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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20305, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645831

RESUMEN

Allopurinol is the first-line agent for patients with gout, including those with moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease. However, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels are observed in patients with long-term allopurinol treatment. This large-scale, nested case-control, retrospective observational study analysed the association between allopurinol use and increased TSH levels. A common data model based on an electronic medical record database of 19,200,973 patients from seven hospitals between January 1997 and September 2020 was used. Individuals aged > 19 years in South Korea with at least one record of a blood TSH test were included. Data of 59,307 cases with TSH levels > 4.5 mIU/L and 236,508 controls matched for sex, age (± 5), and cohort registration date (± 30 days) were analysed. An association between the risk of increased TSH and allopurinol use in participants from five hospitals was observed. A meta-analysis (I2 = 0) showed that the OR was 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.32-1.72) in both the fixed and random effects models. The allopurinol intake group demonstrated that increased TSH did not significantly affect free thyroxine and thyroxine levels. After the index date, some diseases were likely to occur in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism. Allopurinol administration may induce subclinical hypothyroidism.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1003, 2021 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563128

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common pathogen that causes community-acquired pneumonia in school-age children. Macrolides are considered a first-line treatment for M. pneumoniae infection in children, but macrolide-refractory M. pneumoniae (MRMP) strains have become more common. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in MRMP treatment in children through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Two reviewers individually searched 10 electronic databases (Medline/Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and core Korean, Chinese, and Japanese journals) for papers published from January 1, 1990 to March 8, 2018. The following data for each treatment group were extracted from the selected studies: intervention (tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones/comparator), patient characteristics (age and sex), and outcomes (fever duration, hospital stay length, treatment success rate, and defervescence rates 24, 48, and 72 h after starting treatment). RESULTS: Eight studies involving 537 participants were included. Fever duration and hospital stay length were shorter in the tetracycline group than in the macrolide group (weighted mean difference [WMD] = - 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: - 2.55 to - 0.36, P = 0.009; and WMD = - 3.33, 95% CI: - 4.32 to - 2.35, P < 0.00001, respectively). The therapeutic efficacy was significantly higher in the tetracycline group than in the macrolide group (odds ratio [OR]: 8.80, 95% CI: 3.12-24.82). With regard to defervescence rate, patients in the tetracycline group showed significant improvement compared to those in the macrolide group (defervescence rate after 24 h, OR: 5.34, 95% CI: 1.81-15.75; after 48 h, OR 18.37, 95% CI: 8.87-38.03; and after 72 h, OR: 40.77, 95% CI: 6.15-270.12). There were no differences in fever improvement within 24 h in patients in the fluoroquinolone group compared to those in the macrolide group (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.25-5.00), although the defervescence rate was higher after 48 h in the fluoroquinolone group (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.41-5.51). CONCLUSION: Tetracyclines may shorten fever duration and hospital stay length in patients with MRMP infection. Fluoroquinolones may achieve defervescence within 48 h in patients with MRMP infection. However, these results should be carefully interpreted as only a small number of studies were included, and they were heterogeneous.


Asunto(s)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Neumonía por Mycoplasma , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Niño , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacología , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Macrólidos/farmacología , Macrólidos/uso terapéutico , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Tetraciclinas/farmacología , Tetraciclinas/uso terapéutico
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(35): e248, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490756

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prediction of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a key to improving the clinical outcomes, considering that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the collapse of healthcare systems in many regions worldwide. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with COVID-19 mortality and to develop a nomogram for predicting mortality using clinical parameters and underlying diseases. METHODS: This study was performed in 5,626 patients with confirmed COVID-19 between February 1 and April 30, 2020 in South Korea. A Cox proportional hazards model and logistic regression model were used to construct a nomogram for predicting 30-day and 60-day survival probabilities and overall mortality, respectively in the train set. Calibration and discrimination were performed to validate the nomograms in the test set. RESULTS: Age ≥ 70 years, male, presence of fever and dyspnea at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis, and diabetes mellitus, cancer, or dementia as underling diseases were significantly related to 30-day and 60-day survival and mortality in COVID-19 patients. The nomogram showed good calibration for survival probabilities and mortality. In the train set, the areas under the curve (AUCs) for 30-day and 60-day survival was 0.914 and 0.954, respectively; the AUC for mortality of 0.959. In the test set, AUCs for 30-day and 60-day survival was 0.876 and 0.660, respectively, and that for mortality was 0.926. The online calculators can be found at https://koreastat.shinyapps.io/RiskofCOVID19/. CONCLUSION: The prediction model could accurately predict COVID-19-related mortality; thus, it would be helpful for identifying the risk of mortality and establishing medical policies during the pandemic to improve the clinical outcomes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Nomogramas , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Probabilidad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
4.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(6): 3399-3408, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277036

RESUMEN

Background: The emergence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MRMP) has made its treatment challenging. A few guidelines have recommended fluoroquinolones (FQs) as second-line drugs of choice for treating MRMP in children under the age of eight, but concerns about potential adverse events (i.e., Achilles tendinopathy; AT) have been raised. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the use of FQs and the risk of AT in pneumonia in children under eight years of age. Methods: Children hospitalized with pneumonia (total of 2,213,807 episodes) from 2002 to 2017 were enrolled utilizing the Korean National Health Insurance Sharing Service (NHISS) database. The independent risk of FQs for AT was analyzed by a generalized estimating equation with adjustment for age, sex, and underlying diseases. Results: Among 2,213,807 episodes of pneumonia hospitalization, children in a total of 6,229 episodes (0.28%) were treated with FQs (levofloxacin 40.9%, ciprofloxacin 36.1%, moxifloxacin 11.6%, and others 11.4%). The FQ-exposure group showed a 0.19% (12/6,229) incidence of AT within 30 days after the first administration of FQ. The use of FQs increased the risk of AT (OR 3.00; 95% CI: 1.71-5.29), but became null after adjusting for age, sex, and underlying diseases (aOR 0.85; 95% CI: 0.48-1.51). All AT related to the use of FQs occurred after the use of ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, and not in children under eight years of age. Conclusions: AT was a rare adverse event of FQ use for childhood pneumonia, particularly under eight years of age. Clinicians could consider using FQs as a second-line option in the treatment of childhood pneumonia when there are no alternative therapeutic options.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1442, 2021 01 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446854

RESUMEN

Medical costs have recently increased in South Korea due to the rising rate of asthma. Primary clinics serve an important role in asthma management, as they are the first stop for patients presenting with symptoms. The Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) in South Korea has assessed asthma-management quality since 2013, but studies are lacking on whether these assessments have been performed properly and contribute toward reducing asthma exacerbations. Therefore, we investigated whether the HIRA's quality assessments have decreased asthma exacerbations using national health insurance claims data from 2013 to 2017 of 83,375 primary-clinic and 15,931 tertiary-hospital patients with asthma. These patients were classified into four groups based on disease severity according to the monthly prescribed amount of asthma medication using K-means clustering. The associations between HIRA assessments and asthma exacerbation were analyzed using a generalized estimating equation. Our results showed that exacerbation odds gradually decreased as the HIRA assessments progressed, especially in the mild-severity group, and that exacerbation risk among patients with asthma decreased in the order of assessment grades: "Unsatisfactory," "Satisfactory," and "Tertiary." Therefore, we may conclude that asthma exacerbations may decrease with high quality asthma management; appropriate quality assessment could be helpful in reducing asthma exacerbations.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Atención a la Salud , Hospitalización , Revisión de Utilización de Seguros , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Asma/epidemiología , Asma/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
6.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 13(1): 42-55, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191676

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Asthma is a heterogeneous airway disease occurring in children, and it has various clinical phenotypes. A clear differentiation of the clinical phenotypes can provide better asthma management and prediction of asthma prognosis. Little is currently known about asthma phenotypes in Korean children. This study was designed to identify asthma phenotypes in school-aged Korean children. METHODS: This study enrolled 674 children with physician-diagnosed asthma from the Korean childhood Asthma Study (KAS) cohort. The physicians verified the relevant histories of asthma and comorbid diseases, as well as airway lability and hyper-responsiveness from the results of pulmonary function tests and bronchial provocation tests. Questionnaires regarding the participants' baseline characteristics, their environment and self-rating of asthma control were collected at the time of enrollment. Laboratory tests were performed to assess allergy and airway inflammation. Children with asthma were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS: Of the 674 patients enrolled from the KAS cohort, 447 were included in the cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of these 447 children revealed 4 asthma phenotypes: cluster 1 (n = 216, 48.3%) which was characterized by male-dominant atopic asthma; cluster 2 (n = 79, 17.7%) which was characterized by early-onset atopic asthma with atopic dermatitis; cluster 3 (n = 47, 10.5%) which was characterized by puberty-onset, female-dominant atopic asthma with the low lung function; and cluster 4 (n = 105, 23.5%) which was characterized by early-onset, non-atopic dominant asthma. CONCLUSIONS: The asthma phenotypes among Korean children can be classified into 4 distinct clusters. Long-term follow-up with these phenotypes will be needed to define their prognosis and response to treatment.

7.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 125(6): 665-673.e1, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971247

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The effects of prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ranging from 0.1 µm to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) phenotypes have not been evaluated. DNA methylation and cord blood (CB) vitamin D could represent a plausible link between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and AD in an offspring. OBJECTIVE: To determine the critical windows of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on the AD phenotypes, if vitamin D modulated these effects, and if placental DNA methylation mediated these effects on AD in offspring. METHODS: Mother-child pairs were enrolled from the birth cohort of the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study. PM2.5 was estimated by land-use regression models, and CB vitamin D was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. AD was identified by the parental report of a physician's diagnosis. We defined the following 4 AD phenotypes according to onset age (by the age of 2 years) and persistence (by the age of 3 years): early-onset transient and persistent, late onset, and never. Logistic regression analysis and Bayesian distributed lag interaction model were used. DNA methylation microarray was analyzed using an Infinium Human Methylation EPIC BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, California) in placenta. RESULTS: PM2.5 exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy, especially during 6 to 7 weeks of gestation, was associated with early-onset persistent AD. This effect increased in children with low CB vitamin D, especially in those with PM2.5 exposure during 3 to 7 weeks of gestation. AHRR (cg16371648), DPP10 (cg19211931), and HLADRB1 (cg10632894) were hypomethylated in children with AD with high PM2.5 and low CB vitamin D. CONCLUSION: Higher PM2.5 during the first trimester of pregnancy and low CB vitamin D affected early-onset persistent AD, and the most sensitive window was 6 to 7 weeks of gestation. Placental DNA methylation mediated this effect.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Atópica/epidemiología , Exposición Materna/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Placenta/fisiología , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Vitamina D/sangre , Adulto , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Metilación de ADN , Dermatitis Atópica/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Corea (Geográfico)/epidemiología , Masculino , Fenotipo , Embarazo , Primer Trimestre del Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/diagnóstico
8.
Thromb Res ; 195: 243-249, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823239

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have the potential to increase bleeding due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In the present study, the risk of bleeding was evaluated when drugs with potential DDIs were simultaneously prescribed with DOACs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study included patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) who were newly prescribed DOACs between January 2014 and December 2016. RESULTS: The study included 115,362 patients with AF or VTE who were newly administered DOACs (median age, 73 years, range, 19-108 years; males, 53.0%; AF, 81.9%). A total of 7001 any bleeding (6.1%) and 2283 major bleeding (2.0%) events occurred with DOAC prescriptions. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, the number of DDIs was significantly associated with bleeding events independent of CHA2DS2-VASc score and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). The rates of exposure to DDI drugs associated with any bleeding and major bleeding were 56.7% and 66.1%, respectively. The most common DDI drugs showed similar distributions in any or major bleeding; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antiplatelet agents, diltiazem, and amiodarone were frequently prescribed. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians prescribing DOACs for AF or VTE should be aware of the increasing risk of bleeding associated with drugs having potential DDIs regardless of comorbidities.


Asunto(s)
Fibrilación Atrial , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Administración Oral , Anciano , Anticoagulantes/efectos adversos , Fibrilación Atrial/tratamiento farmacológico , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Hemorragia/inducido químicamente , Hemorragia/tratamiento farmacológico , Hemorragia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 132, 2020 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050912

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading worldwide causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Its disease burden varies by age and etiology and is time dependent. We aimed to investigate the annual and seasonal patterns in etiologies of pediatric CAP requiring hospitalization. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in 30,994 children (aged 0-18 years) with CAP between 2010 and 2015 at 23 nationwide hospitals in South Korea. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia was clinically classified as macrolide-sensitive MP, macrolide-less effective MP (MLEP), and macrolide-refractory MP (MRMP) based on fever duration after initiation of macrolide treatment, regardless of the results of in vitro macrolide sensitivity tests. RESULTS: MP and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were the two most commonly identified pathogens of CAP. With the two epidemics of MP pneumonia (2011 and 2015), the rates of clinical MLEP and MRMP pneumonia showed increasing trends of 36.4% of the total MP pneumonia. In children < 2 years of age, RSV (34.0%) was the most common cause of CAP, followed by MP (9.4%); however, MP was the most common cause of CAP in children aged 2-18 years of age (45.3%). Systemic corticosteroid was most commonly administered for MP pneumonia. The rate of hospitalization in intensive care units was the highest for RSV pneumonia, and ventilator care was most commonly needed in cases of adenovirus pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides fundamental data to establish public health policies to decrease the disease burden due to CAP and improve pediatric health.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/etiología , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/etiología , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/epidemiología , Femenino , Hospitales Pediátricos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrico/estadística & datos numéricos , Macrólidos/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/etiología , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/etiología , República de Corea/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/etiología , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano/patogenicidad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estaciones del Año
10.
J Asthma ; 57(6): 648-653, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969134

RESUMEN

Objective: Various numerical asthma control tools have been developed to distinguish different levels of symptom control. We aimed to examine whether the asthma control test (ACT) is reflective of objective findings such as lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and laboratory data in patients with stable asthma.Methods: We included patients who were enrolled in the Korean Childhood Asthma Study. ACT, spirometry, blood tests and FeNO were performed in patients after stabilization of their asthma. We examined differences among spirometry parameters, blood tests and FeNO according to control status as determined by ACT and investigated for any significant correlations.Results: The study population consisted of 441 subjects. Spirometry showed that forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity and FEV1/forced vital capacity were all significantly higher in the controlled asthma group. Likewise, FeNO and percent-change in FEV1 were both significantly lower in the controlled asthma group. In blood tests, the eosinophil fraction was significantly lower in the controlled asthma group while white blood cell count was significantly higher in the controlled asthma group. Lastly, among the various factors analyzed, only provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 significantly correlated with ACT score.Conclusion: ACT is useful as part of the routine evaluation of asthmatic children and should be used as a complement to existing tools such as spirometry and FeNO measurement.


Asunto(s)
Asma/diagnóstico , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adolescente , Asma/sangre , Asma/fisiopatología , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina E/sangre , Inflamación/sangre , Inflamación/diagnóstico , Inflamación/fisiopatología , Recuento de Leucocitos , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/análisis
11.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 12(1): 86-98, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743966

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Childhood asthma has a considerable social impact and economic burden, especially in severe asthma. This study aimed to identify the proportion of childhood asthma severity and to evaluate associated factors for greater asthma severity. METHODS: This study was performed on 667 children aged 5-15 years with asthma from the nationwide 19 hospitals in the Korean childhood Asthma Study (KAS). Asthma was classified as mild intermittent, mild persistent, and moderate/severe persistent groups according to the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program recommendations. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify the associated factors for greater asthma severity. RESULTS: Mild persistent asthma was most prevalent (39.0%), followed by mild intermittent (37.6%), moderate persistent (22.8%), and severe persistent asthma (0.6%). Onset later than 6 years of age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.69 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 1.92 for moderate/severe persistent asthma) tended to increase asthma severity. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (aOR, 1.53 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 1.85 for moderate/severe persistent asthma), and current dog ownership with sensitization to dog dander (aOR, 5.86 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 6.90 for moderate/severe persistent asthma) showed increasing trends with greater asthma severity. Lower maternal education levels (aOR, 2.32) and no usage of an air purifier in exposure to high levels of outdoor air pollution (aOR, 1.76) were associated with moderate/severe persistent asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Modification of identified environmental factors associated with greater asthma severity might help better control childhood asthma, thereby reducing the disease burden due to childhood asthma.

12.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(1): 245-253, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746563

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 ) exposure during each trimester of pregnancy and development of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) during the first 3 years of life and whether GSTM1 gene polymorphisms modify these effects. METHODS: This study included 1,180 mother-child pairs from the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases. The PM2.5 levels during pregnancy were estimated by residential address using land-use regression models based on a national monitoring system. A diagnosis of LRTIs was based on a parental report of a physician's diagnosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for GSTM1 genotyping. RESULTS: Higher PM2.5 exposure during the third trimester was associated with LRTIs at 1 year of age (aRR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00-1.13). This result did not change after adjusting for PM2.5 exposures during the first and second trimesters (aRR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.13). This association was significant after adjusting for PM2.5 exposures during first year of age (aRR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.15) and exposures to NO2 and ozone at the third trimester (aRR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16). In addition, PM2.5 exposure during the third trimester increased the risk of LRTIs at 1 year of age in cases with the GSTM1 null genotype (aRR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.01-1.57; P for interaction .20). CONCLUSION: Higher PM2.5 exposure during the third trimester of pregnancy may increase the susceptibility to LRTIs at 1 year of age. This effect is modified by GSTM1 gene polymorphisms.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Glutatión Transferasa/genética , Material Particulado/análisis , Tercer Trimestre del Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Exposición Materna , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Polimorfismo Genético , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/genética
13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 251, 2019 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852460

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common pathogens causing community acquired pneumonia in children. Although the rate of macrolide-refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) has increased, systemic glucocorticoids as a treatment option has not been validated yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of glucocorticoids add-on in the treatment of MRMP in children through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Data sources A systematic literature search was conducted using ten electronic bibliographic databases including English, Korean, Chinese and Japanese languages, up to March 8, 2018. Study selection The study was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist and selected randomized control trials which compared the efficacy of glucocorticoids add-on to macrolide in the treatment of MRMP in children. Data extraction Two independent reviewers extracted: primary outcomes as hospital days, fever duration, and change in C-reactive protein (CRP) and main analysis was performed through meta-analysis with random effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-four unique randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. The mean length of hospital stay in glucocorticoids treatment group was significantly shorter than that in conventional macrolide-treatment group (Weighted mean difference (WMD) = - 4.03 days). The mean length of fever duration was significantly shorter in the glucocorticoid treatment group in comparison with the conventional treatment group (WMD = -3.32 days). Level of CRP after treatment was significantly lower in the glucocorticoid treatment group than that in the conventional treatment group (WMD = -16.03). Sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis showed no significant improvement in heterogeneity. As limitations of the study, most of the studies included were from a single country and we were unable to control for heterogeneity across interventions, lack of standardized measures, and different time points of assessments across studies. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoid add-on treatment for MRMP can significantly shorten the duration of fever and hospital stay and decrease the level of CRP. These results should be confirmed by adequately powered studies in the future.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Macrólidos/uso terapéutico , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Proteína C-Reactiva/metabolismo , Niño , Preescolar , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Fiebre , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/metabolismo , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Tiempo , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(10): 960-968, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538431

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Many studies have reported that pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) can cause anaphylaxis. No comprehensive investigations into anaphylaxis in PFAS have been conducted, however. In this study, we investigated the clinical manifestations and risk factors for anaphylaxis in PFAS in Korean patients with pollinosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a nationwide cross-sectional study that previously reported on PFAS in Korean patients with pollinosis. Data from 273 patients with PFAS were collected, including demographics, list of culprit fruits and vegetables, and clinical manifestations of food allergy. We analyzed 27 anaphylaxis patients and compared them with patients with PFAS with oropharyngeal symptoms only (n=130). RESULTS: The most common cause of anaphylaxis in PFAS was peanut (33.3%), apple (22.2%), walnut (22.2%), pine nut (18.5%), peach (14.8%), and ginseng (14.8%). Anaphylaxis was significantly associated with the strength of sensitization to alder, hazel, willow, poplar, timothy, and ragweed (p<0.05, respectively). Multivariable analysis revealed that the presence of atopic dermatitis [odds ratio (OR), 3.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-10.23; p=0.017]; sensitization to hazel (OR, 5.27; 95% CI, 1.79-15.53; p=0.003), timothy (OR, 11.8; 95% CI, 2.70-51.64; p=0.001), or ragweed (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.03-9.87; p=0.045); and the number of culprit foods (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.15-1.37; p<0.001) were related to the development of anaphylaxis in PFAS. CONCLUSION: The most common culprit foods causing anaphylaxis in PFAS were peanut and apple. The presence of atopic dermatitis; sensitization to hazel, timothy, or ragweed; and a greater number of culprit foods were risk factors for anaphylaxis in PFAS.


Asunto(s)
Anafilaxia/etiología , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/complicaciones , Polen/efectos adversos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Factores de Riesgo , Síndrome
15.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221322, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487292

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Korea, several household humidifier disinfectants (HDs) were clinically confirmed to cause HD-associated lung injury (HDLI). Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) phosphate is the main ingredient of the HDs found to be associated with lung disease. However, the association of HDs with other interstitial lung disease including idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) is not clear. We examined the relationship between HD exposure and IIP in a family-based study. METHODS: This case-control study included 244 IIP cases and 244 family controls who lived with the IIP patients. The IIP cases were divided into two groups, HDLI and other IIP, and were matched to family controls based on age and gender. Information on exposure to HDs was obtained from a structured questionnaire and field investigations. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), investigating the association of HD-related exposure characteristics with IIP risk. RESULTS: The risks of IIP increased two-fold or more in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of several HD use characteristics, including average total use hours per day, cumulative sleep hours, use of HD during sleep, and cumulative exposure level. In analyses separated by HDLI and other IIP, the risks of HDLI were associated with airborne HD concentrations (adjusted OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.34-6.76; Q4 versus Q1) and cumulative exposure level (adjusted OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 1.59-8.01; Q4 versus Q1), but this relationship was not significant in the patients with other IIP. In comparison between HDLI and other IIP, the odds ratios of average total use hours, cumulative use hours, and cumulative sleeps hours was higher for other IIP. CONCLUSION: The use of household HDs is associated not only with HDLI but also with other IIP.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes/efectos adversos , Humidificadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonías Intersticiales Idiopáticas/etiología , Exposición por Inhalación/efectos adversos , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Neumonías Intersticiales Idiopáticas/epidemiología , Neumonías Intersticiales Idiopáticas/patología , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(31): e207, 2019 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392854

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate the nationwide prevalence of live births with Down syndrome (DS) and its trends and compare the observed and model-based predicted prevalence rates. Further, we compared the direct medical expenditures among DS and non-DS patients. METHODS: Using the health administrative data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment in Korea, we selected 2,301 children with DS who were born between 2007 and 2016 to estimate the prevalence of live births with DS, and 12,265 non-DS children who were born between 2010 and 2014 to compare the direct medical expenditures among patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of live births with DS was 5.03 per 10,000 births in 9 years, and 13% of children with DS were medical aid recipients during the study period. The medical expenditure of children with DS was about 10-fold higher than that of non-DS children and their out-of-pocket expenditure was about twice as high. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of live birth with DS is high in the low socioeconomic group and the healthcare costs for the children with DS are significantly higher than those for non-DS children. Therefore, health authorities should help mothers at lower socioeconomic levels to receive adequate antenatal care and consider the cost of medical care for children with DS.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Down/economía , Síndrome de Down/epidemiología , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Nacimiento Vivo , Adulto , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Geografía , Gastos en Salud , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Seguro de Salud/economía , Masculino , Edad Materna , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Diagnóstico Prenatal , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(26): e178, 2019 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269542

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is known as the greatest risk factor affecting the amputation of diabetic foot. Thus, it is crucial to understand the epidemiology of PAD associated with diabetic foot and the relationship between PTA and amputation in predicting prognosis. However, no such multi-year data are available in Korea. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate trends of amputation involving diabetic foot based on vascular interventions for PAD in Korea. METHODS: This study was conducted using six-year data obtained from Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2016. Our study included data pertaining to diabetic foot, PAD, and vascular intervention codes (percutaneous transluminal angioplasty [PTA, M6597], percutaneous intravascular installation of stent-graft [PIISG, M6605], and percutaneous intravascular atherectomy [PIA, M6620]). We analyzed the number of vascular interventions and minor and major amputations each year. The relationship between annual amputation and vascular intervention was analyzed using χ² test. RESULTS: The overall number of vascular interventions increased from 253 (PTA, 111; PIISG, 140; and PIA, 2) in 2011 to 1,230 (PTA, 745; PIISG, 470; and PIA, 15) in 2016. During the same period, the number of minor amputations increased from 2,534 to 3,319 while major amputations decreased from 980 to 956. The proportion of minor amputations among patients who underwent vascular intervention was significantly increased from 19.34% in 2011 to 21.45% in 2016 while the proportion of major amputations among these patients was significantly reduced from 9.88% to 4.27%. In addition, the association between vascular intervention and amputation increased from 0.56 (spearman correlation coefficient) in 2011 to 0.62 in 2016. CONCLUSION: In diabetic foot patients, increase in vascular intervention resulted in a change in amputation pattern, showing statistically significant correlation.


Asunto(s)
Amputación/tendencias , Pie Diabético/patología , Extremidad Inferior/cirugía , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Angioplastia , Aterectomía , Bases de Datos Factuales , Pie Diabético/complicaciones , Pie Diabético/cirugía , Humanos , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/complicaciones , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/terapia , República de Corea
18.
J Clin Med ; 8(5)2019 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130633

RESUMEN

Information about the epidemiology of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is likely to be crucial for predicting future disease progression and establishing a health care budget. We investigated the incidence and prevalence of DFU and PAD in Korea. In addition, we examined costs of treatments for DFU and PAD. This study was conducted using data from Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2016. The incidence of DFU with PAD was 0.58% in 2012 and 0.49% in 2016. The prevalence of DFU with PAD was 1.7% in 2011 to 1.8% in 2016. The annual amputation rate of DFU with PAD was 0.95% in 2012 and 1.10% in 2016. Major amputation was decreased, while minor amputation was increased. The direct cost of each group was increased, especially the limb saving group. which was increased from 296 million dollars in 2011 to 441 million dollars in 2016. The overall incidence of DFU with PAD was about 0.5% of total population in Korea, from 2012 to 2016. Furthermore, costs for treatments of diabetic foot ulcer are increasing, especially those for the limb saving group.

19.
Respir Med ; 150: 8-14, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961955

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic pulmonary disease characterized by progressive and irreversible bronchial dilatation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the etiologies and clinical features of bronchiectasis in Korean children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records for children diagnosed with bronchiectasis between 2000 and 2017 at 28 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. RESULTS: A total of 387 cases were enrolled. The mean age at diagnosis was 9.2 ±â€¯5.1 years and 53.5% of the patients were boys. The most common underlying cause of bronchiectasis was preexisting respiratory infection (55.3%), post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (14.3%), pulmonary tuberculosis (12.3%), and heart diseases (5.6%). Common initial presenting symptoms included chronic cough (68.0%), recurrent pneumonia (36.4%), fever (31.1%), and dyspnea (19.7%). The most predominantly involved lesions were left lower lobe (53.9%), right lower lobe (47.1%) and right middle lobe (40.2%). No significant difference was observed in the distribution of these involved lesions by etiology. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) levels were lowest in cases with interstitial lung disease-associated bronchiectasis, followed by those with recurrent aspiration and primary immunodeficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchiectasis should be strongly considered in children with chronic cough and recurrent pneumonia. Long-term follow-up studies on pediatric bronchiectasis are needed to further clarify the prognosis and reduce the disease burden in these patients.


Asunto(s)
Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/etiología , Bronquiectasia/terapia , Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/complicaciones , Adolescente , Bronquiectasia/fisiopatología , Bronquiolitis Obliterante/complicaciones , Bronquiolitis Obliterante/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Tos/diagnóstico , Tos/etiología , Disnea/diagnóstico , Disnea/etiología , Femenino , Fiebre/diagnóstico , Fiebre/etiología , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado/fisiología , Cardiopatías/complicaciones , Cardiopatías/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades Pulmonares/patología , Masculino , Neumonía/diagnóstico , Neumonía/etiología , Pronóstico , Recurrencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria/métodos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/complicaciones , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología
20.
Korean J Pediatr ; 62(6): 199-205, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999732

RESUMEN

Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) has been generally susceptible to macrolides, the emergence of macrolide-resistant MPP (MRMP) has made its treatment challenging. MRMP rapidly spread after the 2000s, especially in East Asia. MRMP is more common in children and adolescents than in adults, which is likely related to the frequent use of macrolides for treating M. pneumoniae infections in children. MRMP is unlikely to be related to clinical, laboratory, or radiological severity, although it likely prolongs the persistence of symptoms and the length of hospital stay. Thereby, it causes an increased burden of the disease and poor quality of life for the patient as well as a societal socioeconomic burden. To date, the only alternative treatments for MRMP are secondary antimicrobials such as tetracyclines (TCs) or fluoroquinolones (FQs) or systemic corticosteroids; however, the former are contraindicated in children because of concerns about potential adverse events (i.e., tooth discoloration or tendinopathy). A few guidelines recommended TCs or FQs as the second-line drug of choice for treating MRMP. However, there have been no evidence-based guidelines. Furthermore, safety issues have not yet been resolved. Therefore, this article aimed to review the benefits and risks of therapeutic alternatives for treating MRMP in children and review the recommendations of international or regional guidelines and specific considerations for their practical application.

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