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1.
J Neurol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555418

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of intensive statin in the acute phase of ischemic stroke after intravenous thrombolysis therapy. METHODS: A total of 310 stroke patients treated with rt-PA were randomly scheduled into the intensive statin group (rosuvastatin 20 mg daily × 14 days) and the control group (rosuvastatin 5 mg daily × 14 days). The primary clinical endpoint was excellent functional outcome (mRS ≤ 1) at 3 months, and the primary safety endpoint was symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) in 90 days. RESULTS: The intensive statin users did not achieve a favorable outcome in excellent functional outcome (mRS ≤ 1) at 3 months compared with controls (70.3% vs. 66.5%, p = 0.464). Intensive statin also not significantly improved the overall distribution of scores on the modified Rankin scale, as compared with controls (p = 0.82 by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test). The incidence of primary safety endpoint events (sICH) in 90 days did not significantly differ between the intensive statin group and control group (0.6% vs. 1.3%, p > 0.999). CONCLUSION: The INSPIRE study indicated that intensive statin therapy may not improve clinical outcomes compared with the low dose of statin therapy in AIS patients undergoing intravenous thrombolysis, and the two groups had similar safety profile. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.chictr.org . Unique identifier: ChiCTR-IPR-16008642.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571026

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of ginkgolide plus aspirin compared with placebo plus aspirin treatment of ischemic stroke. Background: Stroke is the leading cause of death and long-term disability in China, with high incidence, high mortality, and heavy disease burden. In addition to Western medicines, Chinese clinical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of acute ischemic stroke recommend application of Chinese patent medicines. Ginkgolide injection is commonly used in the clinical treatment of stroke in China to promote blood circulation and remove blood stasis. The economy of ginkgolide injection needs to be evaluated. Methods: A Markov model was constructed consisting of four disease states: no significant disability, disability, stroke recurrence, and death. Therapeutic data were taken from the Ginkgolide in Ischemic Stroke Patients with Large Artery Atherosclerosis (GISAA) study. Utilities and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature. Cost data were obtained from the China Health Statistics Yearbook and hospital record survey. Expected costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of 13 years of cycles (calculated by average age of subjects and Chinese life expectancy) were calculated through TreeAge Pro11 software. The willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold was set as the Chinese per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2019, CN¥70,892/QALY. The results were analyzed by single factor and probability sensitivity analyses. Results: Ginkgolide plus aspirin had a higher expected per-patient cost than placebo plus aspirin but a higher QALYs. Compared with placebo plus aspirin, ginkgolide plus aspirin produced an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CN¥14,866.06/QALY, which is below the WTP threshold. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested the acceptability of ginkgolide plus aspirin was higher than that of placebo plus aspirin. Conclusions: The present cost-effectiveness analysis showed that addition of ginkgolides to conventional treatment is cost-effective at a threshold the Chinese per capita GDP.

3.
Soft Matter ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595572

RESUMEN

During processing, proteins are easily self-assembled into different aggregates, such as nanoparticles and fibrils. Protein aggregates exhibit a strong interfacial activity due to their morphologies and functional groups on the surface. Their interfacial structure and rheological properties at the oil-water interface have a significant effect on the stability and fat digestion of emulsions in food. In this study, ß-lactoglobulin (ß-lg) aggregates including ß-lg nanoparticles (ß-lg NP) and ß-lg fibrils (ß-lg F) were prepared in solution by controlling the heating temperature and pH, and their surface properties including the electric potential, hydrophobicity, and density of free thiol groups were characterized. The adsorption kinetics, interfacial rheology, and displacement by bile salts (BSs) of native ß-lg and its aggregates at the oil (decane)/water interfaces were studied using particle tracking microrheology and dilatational rheology. From the movement of tracer particles at the interface, ß-lg NP and ß-lg F were found to adsorb faster than native ß-lg, and they were found to form interfacial films with a marginally higher elasticity. During the process of protein adsorption, the films of ß-lg and its aggregates are not uniform. In the process of protein displacement, ß-lg NP has the strongest ability while native ß-lg has the weakest ability to resist BS substitution, which is consistent with the results from in vitro digestion experiments. The present study reveals the microrheological behaviour of protein aggregates at the oil-water interface and demonstrates that ß-lg thermal aggregates exhibit an excellent emulsification ability and can be used to control fat digestion. The study also illustrates the applicability of microrheological methods to the study of interfacial rheology and its complementarity with dilatational rheological methods.

5.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(2): 293-302, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605798

RESUMEN

Olfaction is a complicated process that begins with the specific binding of volatile odorant molecules to dedicated olfactory receptors (ORs) in the olfactory epithelium and plays a pivotal role in the survival of mammals. The OR subgenome of the snow leopard has remained largely unexplored, and thus, investigation of the OR system would shed light on the evolutionary dynamics of the snow leopard OR repertoires and genetic evidence for environmental adaptation. In this study, we conducted genome-wide identification and characterization of OR genes in the snow leopard and compared them to all other Panthera species. A total of 213, 294, 624, 305, and 253 functional OR genes were identified in the snow leopard, lion, jaguar, leopard, and tiger, respectively. The phylogenetic relationships of functional Panthera OR genes were illustrated, which comprised 69 families and 350 subfamilies distributed in two classes (Class I and Class II). Comparative analysis of the five Panthera species indicated 115 shared and 5 snow leopard-specific clusters. The potential odorant specificity of certain snow leopard OR genes was identified by similarities to human protein sequences and we identified odorants such as eugenol methyl ether that had the most OR genes. Since our references for odorants were from human studies, possible odorants from snow leopard-specific OR genes need further investigation. The lowest number of OR genes for the snow leopard among Panthera species possibly revealed the association between OR gene family contraction and high-altitude adaptation, which needed further and deeper investigation. This systematic study of OR genes in the snow leopard will provide a solid foundation for further study of olfactory function and variation in the snow leopard.

6.
Neural Plast ; 2021: 8815144, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603780

RESUMEN

Purpose: This study is aimed at investigating brain structural changes and structural network properties in complete spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, as well as their relationship with clinical variables. Materials and Methods: Structural MRI of brain was acquired in 24 complete thoracic SCI patients (38.50 ± 11.19 years, 22 males) within the first postinjury year, while 26 age- and gender-matched healthy participants (38.38 ± 10.63 years, 24 males) were enrolled as control. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach and graph theoretical network analysis based on cross-subject grey matter volume- (GMV-) based structural covariance networks (SCNs) were conducted to investigate the impact of SCI on brain structure. Partial correlation analysis was performed to explore the relationship between the GMV of structurally changed brain regions and SCI patients' clinical variables, including injury duration, injury level, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS), International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) scale, Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), after removing the effects of age and gender. Results: Compared with healthy controls, SCI patients showed higher SDS score (t = 4.392 and p < 0.001). In the VBM analysis, significant GMV reduction was found in the left middle frontal cortex, right superior orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and left inferior OFC. No significant difference was found in global network properties between SCI patients and healthy controls. In the regional network properties, significantly higher betweenness centrality (BC) was noted in the right anterior cingulum cortex (ACC) and left inferior OFC and higher nodal degree and efficiency in bilateral middle OFCs, while decreased BC was noted in the right putamen in SCI patients. Only negative correlation was found between GMV of right middle OFC and SDS score in SCI patients (r = -0.503 and p = 0.017), while no significant correlation between other abnormal brain regions and any of the clinical variables (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: SCI patients would experience depressive and/or anxious feelings at the early stage. Their GMV reduction mainly involved psychology-cognition related rather than sensorimotor brain regions. The efficiency of regional information transmission in psychology-cognition regions increased. Greater GMV reduction in psychology region was related with more severe depressive feelings. Therefore, early neuropsychological intervention is suggested to prevent psychological and cognitive dysfunction as well as irreversible brain structure damage.

7.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 65, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622325

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Airway inflammation is a key feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) remain the main treatment for airway inflammation. Studies have noted the increased efficacy of ICS and long-acting beta 2 agonist (LABA) combination therapy in controlling exacerbations and improving airway inflammation than either monotherapy. Further studies have suggested that LABAs may have inherent anti-inflammatory potential, but this has not been well-studied. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that the LABA olodaterol can inhibit airway inflammation resulting from exposure to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) via its binding receptor, the ß2-adrenergic receptor. METHODS: Human bronchial epithelial brushing from patients with and without COPD were cultured into air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures and treated with or without olodaterol and RSV infection to examine the effect on markers of inflammation including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and mucus secretion. The cell line NCI-H292 was utilized for gene silencing of the ß2-adrenergic receptor via siRNA as well as receptor blocking via ICI 118,551 and butaxamine. RESULTS: At baseline, COPD-ALIs produced greater amounts of IL-8 than control ALIs. Olodaterol reduced RSV-mediated IL-8 secretion in both COPD and control ALIs and also significantly reduced Muc5AC staining in COPD-ALIs infected with RSV. A non-significant reduction was seen in control ALIs. Gene silencing of the ß2-adrenergic receptor in NCI-H292 negated the ability of olodaterol to inhibit IL-8 secretion from both RSV infection and lipopolysaccharide stimulus, as did blocking of the receptor with ICI 118,551 and butaxamine. CONCLUSIONS: Olodaterol exhibits inherent anti-inflammatory properties on the airway epithelium, in addition to its bronchodilation properties, that is mediated through the ß2-adrenergic receptor and independent of ICS usage.

8.
Arch Toxicol ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474615

RESUMEN

N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent modification of RNA in eukaryotes, and is associated with many cellular processes and even the development of cancers. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in m6A modification genes, including its "writers", "erasers" and "readers", might affect the m6A functions and associate with the susceptibility to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We first conducted a two-stage case-control study in Chinese population to interrogate all SNPs in 22 m6A modification genes. In the discovery stage, a total of 2735 SNPs were genotyped in 980 patients and 1991 controls. Then, the promising SNP was replicated in another independent population consisting of 858 cases and 2084 controls. As a result, we found the rs7495 in 3'UTR of hnRNPC was significantly associated with increased risk of PDAC in both stages (combined odds ratio = 1.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.32, P = 2.39 × 10-6). To further reveal the biological function of rs7495 and hnRNPC, we performed a series of biochemical experiments. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that rs7495G allele promoted hnRNPC expression through disrupting a putative binding site for has-miR-183-3p. Cell viability assay demonstrated that knockdown of hnRNPC suppressed the proliferation of PDAC cells. RNA-seq analysis suggested that as an m6A "reader", hnRNPC played an important role in RNA biological processes. In conclusion, our findings elucidated that rs7495G could confer higher risk of PDAC via promoting the expression of hnRNPC through a miRNA-mediated manner. These results provided a novel insight into the critical role of m6A modification in tumorigenesis.

9.
Soc Sci Med ; 270: 113656, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401218

RESUMEN

Spatial accessibility to medical services (SAMS) is one of the most important indicators to examine the convenience for people to get access to medical services. In China, the difficulty in getting access to medical services is a commonly appreciated social problem. To mitigate this problem, Chinese government established the hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system (HDTS) in 2005. However, there is no existing study to examine the HDTS from the perspective of SAMS. This paper therefore introduces an integrative method to analyze SAMS in adopting HDTS. The introduced integrative method is developed by referring to the existing 2SFCA method, a commonly applied method for analyzing SAMS, and the characteristics of HDTS are taken into consideration. The application of the integrative method is demonstrated with reference to a Chongqing case. The research findings suggest that: 1) A new method to evaluate SAMS in the context of HDTS is needed; 2) The integrative method developed in this study is proven effective for analyzing SAMS in the context of HDTS through the case study; 3) The case results reveal that the implementation of HDTS can significantly improve the overall SAMS performance in Chongqing; 4) The desirable referral rate of HDTS is 1.24% in the case study by comparing the SAMS performance between different referral rates.

10.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 43, 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509116

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A series of evidence revealed that body mass index was an important confounding factor in the research of uric acid and ischemic heart disease/hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate whether obesity status can modify the association between serum uric acid and the severity of liver damage in NAFLD, and the possible interactive effect of hyperuricemia and obesity. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a total of 557 ultrasound diagnosed-NAFLD. The hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis were quantitatively evaluated by transient elastography. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid > 420 µmol/L in men, > 360 µmol/L in women and obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. The adjusted OR values of hyperuricemia and obesity were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis, and the additive model was used to investigate the possible interactive effect. RESULTS: Multivariate regression analysis showed that hyperuricemia was associated with serious hepatic steatosis (1.74[1.09-2.79]) and elevated ALT (2.17[1.38-3.41]), but not with advanced fibrosis (1.61[0.91-2.85]). The association was further investigated in different BMI group. Hyperuricemia was associated with higher odds of serious hepatic steatosis (2.02[1.14-3.57]) and elevated ALT (2.27[1.37-3.76]) only in obese NAFLD, not in non-obese subjects. Similarly, patients with hyperuricemia had higher odds of advanced fibrosis in obese subjects (2.17[1.13-4.18]), not in non-obese subjects (0.60[0.14-2.70]). Furthermore, there was an additive interaction between hyperuricemia and obesity on the odds of serious hepatic steatosis (AP: 0.39[0.01-0.77]) and advanced fibrosis. (AP: 0.60[0.26-0.95]). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperuricemia and obesity had a significantly synergistic effect on the hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. Thus, management of uric acid may need to be targeted in obese NAFLD.

11.
Chemosphere ; 269: 129403, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385664

RESUMEN

Disposal of dredged river sediment requires decreases in both water content for reduction in disposal area, and the amount of eutrophication pollutants at risking of leaching. The effects of CaCl2, polyferric sulfate (PFS) and calcified polyferric sulfate (CaPFS) on dewatering and phosphorus immobilization were examined. Upon CaPFS dosage of 1.88 mg Ca + Fe kg-1 raw sediment (RS) the moisture content of the sediment was 41.1 wt% after pressure filtration, with filtrate dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) of 6.1 mg L-1; better outcomes than for equivalent dosages of CaCl2 or PFS. On CaPFS dosage of 4.98 mg Ca + Fe kg-1 RS, DIP in the filtrate was <0.5 mg L-1. Dosages of CaCl2 and PFS required to achieve <0.5 mg L-1 DIP were 6.79 mg Ca kg-1 RS and 5.64 mg Fe kg-1 RS. CaPFS aids particle surface charge neutralization and sweep flocculation by polymeric iron, improving dehydration efficiency. Synergistic effects of aqueous Ca and Fe promote P stability reducing DIP mobility. For treatment of 10000 m3 of this dredged sediment, CaPFS has the potential to reduce the discharge of eutrophicated water by 74 ± 6% compared with PAC + PAM conditioning, demonstrating the promising application of CaPFS conditioning.

12.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111382, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069143

RESUMEN

The efficiency, accuracy and universality of ecological assessment methods comprise an important foundation for comprehensive assessment and restoration of large river ecological health at the watershed scale. New evaluation metrics and methods are urgently needed to be developed to adapt the characteristics of large rivers, including geographical differences in surface runoff, regional ecological complexity, and seasonal changes. In this study, a bacteria-weighted index of biotic integrity was developed to assess the ecological health of large rivers (lrBW-IBI) based on compositional and functional characteristics of sediment bacterial communities from 33 sections of the lower mainstream of Yangtze River. Five key metrics were determined by range, responsiveness, and redundancy tests. Principal component analysis (PCA), entropy method, criteria importance through intercriteria correlation and random forest were applied to calculate weighted coefficients of key metrics. The optimal lrBW-IBI was observed through the sum of PCA weighted-metrics: the relative abundance of Latescibacteria (0.234), Gemmatimonadaceae (0.149), Nitrospira spp. (0.234), Rhizobiales (0.228), and nitrogenase NifH (0.156). According to PCA based lrBW-IBI, 12.12%, 24.24%, 39.39%, and 24.24% of river sections were labeled excellent, good, moderate, and relatively poor, respectively. The ecological status of the lower mainstream of the Yangtze River did not change significantly across seasons but declined gradually from upstream to downstream. This study provides a new assessment tool for the ecological health of large rivers and highlights the importance of microbial ecological index in river ecology.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ríos , Bacterias , China , Ecosistema , Análisis de Componente Principal , Estaciones del Año
13.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115580, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254665

RESUMEN

Sertraline is a widely used antidepressant that becomes an aquatic pollutant through metabolic excretion and improper disposal. Determining the impact of sertraline on benthic microbial ecosystems is important for the transformation of river biogenic elements. However, the molecular initiating event induced by sertraline is more readily observed at higher levels, such as the individual or population level of larger organisms, and the effect is not pronounced in benthic organisms, which are directly involved in nitrogen transformation. Therefore, this study used DNA metabarcoding to analyze the effect of sertraline on the microbial ecosystem and material cycles in river sediment through the lens of a microbial food web. The presence of sertraline in the river sediment enhanced the mineralization capacity of nitrogen and increased the accumulation of nitrate in the sediment. Sertraline affected the structure of the microbial food web by stimulating different successions of bacteria and eukaryotes. A structural equation model revealed that sertraline affected the microbial food web model through top-down forces (predation) by reducing the trophic transfer efficiency from metazoans to protozoans. This effect resulted in decreases in the trophic transfer efficiency from protozoans to bacteria and increases in nitrogen mineralization capacity. This was followed by a gradual increase in the nitrification reaction under the action of nitrifying bacteria, increasing the threat to the ecological health of rivers. The results show that sertraline affects the material cycle of river ecosystems and emphasizes that the assessment of the ecological risks of sertraline needs to be considered from the perspective of the material cycle of ecosystems.

14.
Immun Ageing ; 17(1): 35, 2020 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292361

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previously, we and others have reported higher populations of circulating neutrophils in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, also known as lipocalin-2, LCN2), an important innate immune mediator, is known to be critically involved in sterile inflammation-mediated organ failure, fibrosis, cancer progression and retinal degeneration. This study investigated the plasma levels of LCN2, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and LCN2/MMP9 complex in different types of nAMD and examined whether the levels were related to patients' responsiveness to anti-VEGF therapy. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-four nAMD patients, including 108 with choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), 32 with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), 23 with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and 11 unclassified patients, and 43 healthy controls were recruited to this case-control study. Fifty-eight nAMD patients had macular fibrosis and 110 patients did not. Out of the 174 nAMD patients, 80 patients responded completely, 90 responded partially, and 4 did not respond to the anti-VEGF therapy. The plasma levels of LCN2 in nAMD patients (181.46 ± 73.62 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (152.24 ± 49.55 ng/ml, P = 0.047). However, the difference disappeared after adjusting for age. A positive correlation between plasma level of LCN2 and age was observed in nAMD patients (r = 0.29, P = 0.0002) but not in healthy controls. The plasma level of LCN2 was also positively correlated with circulating neutrophils in nAMD patients (r = 0.34, p = 0.0007) but not in healthy controls (r = 0.057, p = 0.77). No correlation was observed between age and circulating neutrophils. Further analysis of nAMD subtypes uncovered a significantly higher level of LCN2 in patients with macular fibrosis even after adjusting for age. No relationship was observed between plasma levels of LCN2 and patients' responsiveness to anti-VEGF therapy. The plasma levels of MMP9 and LCN2/MMP9 complex were comparable between nAMD and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher plasma levels of LCN2 in nAMD are related to ageing and increased population of circulating neutrophils. Our results also suggest that higher levels of LCN2 may increase the risk of macular fibrosis in nAMD.

15.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270448

RESUMEN

Decoding the structural information contained in the interfacial vibrational spectrum of water requires understanding how the spectral signatures of individual water molecules respond to their local hydrogen bonding environments. In this study, we isolated the contributions for the five classes of sites that differ according to the number of donor (D) and acceptor (A) hydrogen bonds that characterize each site. These patterns were measured by exploiting the unique properties of the water cluster cage structures formed in the gas phase upon hydration of a series of cations M+·(H2O)n (M = Li, Na, Cs, NH4, CH3NH3, H3O, and n = 5, 20-22). This selection of ions was chosen to systematically express the A, AD, AAD, ADD, and AADD hydrogen bonding motifs. The spectral signatures of each site were measured using two-color, IR-IR isotopomer-selective photofragmentation vibrational spectroscopy of the cryogenically cooled, mass selected cluster ions in which a single intact H2O is introduced without isotopic scrambling, an important advantage afforded by the cluster regime. The resulting patterns provide an unprecedented picture of the intrinsic line shapes and spectral complexities associated with excitation of the individual OH groups, as well as the correlation between the frequencies of the two OH groups on the same water molecule, as a function of network site. The properties of the surrounding water network that govern this frequency map are evaluated by dissecting electronic structure calculations that explore how changes in the nearby network structures, both within and beyond the first hydration shell, affect the local frequency of an OH oscillator. The qualitative trends are recovered with a simple model that correlates the OH frequency with the network-modulated local electron density in the center of the OH bond.

16.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 6687185, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299529

RESUMEN

Mitochondria are major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cell and are especially vulnerable to oxidative stress. Oxidative damage to mitochondria results in disrupted mitochondrial function and cell death signaling, finally triggering diverse pathologies such as epilepsy, a common neurological disease characterized with aberrant electrical brain activity. Antioxidants are considered as promising neuroprotective strategies for epileptic condition via combating the deleterious effects of excessive ROS production in mitochondria. In this review, we provide a brief discussion of the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and evidences that support neuroprotective roles of antioxidants targeting mitochondrial oxidative stress including mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, polyphenols, vitamins, thiols, and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activators in epilepsy. We point out these antioxidative compounds as effectively protective approaches for improving prognosis. In addition, we specially propose that these antioxidants exert neuroprotection against epileptic impairment possibly by modulating cell death interactions, notably autophagy-apoptosis, and autophagy-ferroptosis crosstalk.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373206

RESUMEN

Solid oxide photoelectrochemical cells (SOPECs) with inorganic ion-conducting electrolytes provide an alternative solution for light harvesting and conversion. Exploring potential photoelectrodes for SOPECs and understanding their operation mechanisms are crucial for continuously developing this technology. Here, ceria-based thin films were newly explored as photoelectrodes for SOPEC applications. It was found that the photoresponse of ceria-based thin films can be tuned both by Sm-doping-induced defects and by the heating temperature of SOPECs. The whole process was found to depend on the surface electrochemical redox reactions synergistically with the bulk photoelectric effect. Samarium doping level can selectively switch the open-circuit voltages polarity of SOPECs under illumination, thus shifting the potential of photoelectrodes and changing their photoresponse. The role of defect chemistry engineering in determining such a photoelectrochemical process was discussed. Transient absorption and X-ray photoemission spectroscopies, together with the state-of-the-art in operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy, allowed us to provide a compelling explanation of the experimentally observed switching behavior on the basis of the surface reactions and successive charge balance in the bulk.

18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373458

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Active surveillance (AS) of thyroid cancer with serial ultrasounds is a newer management option in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To understand factors associated with adoption of AS. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: We surveyed endocrinologists and surgeons in the American Medical Association Masterfile. To estimate adoption, respondents recommended treatment for two hypothetical cases appropriate for AS. Established models of guideline implementation guided questionnaire development. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Adoption of AS (non-adopters vs adopters, who respectively did not recommend or recommended AS at least once; partial vs full adopters, who respectively recommended AS for one or both cases). RESULTS: The 464 respondents (33.3% response) demographically represented specialties that treat thyroid cancer. Non-adopters (45.7%) were significantly (p<0.001) less likely than adopters to: practice in academic settings, see >25 thyroid cancer patients/year, be aware of AS, use applicable guidelines (p=0.04), know how to determine a patient is appropriate for AS, have resources to perform AS, or be motivated to use AS. Non-adopters were also significantly more likely to be anxious or have reservations about AS, be concerned about poor outcomes, or believe AS places a psychological burden on patients. Among adopters, partial and full adopters were similar except partial adopters were less likely to discuss AS with patients (p=0.03) and more likely to be anxious (p=0.04), have reservations (p=0.03), and have concerns about the psychological burden (p=0.009) of AS. Few respondents (3.2%) believed patients were aware of AS. CONCLUSIONS: Widespread adoption of AS will require increased patient and physician awareness, interest, and evaluation of outcomes.

19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347783

RESUMEN

Objective: The effectiveness and feasibility of the primary closure after laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) have been well demonstrated, however, the incidence of postoperative bile leakage after LCBDE remains high. The current study aimed at investigating whether our new suturing method could reduce the risk of bile leakage after LCBDE. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 81 patients who underwent primary two-layered closure or traditional primary closure of the common bile duct (CBD) after LCBDE, and the related clinical data were compared and analyzed. Results: The primary two-layered closure group had a lower rate of bile leakage compared with the traditional primary closure group (P < .05). There were no significant differences in additional parameters, such as operative time, estimated blood loss, postoperative stay duration, time to drain removal, postoperative pancreatitis, stone recurrence, and overall morbidity. No patients developed bile duct stenosis during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Primary two-layered closure of CBD can reduce the postoperative bile leakage after LCBDE. Moreover, it is a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with choledocholithiasis.

20.
Yi Chuan ; 42(11): 1110-1121, 2020 Nov 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229317

RESUMEN

The transcription of eukaryotic genes is regulated by both proximal promoters and distal enhancers. Some promoters also have enhancer activity. NOXA and BCL2 are pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family of protein, respectively. Our previous study has found that the NOXA gene promoter and the BCL2 gene promoter interact at the level of three-dimensional chromatin structure. Moreover, the NOXA gene promoter region displays histone modifications characteristic of both promoters and enhancers. This study aimed to explore whether and when the NOXA promoter could act as an active enhancer to regulate BCL2 expression. Based on the apoptosis model of MCF-7 cells induced by camptothecin, we used chromosome conformation capture (3C), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the luciferase reporter gene technology to demonstrate that the NOXA promoter could function as an active enhancer and physically interact with the BCL2 promoter through chromatin looping. The regulatory properties of the NOXA promoter were closely related to the strength of the apoptosis stimulation. Under weak apoptotic stimulation (1 µmol/L camptothecin treatment), the NOXA promoter mainly functioned as an enhancer; with the enhancement of apoptotic stimulation (10 µmol/L camptothecin treatment), the NOXA promoter activity increased and mainly regulated the expression of the gene itself to promote apoptosis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) confirmed that the dynamic changes of the promoter activity and enhancer activity in the NOXA promoter region are consistent with its histone modification marks. This study provides new clues for further exploring the mechanism underlying cooperative response of BCL2 family member to apoptosis stimuli.

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