Doble Ciego , Hemoglobina Glucada , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Linagliptina/efectos adversos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
Endosc Int Open ; 9(12): E1877-E1885, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34917456

RESUMEN

Background and study aims We investigated the effect of adding magnifying blue laser imaging (BLI), magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI), and iodine staining to white light imaging in diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (EESCC) in high-risk patients. Patients and methods Between May 2013 and March 2016, two parallel prospective cohorts of patients received either primary WLI followed by NBI-magnifying endoscopy (ME) or primary WLI followed by BLI-ME, were studied. At the end of screening, both groups underwent iodine staining. The percentage of patients with newly detected esophageal malignant lesions in each group and the diagnostic ability of image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE)-ME were evaluated. Results There are 258 patients assigned to the NBI-ME group and 254 patients assigned to the BLI-ME group. The percentage of patients with one or more malignant lesions detected in the WLI + NBI-ME examination was similar in the WLI + BLI-ME examination (15 of 258 patients or 5.81 % vs. 14 of 254 patients or 5.51 %). However, four of 19 lesions in the NBI-ME group and six of 21 lesions in the BLI-ME group were overlooked and were detected by iodine staining. NBI-ME and BLI-ME showed similar accuracy in differentiation of cancerous lesions from non-cancerous lesions in diagnosis of EESCC (NBI/BLI: sensitivity, 87.5/89.5; specificity, 78.9/76.6; accuracy, 80.8/79.5; positive predictive value, 53.8/53.1; negative predictive value, 95.7/96.1). Conclusions Both NBI and BLI were useful for detection of EESCC. However, because some lesions were overlooked by even NBI and BLI, high-risk patients may benefit from use of iodine staining during endoscopic screening of EESCC (UMIN000023596).

17.
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 204-213, 2021 12 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605900

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid antigen in blood has been described, but the diagnostic and prognostic role of antigenemia is not well understood. This study aimed to determine the frequency, duration, and concentration of nucleocapsid antigen in plasma and its association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. METHODS: We utilized an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay targeting SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen to evaluate 777 plasma samples from 104 individuals with COVID-19. We compared plasma antigen to respiratory nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) in 74 individuals with COVID-19 from samples collected ±1 day of diagnostic respiratory NAAT and in 52 SARS-CoV-2-negative individuals. We used Kruskal-Wallis tests, multivariable logistic regression, and mixed-effects modeling to evaluate whether plasma antigen concentration was associated with disease severity. RESULTS: Plasma antigen had 91.9% (95% CI 83.2%-97.0%) clinical sensitivity and 94.2% (84.1%-98.8%) clinical specificity. Antigen-negative plasma samples belonged to patients with later respiratory cycle thresholds (Ct) when compared with antigen-positive plasma samples. Median plasma antigen concentration (log10 fg/mL) was 5.4 (interquartile range 3.9-6.0) in outpatients, 6.0 (5.4-6.5) in inpatients, and 6.6 (6.1-7.2) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In models adjusted for age, sex, diabetes, and hypertension, plasma antigen concentration at diagnosis was associated with ICU admission [odds ratio 2.8 (95% CI 1.2-6.2), P=.01] but not with non-ICU hospitalization. Rate of antigen decrease was not associated with disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 plasma nucleocapsid antigen exhibited comparable diagnostic performance to upper respiratory NAAT, especially among those with late respiratory Ct. In addition to currently available tools, antigenemia may facilitate patient triage to optimize intensive care utilization.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Virales/sangre , Prueba de COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19 , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside de Coronavirus/sangre , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Técnicas Electroquímicas , Hospitalización , Humanos , Inmunoensayo , Mediciones Luminiscentes , Nucleocápside , Fosfoproteínas/sangre , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2720-2723, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296992

RESUMEN

We report persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in a patient with HIV/AIDS; the virus developed spike N terminal domain and receptor binding domain neutralization resistance mutations. Our findings suggest that immunocompromised patients can harbor emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , COVID-19 , Humanos , Mutación , Unión Proteica , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética
19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(8): e0085921, 2021 Jul 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037430

RESUMEN

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with concerning phenotypic mutations is of public health interest. Genomic surveillance is an important tool for a pandemic response, but many laboratories do not have the resources to support population-level sequencing. We hypothesized that a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) to genotype mutations in the viral spike protein could facilitate high-throughput variant surveillance. We designed and analytically validated a one-step multiplex allele-specific reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) to detect three nonsynonymous spike protein mutations (L452R, E484K, N501Y). Assay specificity was validated with next-generation whole-genome sequencing. We then screened a large cohort of SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens from our San Francisco Bay Area population. Between 1 December 2020 and 1 March 2021, we screened 4,049 unique infections by genotyping RT-qPCR, with an assay failure rate of 2.8%. We detected 1,567 L452R mutations (38.7%), 34 N501Y mutations (0.84%), 22 E484K mutations (0.54%), and 3 (0.07%) E484K plus N501Y mutations. The assay had perfect (100%) concordance with whole-genome sequencing of a validation subset of 229 specimens and detected B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.427, B.1.429, B.1.526, and P.2 variants, among others. The assay revealed the rapid emergence of the L452R variant in our population, with a prevalence of 24.8% in December 2020 that increased to 62.5% in March 2021. We developed and clinically implemented a genotyping RT-qPCR to conduct high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 variant screening. This approach can be adapted for emerging mutations and immediately implemented in laboratories already performing NAAT worldwide using existing equipment, personnel, and extracted nucleic acid.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Genotipo , Humanos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa
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