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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124919, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676353

RESUMEN

Links between synergy and microbial community characteristics in co-digestion of food waste (FW), cattle manure (CM) and corn straw (CS) were investigated. Mono-digestion of FW and CS were inhibited by organic acids. Co-digestion of FW with CM achieved greater synergistic rates (18.5% and 22.3%) than CM with CS (14.8% and 12.3%). Synergy resulted from coupling effects of improving nutrient balance, dilution of toxic compounds, higher buffering capacity, detoxification based on co-metabolism, which ultimately reflected in microbial community functions. Although co-digestion of FW with CS exhibited lowest synergistic rates (7.9% and 4.9%), detoxification based on co-metabolism of syntrophic communities of Syntrophomonadaceae with hydrogenotrophic methanogens accelerated system recovery. Digester with the greatest synergy (65% FW + 35% CM) maintained dominant growth of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (68.9%), highest methanogenic community diversity and relative abundance of Methanosarcina (14.6%), which sustained more diverse and switchable methanogenic pathways therefore ensured powerful methanogenic functions and vigorous methanogenic capability.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Eliminación de Residuos , Anaerobiosis , Animales , Biocombustibles , Reactores Biológicos , Bovinos , Digestión , Alimentos , Estiércol , Metano , Zea mays
2.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111772, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310238

RESUMEN

This study investigated responses of anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste (FW) with different inocula to varying organic loads and to pH control under high load in terms of process performance and microbial characteristics. Without pH control, digester inoculated by thickened sludge obtained high methane yield of 547.8 ± 27.8 mL/g VS under organic load of 7.5 g VS/L but was inhibited by volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under higher loads (15 and 30 g VS/L). However, digesters inoculated by anaerobic sludge obtained high methane yields of 575.9 ± 34.2, 569.3 ± 24.8 and 531.9 ± 26.2 mL/g VS under organic loads of 7.5, 15 and 30 g VS/L and VFAs inhibition only appeared under extremely high load of 45 g VS/L. Digesters under VFA inhibition with high load were significantly enhanced by controlling single ecological factor pH at 6.5, 7.0 and 7.5, as indicated by shorter lag phases, higher peak values of methane production rate, greater methane yields and fast VFAs degradation. Maximum methane recovery was obtained with pH control at 7.5 under high load. VFA inhibition was accompanied by the degeneration of ecological functions of Syntrophomonadaceae and unidentified Bacteroidales and the dominant growth of unidentified Clostridiales. Under high load and pH control, high stability was strongly associated with obvious growth of Methanosarcina, which enriched methanogenic pathways thus improved system robustness and tolerance to VFAs. Moreover, pH control stimulated the growth of syntrophic Bacteria Syntrophomonadaceae while maintaining the high activity of hydrogenotrophic methanogens therefore sustained efficient syntrophic communities of Bacteria and methanogens and avoided over accumulation of VFAs. pH control promoted adaptive selection of methanogens, leading to obvious decline of archaeal community diversity. This study provided practical guidance on digester configurations of high-load AD of FW and expanded the understanding of responses to coupling effects of inoculum origins, organic loads and pH control under high load concerning process performance and microbial community dynamics.


Asunto(s)
Reactores Biológicos , Eliminación de Residuos , Anaerobiosis , Alimentos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Metano
3.
Seizure ; 84: 78-83, 2020 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307464

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The underlying pathophysiology of juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) is unclear. Since cortical and subcortical brain regions are thought to be altered in genetic generalized epilepsy, the present study examined the resting-state functional network topology of the same regions in JAE. METHODS: Electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) were performed on 18 JAE patients and 28 healthy controls (HCs). The topology of functional networks was analyzed using the graph-theoretic method. Both global and nodal network parameters were calculated, and parameters differing significantly between the two groups were correlated with clinical variables. RESULTS: Both JAE patients and HCs had small-world functional network topological architectures. However, JAE patients showed higher values for the global parameters of clustering coefficient (Cp) and normalized characteristic path length (Lambda). At the nodal level, patients exhibited greater centrality at widespread cortices, including the left superior parietal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right orbital part of middle frontal gyrus and bilateral supplementary motor area. Conversely, patients showed decreased nodal centrality predominantly in the limbic network, left thalamus and right caudate nucleus. Degree centrality in the right hippocampus and betweenness centrality in the right caudate nucleus positively correlated with epilepsy duration. CONCLUSION: The global functional network of JAE shows small-world properties, but tends to be regular with higher segregation and lower integration. Regions in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical network have aberrant nodal centrality. The hippocampus and caudate nucleus may reorganize as epilepsy progresses. Our findings indicate the pathogenesis and compensatory mechanisms to seizure attacks and cognitive deficits of JAE.

4.
ACS Omega ; 5(44): 28597-28605, 2020 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195911

RESUMEN

The structure of a Ni/Al2O3 monolithic catalyst after methanation reaction and its methanation performance were studied by taking analogue syngas of biomass gasification H2/CO/N2 as feed gas when the temperature ranged from 250 to 550 °C, and the weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) was between 6000 and 14,000 mL g-1 h-1. The Ni/Al2O3 catalysts using cordierite honeycomb ceramics as the substrate were prepared by dipping and sol-gel methods. The results show that the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by the dipping method (DIP-Ni/Al2O3) has better methanation performance than the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method (SG-Ni/Al2O3) through many tests such as TEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPD, H2-TPR, and TG analysis. The DIP-Ni/Al2O3 catalyst exhibits the best methanation performance at 400 °C when the molar ratio of H2, CO, and N2 is 3/1/1 and the WHSV is 10,000 mL g-1 h-1. Under this condition, the CO conversion and CH4 selectivity are 98.6 and 90.9%, respectively. In addition, the methanation performance of the DIP-Ni/Al2O3 catalyst is relatively more stable, and the CO conversion and CH4 selectivity were basically maintained at around 90% within the experimental WHSV range. The influence of Ni content on the methanation performance of the DIP-Ni/Al2O3 catalyst can be seen in the order from high to low of methanation performance: 15% Ni, 20% Ni, and 10% Ni, and the maximum values of CO conversion and CH4 selectivity reach 96.8 and 96%, respectively, at 400 °C for 15% Ni/Al2O3.

5.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058379

RESUMEN

This study explores the topological properties of brain gray matter (GM) networks in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) and asks whether GM network features have potential diagnostic value. We used 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and graph theoretical approaches to investigate the topological organization of GM morphological networks in 87 PKD patients and 115 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We applied a support vector machine to GM morphological network matrices to classify PKD patients versus healthy controls. Compared with the HC group, the GM morphological networks of PKD patients showed significant abnormalities at the global level, including an increase in characteristic path length (Lp) and decreases in local efficiency (Eloc ), clustering coefficient (Cp), normalized clustering coefficient (γ), and small-worldness (σ). The decrease in Cp was significantly correlated with disease duration and age of onset. The GM morphological networks of PKD patients also showed significant changes in nodal topological characteristics, mainly in the basal ganglia-thalamus circuitry, default-mode network and central executive network. Finally, we used the GM morphological network matrices to classify individuals as PKD patients versus healthy controls, achieving 87.8% accuracy. Overall, this study demonstrated disruption of GM morphological networks in PKD, which might extend our understanding of the pathophysiology of PKD; further, GM morphological network matrices might have the potential to serve as network neuroimaging biomarkers for the diagnosis of PKD.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123796, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682261

RESUMEN

Role of trace elements (TEs) in long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) under fixed and stepwise increasing loads and under early and medium volatile fatty acid (VFA) inhibition was investigated. Digesters under high load suffered VFA inhibition. Mismatch between scarce TEs in FW and essential TEs for sustainable methanogenesis suppressed Methanosaeta causing blocked aceticlastic methanogenesis and shift to CO2 reduction pathway, as indicated by decreased Methanosaeta from above 70.0% to below 42.0% and enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanospirillum, Methanoculleus, Methanobacterium) from below 15.0% to above 53.6%. Dual stresses of VFA inhibition and TEs deficiency resulted in recession of syntrophic Bacteria Syntrophomonadaceae. Conversely, digesters with TEs supplementation maintained high activity of Syntrophomonadaceae and ensured predominant aceticlastic methanogenesis and powerful methanogenic community functions. Early and medium VFA inhibition were reversed by TEs supplementation or coupling with pH adjustment by stimulating VFAs degradation via syntrophic metabolism and unclogging acetate conversion via aceticlastic methanogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Eliminación de Residuos , Oligoelementos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Metano
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(33): 41970-41986, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705549

RESUMEN

A novel route is developed for regeneration of deactivated commercial NH3-SCR catalysts, which includes an initial in situ construction of anatase TiO2 porous film, followed by loading of MnOx, CeOx, and Mn-Ce mixed oxides as active components. The regenerated catalysts present largely improved low-temperature denitrification performance due to the synergetic effect of MnOx and CeOx. The denitrification efficiency could reach a high value of 97% at 200 °C and 100% at 250 °C when the Ce-Mn mixed oxides are loaded at the optimized molar quantity ratio of 10:9 (Ce:Mn). Properties and reaction mechanisms of the regenerated catalysts are investigated with characterizations of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Our results demonstrate that the adsorption and oxidation of NO plays a crucial role for these three catalysts even though a difference exists on the reaction pathways. Graphical abstract.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco , Frío , Catálisis , Oxidación-Reducción , Óxidos , Temperatura
8.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(14): 3855-3866, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592228

RESUMEN

This study explored the topological characteristics of brain white matter structural networks in patients with Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia (PKD), and the potential influence of the brain network stability gene PRRT2 on the structural connectome in PKD. Thirty-five PKD patients with PRRT2 mutations (PKD-M), 43 PKD patients without PRRT2 mutations (PKD-N), and 40 demographically-matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Graph theory and network-based statistic (NBS) approaches were performed; the topological properties of the white matter structural connectome were compared across the groups, and their relationships with the clinical variables were assessed. Both disease groups PKD-M and PKD-N showed lower local efficiency (implying decreased segregation ability) compared to the HC group; PKD-M had longer characteristic path length and lower global efficiency (implying decreased integration ability) compared to PKD-N and HC, independently of the potential effects of medication. Both PKD-M and PKD-N had decreased nodal characteristics in the left thalamus and left inferior frontal gyrus, the alterations being more pronounced in PKD-M patients, who also showed abnormalities in the left fusiform and bilateral middle temporal gyrus. In the connectivity characteristics assessed by NBS, the alterations were more pronounced in the PKD-M group versus HC than in PKD-N versus HC. As well as the white matter alterations in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit related to PKD with or without PRRT2 mutations, findings in the PKD-M group of weaker small-worldness and more pronounced regional disturbance show the adverse effects of PRRT2 gene mutations on brain structural connectome.

9.
J Neurol Sci ; 411: 116702, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058179

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed aberrant basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) with drug treatment. This study aims to investigate the topological organization of functional networks in drug-naive PKD. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was performed in 24 drug-naive PKD patients and 24 age, gender and mean framewise displacement (FD)-matched healthy controls (HCs). The network topological properties (including global and nodal measures) were analyzed between two groups by using graph-based theoretical approaches. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed between significant metrics and duration of disease and the age of onset of patients with PKD. RESULTS: Compare to HCs, the drug-naïve PKD patients showed increased nodal centralities mainly in left precentral gyrus, basal ganglia and limbic regions and decreased nodal centralities in the temporal pole. Our results showed that drug-naïve PKD patients presented the small-world topology and at the global level no significant differences were found between PKD and HCs. In the correlation analysis, the increased nodal efficiency in the left pallidum was positively correlated with the onset of age. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings supported the previous observation of the disruptive cortical-basal ganglia circuitry in PKD patients, but difference in that the prominent change of precentral area and temporal pole were also observed in our study when the potential impact of drug was excluded. These findings may provide a novel insight into further delineation of the pathophysiological genesis and possible target for PKD.

10.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(1): 107-112, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950799

RESUMEN

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with inflammation (CAA-ri) is characterized by an inflammatory response to the vascular deposits of ß-amyloid within the brain that is a very rare subtype of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.The most common clinical manifestation of CAA-ri was headache, epilepsy, and cognitive dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed focal or multiple white matter lesions, lobar intracerebral hemorrhage, extensive cortical or subcortical microbleeds. We reported 6 cases of probable CAA-ri diagnosed and treated in our hospital from January 2017 to September 2019 according to the revised diagnostic criteria in 2016.We found that 5 patients also had microbleeds and cortical superficial siderosison T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), suggesting that if the patients had a long course of disease, older age and heavy microbleeds load, the lesions could be found in the routine MRI, which is a clue for the diagnosis of CAA-ri. Clinicians should attach great importance to this phenomenon, and can further verify by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI).


Asunto(s)
Angiopatía Amiloide Cerebral , Inflamación , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Anciano , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Angiopatía Amiloide Cerebral/complicaciones , Angiopatía Amiloide Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Inflamación/etiología , Inflamación/terapia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 710: 136346, 2020 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923688

RESUMEN

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play an important role in reducing moisture content and removing heavy metals from municipal sludge. In this study, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and primary alcohol ethoxylate (AEO9) were used to prepare complex surfactants. Municipal sludge was treated with mixed surfactants and hydrothermal treatment (HTT) to test the sludge dewatering and heavy metal adsorption performance of EPS treated with varying proportions and contents of surfactants. The results showed that EPS with different proportions had different adsorption capacities for major heavy metals in sludge was 20.48%-29.82%. The adsorption capacity of EPS on heavy metals is significantly positively correlated with protein content (R2 = 0.9266, P = .00). There is no significant correlation between polysaccharides (R2 = 0.0092, P = .00) and nucleic acids (R2 = 0.0638, P = .00) and heavy metal adsorption capacity. Combined treatment of 10% CTAB, 15% AEO9, and HTT produced the minimal bound water content in treated sludge, zeta potential increased by 49.2 mV and sludge specific resistance is only 0.66% of the raw sludge.

12.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 128(6): 733-743, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231036

RESUMEN

This study characterized dynamic behaviors of batch anaerobic digesters treating food waste in terms of methane production, organics destruction and process stability under different organic loads (OLs), substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratios [on volatile solid (VS) basis] and initial pH. The results showed that OL, S/I ratio and initial pH significantly affected batch anaerobic process. Methane yield was proved to be inversely proportional to OL and S/I ratio. Digester with lowest OL (5 g VS/L) obtained greatest methane yield (551.4 mL/g VS), highest organics removal (94.1%) and good stability. Enhancing OL to 10 g VS/L was recommended for satisfactory stability and higher volumetric methane productivity. When OL was designated as 10 g VS/L, digester with low S/I ratio (1/2) achieved satisfactory methane yield (539.3 mL/g VS), high organics removal (92.3%) and stable performance. When OL was relatively high (20 g VS/L), adjusting initial pH to 7.5 contributed to stable performance via enhancing buffering capacity against volatile fatty acids (VFA) disturbance. Strong VFA inhibition occurred under high OL (40 g VS/L) or great S/I ratio (2/1) or acidic initial pH (6.5). In this case, acetate was dominant VFA, followed by butyrate. However, when digester was stable, acetate was main VFA, followed by propionate. This study provided practical guidance on process configurations for batch digesters of food waste needed to achieve satisfactory performance and stability.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos , Metano/biosíntesis , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Eliminación de Residuos
13.
Epilepsia Open ; 4(2): 302-308, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168497

RESUMEN

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in western China. Method: We continuously reviewed one hundred and five outpatients with JME who were diagnosed and treated at the Epilepsy Registration Center of West China Hospital between October 2012 and July 2014. Seizure control stratified into different seizure types and by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) was prospectively evaluated every 3-6 months. Results: Among 105 patients with JME, eighty-five patients (81%) received monotherapy including valproate (VPA, 47%) and levetiracetam (LEV, 43%) treatment. The rates of seizure freedom 1, 3, and 5 years after the initiation of AED treatment were 64.8% (68/105), 29.5% (31/105), and 14.6% (12/82) in JME patients, respectively. Patients with myoclonic seizure (MS) and absence seizure (AS) were less frequently seizure-free than those with MS and generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) (P = 0.012). Patients on VPA monotherapy had better control of GTCS than patients on LEV monotherapy (P = 0.036). There is a trend of lower rates of seizure freedom in patients treated with LEV than in those treated with VPA after the first-year treatment period. Significance: Our data suggest that in JME, seizure control is linked to seizure type, possibly allowing a more individualized approach when counseling JME patients.

14.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(2): 606-612, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998178

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To establish the STO cell lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and mouse leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) , and try to culture the mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) by using the established STO-GFP-mLIF cells as the feeder layer. METHODS: The lentiviral particles containing GFP and mLIF and puromycin-resistance gene were constructed and transduced into STO cell lines. The cell lines stably expressing GFP and mLIF genes were screened out. The expression level of the inserted exogenous LIF gene was tested by Western blot and ELISA. The STO-GFP-mLIF cells were treated with different concentrations of mitomycin C (5, 10, 15, 20 µg/ml) for different time (1.5, 2.5, 3, 3.5 hours) to prepare feeder layers and the cell proliferation level on feeder layer was observed. Mouse embryonic stem cells were cultured on mitomycin C-treated feeder layer and the growth of cell colonies was observed. RESULTS: The expression level of LIF protein in STO-GFP-mLIF cells was up-regulated, as compared with STO cells (P<0.05). It was confirmed that the optimal concentration and time for inhibiting the proliferetion of STO-GFP-mLIF cells by mitomycin C were 10 µg/ml and 3 hours respectively. The observation also found that the embryonic stem cells could develop into typic "birdnest" shaped stem cell colony on mitomycin C-treated feeder layer. CONCLUSION: The stable STO cell lines effectively expressing green fluorescent protein and mouse leukemia inhibitory factor have been established successfully, which can maintain the undifferentiated state of mouse embryonic stem cells.


Asunto(s)
Separación Celular , Animales , Diferenciación Celular , Línea Celular , Células Madre Embrionarias , Células Nutrientes , Proteínas Fluorescentes Verdes , Factor Inhibidor de Leucemia , Ratones
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(9): 9123-9136, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719670

RESUMEN

A lightweight aggregate (LWA) was manufactured from municipal sewage sludge, gangue, and coal ash. The product performance and environmental safety of the sintered material were evaluated by changing the sludge blending ratio and sintering temperature. The distribution and migratory transformation characteristics of heavy metals in LWA were examined by BCR sequential extraction in combination with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The environmental safety performance of LWA was comprehensively evaluated by the OPTI index for the first time. The leaching concentration of the heavy metals Pb, Ni, Cu, and Zn in raw materials without sintering reached 1.17, 1.6, 7.84, and 7.56 mg/L, respectively, far exceeding the regulatory threshold value. At 1250 °C, sintering with 60% sludge content resulted in Cu and Zn leaching concentrations of only 0.41 mg/L and 0.37 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, a big portion of heavy metals were in the residual fraction of sintered LWA. The proportion of comprehensive pollutant toxicity index is only 199.17. Additionally, the mechanical properties of sintered LWA exceed the standards stipulated in the GB/T1743.1-2010 standard. Using sewage sludge to manufacture lightweight aggregate is not only environmentally safe but also produces LWA with good engineering characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados/química , Aguas del Alcantarillado/química , Ceniza del Carbón/química , Contaminantes Ambientales/química , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Reciclaje , Temperatura , Residuos/análisis
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(4): e14122, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681573

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), also called Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome (HSS), is a rare neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation from pantothenate kinase 2 gene (PANK2) mutation characterized as extrapyramidal symptoms. However, few studies involving PKAN patients were reported in China. This study was conducted to identify the genetic mutations in a Chinese boy with PKAN, and to review all PANK2 mutations reported in Chinese cases with PKAN. PATIENT CONCERN: We reported a 23-year-old Chinese boy with PKAN, exhibiting difficulty in writing and manipulation using right hand with slow progression for 12 years. He spoke with a severe stutter when he was 15 years old. DIAGNOSIS: Considering results of magnetic resonance images, brain computed tomography and medical history, the case was suspected to be related to genetic factors. INTERVENTIONS: Whole exome sequencing was arranged, and the mutations were identified in his parents' genome. OUTCOMES: In the present study, whole exome sequencing revealed 2 novel mutations (c.1696C > G in exon 7 and c.1160_c.1161insG in exon3) of the PANK2 gene in the proband. c.1696C > G and c.1160_c.1161insG, respectively, were confirmed in his father and mother. We also reviewed 14 different PANK2 mutations, most of which were missense type in Chinese cases. Those mutations did not show apparent hotspots, but exon 3 and 4 were frequently involved. LESSONS: Two novel compound heterozygous mutations were identified and considered to be pathogenic in PKAN patients. This review of the reports indicated that atypical PKAN is the more common phenotype in China and no apparent genotype-phenotype correlation was found.


Asunto(s)
Mutación , Neurodegeneración Asociada a Pantotenato Quinasa/genética , Fosfotransferasas (Aceptor de Grupo Alcohol)/genética , Enfermedades de los Ganglios Basales/genética , Encéfalo/patología , Exones , Humanos , Masculino , Fenotipo , Adulto Joven
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 278: 1-8, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669026

RESUMEN

In this work, the effects of different torrefaction temperatures and durations on the physicochemical properties of rice straw (RS), and the emission characteristic of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of ≤10 µm) during torrefied RS combustion, were investigated. Results indicate that the release of Cl and K, and decomposition of the organic matrix demonstrated a promoting effect during torrefaction. However, the removal of Cl and K did not reduce the emission of PM1. The emission concentration of PM1 and PM1-10 generated from torrefied RS was enhanced, and the yields of PM1-10 was much higher than those of PM1. The concentrations of K and Cl in PM1-10 increased with torrefaction temperature, combined with the microstructure, indicating that the torrefaction pretreatment promoted the heterogeneous condensation of KCl vapour to form PM1-10.


Asunto(s)
Oryza/química , Material Particulado/análisis , Biomasa , Fenómenos Químicos , Gases/química , Temperatura
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 275: 172-182, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584962

RESUMEN

This study investigated mechanism of process imbalance of long-term anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste (FW) and role of trace elements (TEs) in maintaining process stability. AD of FW was strongly inhibited by volatile fatty acids (VFA, mainly propionate). The deficiency of essential TEs in FW was the fundamental reason. TEs contents in digester gradually decreased with regular substrate feeding and digestate discharge, which greatly limited growth and metabolism of hydrogenotrophic methanogens and Methanosarcina. Finally, Methanosaeta replaced Methanosarcina and became dominant methanogen and hydrogenotrophic methanogens almost disappeared accompanied by declining methanogenic community diversity, which greatly suppressed ecological functions of methanogens and led to propionate inhibition. TEs supplementation eliminated all factors causing process imbalance and significantly enhanced process stability by maintaining strong ecological functions of methanogens via stimulating dominant growth of Methanosarcina (relative abundance between 67.2% and 87.5%), sustaining stable relative abundances of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (about 10%) and enhancing methanogenic community diversity.


Asunto(s)
Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Methanosarcina/metabolismo
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(1): 292-299, 2018 Jan 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965695

RESUMEN

Fly ash from sludge incineration was separated into five different sizes (<1 µm, 1-2.5 µm, 2.5-10 µm, 10-50 µm, and > 50 µm) by high-precision air classification equipment. The leaching of heavy metals was contrastively studied using the HJT 299-2007-sulfuric acid/nitric acid method, HJ 557-2009-Horizontal Oscillation Method, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and European standard protocol (EN 12457-3) for the different size fractions of the fly ash. Based on the leaching results, an evaluation method for the comprehensive toxicity of heavy metal leaching was established. The results show that the content of heavy metals and the amount of leaching from the fly ash decrease with the increase in fly ash particle size. The leaching of the heavy metals Zn and Cu in the < 1 µm particle size range of TCLP leaching method was the highest, at 107.34 mg·kg-1 and 318 mg·kg-1, respectively. The TCLP and sulfuric acid/nitric acid methods of heavy metal leaching were more effective than the EU (EN 12457-3) and horizontal oscillation methods. According to the value of OPTI, the OPTI value of < 10 µm fly ash was much larger than that of fly ash that was > 10 µm. This indicated that the fly ash of particle size < 10 µm was more toxic and more harmful.

20.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 38(5): 547-553, 2018 May 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891450

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in mediating the effect of endomorphine-1 postconditioning to alleviate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats. METHODS: Forty-five male SD rats were randomized equally for sham operation, myocardial IR injury, endomorphin-1 postconditioning, atractyloside (a MPTP opener) postconditioning, or endomorphin-1 + atractyloside postconditioning. The hemodynamic param-eters of the rats were monitored in real time via carotid artery cannulation to the left ventricle. After reperfusion, plasma samples were collected for biochemical analyses. The size of myocardial infarct area was detected using Evans blue and TTC double staining, and the myocardial expressions of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 were analyzed using Western blotting. RESULTS: Myocardial IR injury resulted in significantly decreased heart rate and blood pressure in the rats (P<0.05). Compared with those in IR group, the rats with endomorphin-1 postconditioning showed significantly increased heart rate and blood pressure (P<0.05), lowered contents or activities of LDH, CK-MB, cTnI, IL-6, TNF-α, Cyt-C and MDA in the plasma (P<0.05), increased plasma SOD activity (P<0.05), reduced size of myocardial infarction, decreased myocardial expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 protein (P<0.05), and increased myocardial expression of Bcl-2 protein (P<0.05). All these changes induced by endomorphin-1 were obviously reversed by atractyloside postconditioning (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Endomorphin-1 postconditioning protects against myocardial IR injury in rats probably by inhibiting the opening of MPTP and reducing cardiac myocyte apoptosis via down-regulating cleaved caspase-3 expression.


Asunto(s)
Poscondicionamiento Isquémico , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana Mitocondrial/fisiología , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica/prevención & control , Oligopéptidos/farmacología , Animales , Atractilósido/farmacología , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana Mitocondrial/efectos de los fármacos , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica/sangre , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica/patología , Distribución Aleatoria , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
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