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2.
Bioorg Chem ; 100: 103809, 2020 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361293

RESUMEN

Six pairs of octahydroindolizine-type alkaloid enantiomers (1-6) including three new compounds [(-)-1/(+)-1, 2] were isolated from the stems of Dendrobium crepidatum. Their structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison between the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD). All compounds were examined for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 cells. It was found that compounds (+)-1, 2 and (+)-6 exhibited pronounced inhibition on NO production with IC50 values in the range of 3.62-16.11 µM, being more active than the positive control, dexamethasone (IC50 = 47.04 µM). In vivo, compound 6 (100, 50 and 10 mg/kg) showed protective effects against LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 158: 493-501, 2020 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389652

RESUMEN

Designing desirable adsorbent for highly efficient removal of heavy metal ions is of practical significance, given the cost-effectiveness, environmental benign, natural abundance and easy-handling collection features. Herein, a bead-like adsorbent with high adsorption capacity was prepared by modifying alginate beads using polyacrylate with high density of carboxyl groups. The developed alginate/polyacrylate beads were collaboratively characterized by FT-IR, TGA, SEM, XPS, etc., and various adsorption conditions were tested including the pH of the solution, contact time and the initial concentration. The experimental data were fitted well by the Freundlich isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was obtained from the Langmuir model was 611.0 mg/g, and adsorption process followed the Pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption mechanisms conformed to multi-layer adsorption, and mainly dominated by chemical interactions. The bead-like adsorbent exhibited excellent reusability after eight sequential cycles and displayed higher adsorption capacity towards lead ions. This type of adsorbent might possess promising role in treating heavy metals from water by virtue of degradable, cost-effective component and high adsorption efficiency.

4.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420657

RESUMEN

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), a rare variant of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is characterized by distinct biological characteristics and clinical behaviors, and patient prognosis is not satisfactory. The advent of high-dose (HD) methotrexate (HD-MTX) therapy has significantly improved PCNSL prognosis. Currently, HD-MTX-based chemotherapy regimens are recognized as first-line treatment. PCNSL is sensitive to radiotherapy, and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) can consolidate response to chemotherapy; however, WBRT-associated delayed neurotoxicity leads to neurocognitive impairment, especially in elderly patients. Other effective approaches include rituximab, temozolomide, and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). In addition, new drugs against PCNSL such as those targeting the B-cell receptor signaling pathway, are undergoing clinical trials. However, optimal therapeutic approaches in PCNSL remain undefined. This review provides an overview of advances in surgical approaches, induction chemotherapy, radiotherapy, ASCT, salvage treatments, and novel therapeutic approaches in immunocompetent patients with PCNSL in the past 5 years. Additionally, therapeutic progress in elderly patients and in those with relapsed/refractory PCNSL is also summarized based on the outcomes of recent clinical studies.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358003

RESUMEN

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a diverse population of microorganisms. While much work has been focused on the characterization of the bacterial community, very little is known about the fungal community, or mycobiota, in different animal species and chickens in particular. Here we characterized the biogeography of the mycobiota along the GI tract of day-28 broiler chicks and further examined its possible shift in response to bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), a commonly used in-feed antibiotic, through Illumina sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of fungal rRNA genes. Out of 124 samples sequenced, we identified a total of 468 unique fungal features that belong to four phyla and 125 genera in the GI tract. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota represented 90-99% of the intestinal mycobiota, with three genera including Microascus, Trichosporon, and Aspergillus accounting for over 80% of total fungal population in most GI segments. Furthermore, these fungal genera were dominated by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Trichosporon asahii and two Aspergillus species. We also revealed that the mycobiota are more diverse in the upper than lower GI tract. The cecal mycobiota transitioned from being S. brevicauli-dominant on day 14 to T. asahii-dominant on day 28. Furthermore, 2-week feeding of 55 mg/kg BMD tended to reduce the cecal mycobiota α-diversity. Taken together, we provided a comprehensive biogeographic view and succession pattern of the chicken intestinal mycobiota and its influence by BMD. A better understanding of intestinal mycobiota may lead to development of novel strategies to improve animal health and productivity.IMPORTANCE Intestinal microbiota is critical to host physiology, metabolism, and health. However, the fungal community has been often overlooked. Recent studies in humans have highlighted the importance of the mycobiota in obesity and disease, making it imperative that we increase our understanding of the fungal community. The significance of this study is that we revealed the spatial and temporal changes of the mycobiota in the GI tract of the chicken, a non-mammalian species. To our surprise, the chicken gut mycobiota is dominated by a limited number of fungal species, as opposed to hundreds of bacterial taxa. Additionally, the chicken intestinal fungal community is more diverse in the upper than the lower GI tract, while the bacterial community shows an opposite pattern. Collectively, this study lays an important foundation for future work on the chicken intestinal mycobiome and its possible manipulation to enhance animal performance and disease resistance.

6.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1114: 58-65, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359515

RESUMEN

A novel surface-plasmon-coupled chemiluminescent immunosensor was developed for the detection of multiplex mycotoxins with ultrahigh sensitivity, high throughput and simplicity. The immunosensor was constructed by immobilizing carboxyl modified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and bovine serum albumin combined antigens sequentially on the glass chip modified with amino groups. The optical properties of AgNPs could amplify the chemiluminescence (CL) generated on the chip through the surface plasmon resonance phenomenon. Using a competitive immunoassay, the CL signals from all the sensing sites on the chip were collected simultaneously by a charge-coupled device for ultrasensitive analysis of multiple mycotoxins. Citrinin, aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxins A were selected as model analytes. Under optimal conditions, the surface-plasmon-coupled chemiluminescent immunosensor-based method presented wide linear ranges over 4 orders of magnitude and much lower limits of detection than previous work. The assay results of mycotoxins in red yeast rice samples using the proposed method were in good agreement with that using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Its high selectivity, high throughput, acceptable stability and accuracy showed broad prospects in mycotoxin monitoring and evaluation of safety on Traditional Chinese Medicine.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366706

RESUMEN

Florfenicol belongs to a class of phenicol antimicrobials widely used as feed additives and for the treatment of respiratory infections. In recent years, increasing resistance to florfenicol has been reported in Campylobacter spp., the leading foodborne enteric pathogen causing diarrheal diseases worldwide. Here, we reported the identification of fexA, a novel mobile florfenicol resistance gene in Campylobacter Of the 100 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from poultry in Zhejiang, China, nine of them were shown to be fexA positive, and their whole genome sequences were further determined by integration of Illumina short-read and MinION long-read sequencing. The fexA gene was found in the plasmid of one strain and chromosomes of eight strains, and its location was verified by S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) and Southern blotting. Based on comparative analysis, the fexA gene was located within a region with the tet(L)-fexA-catA-tet(O) gene arrangement, demonstrated to be successfully transferrable among C. jejuni strains. Functional cloning indicated that acquisition of the single fexA gene significantly increased resistance to florfenicol, whereas its inactivation resulted in increased susceptibility to florfenicol in Campylobacter Taken together, these results indicated that the emerging fexA resistance is horizontally transferable, which might greatly facilitate the adaptation of Campylobacter in food producing environments where florfenicols are frequently used.

8.
Food Chem ; 321: 126693, 2020 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247183

RESUMEN

BACKGROUNDS: Polymers, widely existing in food or dietary materials, have been attracting researchers, facing challenges, and needing effective strategies on targeted characterization in complex matrixes. METHODS: A modified data filtering strategy (including locating with drift time and m/z ranges, multiple mass defect filtering, validating MS information, and evaluating MS/MS spectra) was developed and applied for procyanidins in the grape seed extracts (GSE) using drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry. The procyanidin ions' trendlines were predicted by multi-model regression. Their collision cross-sections (CCSs) were calculated using single-field methods. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Totally, 769 CCSs belonging to 686 procyanidins with polymer degrees at 1-15 were characterized. The exponent regression was the most reasonable model (r2 ≥ 0.9379) to reveal the trendlines. The change tendency of CCSs with their polymer degrees, charge states, and linkage types were investigated. CONCLUSION: This study provided an innovative strategy for targeted characterization of polymers in complex matrixes.

9.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231268

RESUMEN

To meet the requirements of potential applications, it is of great importance to explore new catalysts for formic acid oxidation that have both ultra-high mass activity and CO resistance. Here, we successfully synthesize atomically dispersed Rh on N-doped carbon (SA-Rh/CN) and discover that SA-Rh/CN exhibits promising electrocatalytic properties for formic acid oxidation. The mass activity shows 28- and 67-fold enhancements compared with state-of-the-art Pd/C and Pt/C, respectively, despite the low activity of Rh/C. Interestingly, SA-Rh/CN exhibits greatly enhanced tolerance to CO poisoning, and Rh atoms in SA-Rh/CN resist sintering after long-term testing, resulting in excellent catalytic stability. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the formate route is more favourable on SA-Rh/CN. According to calculations, the high barrier to produce CO, together with the relatively unfavourable binding with CO, contribute to its CO tolerance.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274645

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation is often seen as the gold-standard intervention for many people with bilateral deafness. However, this intervention is not as commonly performed in China. This paper presents the surgical technique and the peri- and postoperative safety results from simultaneous bilateral implantation and compares them with those from sequential bilateral implantation. METHODS: Twenty nine children (aged 12‒18 months) met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and took part in this study. 10 participants received a unilateral cochlear implantation; 19 participants received simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation. The same standard surgical technique (transmastoid facial recess approach with round window insertion) was used in all implantations. Safety was assessed via monitoring peri- and postoperative adverse events. The helpfulness of select surgical tools was assessed via questionnaire. RESULTS: No adverse events were reported for any participants. All queried surgical tools were helpful in all 244 recorded responses. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation can be performed using the same surgical technique as unilateral implantation and poses no increased safety risk for children aged 1‒2 years.

11.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(2): 194-198, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275005

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role and mechanism of extracellular histones involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced alveolar macrophage injury. METHODS: The mouse alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S) was cultured in vitro and passaged, and the cells were cultured to 80% of cells for cell proliferation. The cells were stimulated with 1 mg/L LPS for 3 hours and 50 mg/L exogenous histones for 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, respectively (LPS+histones 3, 6, 12, 24 h groups), and other groups included phosphate buffered saline (PBS) control group (PBS group), LPS alone stimulation group (LPS group), the exogenous histones alone stimulation group (histones group) and heparin pretreatment histones group (heparin+LPS+histones group). The cells in each group were challenged with different reagent, the expression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and inflammatory factors in the supernatant were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the change of intracellular K+ concentration was detected by FluxORTM II green potassium channel. The proteins such as potassium channel protein (TWIK2), inflammasome (NLRP3), and apoptosis associated speck like protein containing a CARD (ASC) were determined by Western Blot. RESULTS: Compared with the PBS group, the levels of LDH and inflammatory factors such as interleukin (IL-1ß, IL-18) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly increased after LPS stimulation group. Compared with the LPS group, the levels of LDH and inflammatory factors were significantly increased after the treatment with exogenous histones, and reached a peak after 3 hours of the histones stimulation [LDH (U/L): 123.10±1.83 vs. 85.32±1.66, IL-1ß (mg/L): 40.75±2.60 vs. 18.78±1.37, IL-18 (mg/L): 49.94±2.45 vs. 30.19±1.82, TNF-α (mg/L): 36.51±1.56 vs. 20.84±1.61, all P < 0.01]. Western Blot results showed that compared with the LPS group, NLRP3, ASC and TWIK2 protein expression were significantly up-regulated in the LPS+histones group (NLRP3/GAPDH: 0.80±0.02 vs. 0.57±0.02, ASC/GAPDH: 0.57±0.02 vs. 0.38±0.01, TWIK2/GAPDH: 0.65±0.01 vs. 0.41±0.01, all P < 0.01), and the expression of the above proteins were significantly down-regulated after heparin pretreatment (NLRP3/GAPDH: 0.28±0.02 vs. 0.80±0.02, ASC/GAPDH: 0.25±0.02 vs. 0.57±0.02, TWIK2/GAPDH: 0.35±0.01 vs. 0.65±0.01, all P < 0.01), indicating that histones could activate NLRP3 through TWIK2 to participate in inflammatory reaction. In addition, intracellular K+ concentration in LPS+histones group decreased significantly compared with the LPS group (fluorescence intensity: 35.48±2.53 vs. 83.92±3.11, P < 0.01). Compared with LPS+histones group, K+ concentration increased significantly after pretreatment with heparin (fluorescence intensity: 72.10±1.78 vs. 35.48±2.53, P < 0.01), indicating that extracellular histones could cause K+ massive efflux through TWIK2, and thus mediate NLRP3 activation and participate in inflammatory injury of alveolar macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular histones can cause inflammatory damage in alveolar macrophages, and its mechanism may be related to the activation of NLRP3 by extracellular histones activation of TWIK2 channel to promote K+ efflux.

12.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-4, 2020 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233670

RESUMEN

An eremophilane-type sesquiterpenoid (EPS), 3-oxo-eremophila-1,7(11)-dien-12,8ß-olide, has been isolated from anti-inflammatory folk herbs, Ligularia pleurocaulis. The aim of present study is to explore protective effects of EPS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in acute lung injury (ALI). EPS treatments (40 and 80 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated LPS-stimulated pathological changes in lungs. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro mechanism studies suggest that EPS exerts its protective effects on LPS-induced ALI by regulating macrophage polarisation via suppression of TLR4/MyD88-mediated MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, and EPS may be useful for the prevention on ALI in the clinical setting.

13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 623-630, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237522

RESUMEN

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of Faeces Bombycis(FB) on the intestinal microflora in rats with syndrome of damp retention in middle-jiao, and to explore its mechanism in regulating intestinal microflora from the perspective of microorganisms contained in FB. The contents of antidiuretic hormone(ADH) and C-reactive protein(CRP) in serum and aquaporin 3(AQP3) in jejunum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Illumina Miseq platform was used for high-throughput sequencing of the rat feces and FB. The ELISA results showed that as compared with the normal control group, the contents of ADH and CRP in the model group were significantly increased(P<0.05), and the content of AQP3 was significantly decreased(P<0.05). After drug administration, the ADH, CRP and AQP3 contents were recovered. Sequencing of rat feces showed that the ACE, Chao1 and Shannon indexes of the intestinal microflora were the lowest in the model group. As compared with the normal control group, the levels from phylum to genus were all significantly changed in model group, and Proteobacteria, Acinetobacter, Anaerobacter, Pseudomonas, and Parabacteroides levels were significantly increased(P<0.05), while Marvinbryantia level was significantly decreased(P<0.05). As compared with the model group, Proteobacteria was significantly decreased in the FB low and high dose groups(P<0.05), and Acinetobacter, Anaerobacter, Pseudomonas, Parabacteroides levels were significantly decreased in the low, medium and high dose groups(P<0.05), while Lachnoanaerobaculum, Intestinimonas and Marvinbryantia were increased significantly in the high dose group(P<0.05). Sequencing analysis of FB showed that the relative abundance of Leclercia, Pantoea, Brachybacterium, Shimwellia, Hartmannibacter, Klebsiella, Serratia, Aurantimonas, Paenibacillus and Bacillus was high in the FB, but they were basically not present or little in the rat feces. In conclusion, FB may play a role in the treatment of "syndrome of damp retention in middle-jiao" by balancing the intestinal microflora, and this effect may be related to the metabolites of microorganisms in the FB.

14.
J Food Prot ; 2020 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294180

RESUMEN

Colistin is used as one of the last-resort drugs against lethal infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae family of pathogens. Enterobacteriaceae bacteria carrying the mcr-1 colistin resistance gene are emerging in livestock and poultry, posing a serious threat to human health. However, the prevalence and transmission of mcr-1 along the regional chicken supply chain remain rarely reported. In this study, the complete sequences of mcr-1 -positive Escherichia coli ST2705 and ST206 isolates obtained by screening 129 chilled chicken samples and 251 chicken fecal samples were investigated. Both of these isolates showed resistance to colistin, and importantly, the complete sequence of the mcr-1 -positive E. coli ST2705 in China was reported for the first time. The mcr-1 gene was located on the IncHI2 plasmids pTBMCR421 (254,365 bp) and pTBMCR401 (230,964 bp) in strains ECCNB20-2 and ECZP248, respectively. Comparative analysis of mcr-1 -bearing IncHI2 plasmids showed a marked similarity, indicating that these plasmids are very common and have the ability to be efficient vehicles for mcr-1 dissemination among humans, animals and food. Furthermore, an insertion (IS Kpn26 ) in Tn 6330 (IS Apl1 - mcr- 1- pap2 -IS Apl1 ) was identified in the plasmid pTBMCR401 and then compared; this insertion might affect the adaptability and stability of Tn 6330 . Taken together, these findings suggest that the IncHI2 plasmid might be a main factor affecting the transmission of mcr-1 in the chicken supply chain and that the genetic context of the mcr-1 -bearing IncHI2 plasmid is constantly evolving.

15.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 49(1): 16, 2020 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252823

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a major disability among the elder population. Chronic inflammation is an important factor in the development of ARHI. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a key role in inflammation and may be associated with ARHI. The aim of this study is to analyze the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-1 receptor genes with ARHI in an elderly population in Taiwan. METHOD: Participants ≥65 years of age were recruited for audiometric tests and genetic analyses. The bilateral pure-tone average (PTA) of high-tone hearing levels was calculated for ARHI evaluation. The associations of SNPs of the IL-1 receptor type 1 gene (IL1R1) (rs3917225 and rs2234650) and type 2 gene (IL1R2) (rs4141134 and rs2071008) with ARHI were analyzed in 182 ARHI-susceptible (case) and 176 ARHI-resistant (control) participants. RESULTS: The G allele of IL1R1 rs3917225 showed a decreased risk of ARHI after adjustments for sex, age, and noise exposure. The GG genotype of IL1R1 rs3917225 in all hereditary models and the TT genotype of IL1R2 rs2071008 in the recessive model also showed decreased risks of ARHI after adjustments. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that IL1R1 and IL1R2 polymorphisms may contribute to the decreased risk of ARHI in the elderly population.

16.
Adv Biosyst ; 4(3): e1900219, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293141

RESUMEN

Colistin acts as a last-resort antibiotic against lethal infections by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterial pathogens. Enterobacteriaceae carrying mobile colistin resistance (MCR) genes are rapidly emerging and threatening human health and food safety. Despite mcr-1 being prevalent in Escherichia coli, its dissemination in Salmonella is not well characterized. Herein, two unusual serotypes of colistin-resistant Salmonella isolates are reported first, namely serotype Ngor (ST5399) and Goldcoast (ST2529). Using whole genome sequencing, it is shown that mcr-1 is located on the IncHI2-like plasmid pTB501 (188,527 bp) of strain SSDFZ54 and the IncX4-type plasmid pTB602 (33,303 bp) in strain SSDFZ69, respectively. Furthermore, the backbone, tra- and antimicrobial resistance genes relative variable regions in the mcr-1-bearing IncHI2 plasmids are systematically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis shows that all IncHI2-type plasmids from non-Chinese regions are clustered together, suggesting a possible Chinese origin. Taken together, these findings extend the understanding of Salmonella as a vehicle of mcr-1 carriage and distribution.

17.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240591

RESUMEN

A visible-light-induced, catalyst-free radical cross-coupling cyclization of diselenides or disulfides with N-allylbromodifluoroacetamide has been developed. This developed protocol exhibits good functional group tolerance and affords a variety of 4-thio- and 4-seleno-substituted 3,3-difluoro-γ-lactams in moderate to good yields. Based on control experiments, a plausible radical-radical cross-coupling pathway is proposed.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(19): 10593-10602, 2020 May 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332165

RESUMEN

A physiological role for long-chain acyl-CoA esters to activate ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels is well established. Circulating palmitate is transported into cells and converted to palmitoyl-CoA, which is a substrate for palmitoylation. We found that palmitoyl-CoA, but not palmitic acid, activated the channel when applied acutely. We have altered the palmitoylation state by preincubating cells with micromolar concentrations of palmitic acid or by inhibiting protein thioesterases. With acyl-biotin exchange assays we found that Kir6.2, but not sulfonylurea receptor (SUR)1 or SUR2, was palmitoylated. These interventions increased the KATP channel mean patch current, increased the open time, and decreased the apparent sensitivity to ATP without affecting surface expression. Similar data were obtained in transfected cells, rat insulin-secreting INS-1 cells, and isolated cardiac myocytes. Kir6.2ΔC36, expressed without SUR, was also positively regulated by palmitoylation. Mutagenesis of Kir6.2 Cys166 prevented these effects. Clinical variants in KCNJ11 that affect Cys166 had a similar gain-of-function phenotype, but was more pronounced. Molecular modeling studies suggested that palmitoyl-C166 and selected large hydrophobic mutations make direct hydrophobic contact with Kir6.2-bound PIP2 Patch-clamp studies confirmed that palmitoylation of Kir6.2 at Cys166 enhanced the PIP2 sensitivity of the channel. Physiological relevance is suggested since palmitoylation blunted the regulation of KATP channels by α1-adrenoreceptor stimulation. The Cys166 residue is conserved in some other Kir family members (Kir6.1 and Kir3, but not Kir2), which are also subject to regulated palmitoylation, suggesting a general mechanism to control the open state of certain Kir channels.

19.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e918746, 2020 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319429

RESUMEN

With the increasing incidence of male infertility, routine detection of semen is insufficient to accurately assess male fertility. Infertile men, who have lower odds of conceiving naturally, exhibit high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF). The mechanisms driving SDF include abnormal spermatogenesis, oxidative stress damage, and abnormal sperm apoptosis. As these factors can induce SDF and subsequent radical changes leading to male infertility, detection of the extent of SDF has become an efficient routine method for semen analysis. Although it is still debated, SDF detection has become a research hotspot in the field of reproductive medicine as a more accurate indicator for assessing sperm quality and male fertility. SDF may be involved in male infertility, reproductive assisted outcomes, and growth and development of offspring. The effective detection methods of SDF are sperm chromatin structure analysis (SCSA), terminal transferase-mediated dUTP end labeling (TUNEL) assay, single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, and sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test, and all of these methods are valuable for assisted reproductive techniques. Currently, the preferred method for detecting sperm DNA integrity is SCSA. However, the regulation network of SDF is very complex because the sperm DNA differs from the somatic cell DNA with its unique structure. A multitude of molecular factors, including coding genes, non-coding genes, or methylated DNA, participate in the complex physiological regulation activities associated with SDF. Studying SDF occurrence and the underlying mechanisms may effectively improve its clinical treatments. This review aimed to outline the research status of SDF mechanism and detection technology-related issues, as well as the effect of increased SDF rate, aiming to provide a basis for clinical male infertility diagnosis and treatment.

20.
Eur Urol ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249089

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel and lethal infectious disease, posing a threat to global health security. The number of cases has increased rapidly, but no data concerning kidney transplant (KTx) recipients infected with COVID-19 are available. To present the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of KTx recipients infected with COVID-19, we report on a case series of five patients who were confirmed as having COVID-19 through nucleic acid testing (NAT) from January 1, 2020 to February 28, 2020. The most common symptoms on admission to hospital were fever (five patients, 100%), cough (five patients, 100%), myalgia or fatigue (three patients, 60%), and sputum production (three patients, 60%); serum creatinine or urea nitrogen levels were slightly higher than those before symptom onset. Four patients received a reduced dose of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy during hospitalization. As of March 4, 2020 NAT was negative for COVID-19 in three patients twice in succession, and their computed tomography scans showed improved images. Although greater patient numbers and long-term follow-up data are needed, our series demonstrates that mild COVID-19 infection in KTx recipients can be managed using symptomatic support therapy combined with adjusted maintenance immunosuppressive therapy.

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