Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 49
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 8609213, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215179

RESUMEN

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most prevalent metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and an inadequate response to circulatory insulin by peripheral tissues resulting in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance has a complex pathophysiology, and it is contributed to by multiple factors including oxidative stress. Oxidative stress refers to an imbalance between free radical production and the antioxidant system leading to a reduction of peripheral insulin sensitivity and contributing to the development of T2DM via several molecular mechanisms. In this review, we present the molecular mechanisms by which the oxidative milieu contributes to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

2.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 8768954, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215274

RESUMEN

Despite different classes of antidiabetic medications available for the management of patients with diabetes, efforts are underway to identify novel and safer antihyperglycemic agents with higher potency and increased tolerability. Imeglimin is a promising antidiabetic agent that has shown to have significant antihyperglycemic effects in studies, although it has not been approved yet. There is growing evidence that imeglimin improves glucose homeostasis in the diabetic milieu; however, the precise molecular mechanisms are still not elucidated. In this review, we discuss various molecular pathways by which imeglimin exerts its antihyperglycemic effects and improves glucose homeostasis in the diabetic milieu.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133961

RESUMEN

Curcumin is among the most extensively studied phytochemicals. Curcumin is isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. This naturally occurring nutraceutical compound has a variety of pharmacological effects including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective and anti-diabetic ones. Wnt signaling pathway is known to play a significant role in different diseases, as well as in embryogenesis and development of various organs and systems. The effects of Curcumin on the Wnt signaling pathway will be largely described to identify that how Curcumin changes Wnt pathway to exert its therapeutic effects.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013836

RESUMEN

There are concerns about the increased incidence of cancer both in developing and developed countries. In spite of recent progress in cancer therapy, this disease is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Consequently, there have been rigorous attempts to improve cancer therapy by looking at nature as a rich source of naturally occurring anti-tumor drugs. Curcumin is a well-known plant-derived polyphenol found in turmeric. This compound has numerous pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor properties. Curcumin is capable of suppressing the growth of a variety of cancer cells including those of bladder cancer. Given the involvement of various signaling pathways such as PI3K, Akt, mTOR and VEGF in the progression and malignancy of bladder cancer, and considering the potential of curcumin in targeting signaling pathways, it seems that curcumin can be considered as a promising candidate in bladder cancer therapy. In the present review, we describe the molecular signaling pathways through which curcumin inhibits invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer cells.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108003

RESUMEN

Cancer management and/or treatment requires a comprehensive understanding of the molecular and signaling pathways involved. Recently, much attention has been directed to these molecular and signaling pathways, and it has been suggested that a number of biomolecules/players involved in such pathways, such as PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, STAT, and Nrf2 contribute to the progression, invasion, proliferation, and metastasis of malignant cells. Synthetic anti-tumor agents and chemotherapeutic drugs have been a mainstay in cancer therapy and are widely used to suppress the progression and, hopefully, halt the proliferation of malignant cells. However, these agents have some undesirable side-effects and, therefore, naturally-occurring compounds with high potency and fewer side-effects are now of great interest. Osthole is a plant-derived chemical compound that can inhibit the proliferation of malignant cells and provide potent anti-cancer effects in various tissues. Therefore, in this review, we present the main findings concerning the potential anti-tumor effects of osthole and its derivatives and describe possible molecular mechanisms by which osthole may suppress malignant cell proliferation in different tissues.

6.
Life Sci ; 244: 117305, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953161

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disorder involving multiple deleterious molecular pathways and cellular defects leading to disturbance in the biologic milieu. It is currently a global health concern with growing incidence, especially among younger adults. There is an unmet need to find new therapeutic targets for the management of diabetes. Vitamin D is a promising target in the pathophysiology of DM, especially since vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with diabetes compared to people without diabetes. Evidence suggests that it can play significant roles in improving peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, however, the exact pathophysiological mechanism is not clarified yet. In this current study, we have reviewed the evidence on the effect of vitamin D in improving insulin resistance via distinct molecular pathways.


Asunto(s)
Intolerancia a la Glucosa/prevención & control , Homeostasis , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Animales , Intolerancia a la Glucosa/etiología , Humanos
7.
Life Sci ; 244: 117329, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954747

RESUMEN

MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding pieces of RNA that are involved in a variety of physiologic processes such as apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell cycle and cell survival. These multifunctional nucleotides are also capable of preventing oxidative damages by modulating antioxidant defense systems in a variety of milieu, such as in diabetes. Although the exact molecular mechanisms by which miRs modulate the antioxidant defense elements are unclear, some evidence suggests that they may exert these effects via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. This intracellular mechanism is crucial in the maintenance of the physiologic redox balance by regulating the expression and activity of various cellular antioxidative defense elements and thereby plays a pivotal role in the development of oxidative stress. Any impairment in the Nrf2 signaling pathway may result in oxidative damage-dependent complications such as various diabetic complications, neurological disorders and cancer. In the current review, we discuss the modulatory effects of miRs on the Nrf2 signaling pathway, which can potentially be novel therapeutic targets.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones de la Diabetes/prevención & control , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , MicroARNs/genética , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/prevención & control , Estrés Oxidativo , Animales , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/genética , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/metabolismo , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/patología , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/genética , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/metabolismo , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/patología , Transducción de Señal
8.
Life Sci ; 240: 117090, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765648

RESUMEN

Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a relatively newer class of anti-hyperglycemic medications that reduce blood glucose by inhibition of renal glucose re-uptake, thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. Although glycosuria is the primary mechanism of action of these agents, there is some evidence suggesting they can reduce insulin resistance and induce peripheral insulin sensitivity. Identifying the molecular mechanisms by which these medications improve glucose homeostasis can help us to develop newer forms of SGLT2i with lesser side effects. We have reviewed the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways by which SGLT2i therapy improve insulin sensitivity and ameliorates insulin resistance.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Resistencia a la Insulina , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2/uso terapéutico , Transportador 2 de Sodio-Glucosa/metabolismo , Animales , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico
9.
Life Sci ; 241: 117152, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837333

RESUMEN

GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are two classes of antidiabetic agents used in the management of diabetes based on incretin hormones. There is emerging evidence that they have anti-inflammatory effects. Since most long-term complications of diabetes have a background of chronic inflammation, these agents may be beneficial against diabetic complications not only due to their hypoglycemic potential but also via their anti-inflammatory effects. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1RAs and DPP-4i exert their anti-inflammatory effects are not clearly understood. In this review, we discuss the potential molecular pathways by which these incretin-based therapies exert their anti-inflammatory effects.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Incretinas/uso terapéutico , Inflamación/prevención & control , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/inmunología , Humanos
10.
Pharmacol Res ; 152: 104611, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863868

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus is a potent upstream event in the molecular pathophysiology which gives rise to various diabetes-related complications. There are several classes of anti-diabetic medications that have been developed to normalize blood glucose concentrations through a variety of molecular mechanisms. Beyond glucose-lowering effects, these agents may also provide further therapeutic potential. For instance, there is a high incidence of diabetes-induced neuronal disorders among patients with diabetes, who may also develop neurodegenerative and psychological complications. If anti-diabetic agents can modify the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of neuronal comorbidities, this could potentially be translated to reducing the risk of other neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, memory deficits and cognition impairments among patients with diabetes. This review aimed to shed light on some of the potentially beneficial aspects of anti-diabetic agents in lowering the risk or treating neuronal disorders by reviewing the molecular mechanisms by which these agents can potentially modulate neuronal behaviors.

11.
Life Sci ; 237: 116950, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605709

RESUMEN

C-peptide is a small peptide connecting two chains of proinsulin molecule and is dissociated before the release of insulin. It is secreted in an equimolar amount to insulin from the pancreatic beta-cells into the circulation. Recent evidence demonstrates that it has other physiologic activities beyond its structural function. C-peptide modulates intracellular signaling pathways in various pathophysiologic states and, could potentially be a new therapeutic target for different disorders including diabetic complications. There is growing evidence that c-peptide has modulatory effects on the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Although we have little direct evidence, pharmacological properties of c-peptide suggest that it can provide potent renoprotective effects especially, in a c-peptide deficient milieu as in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we describe possible molecular mechanisms by which c-peptide may improve renal efficiency in a diabetic milieu.


Asunto(s)
Péptido C/uso terapéutico , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/prevención & control , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicaciones , Nefropatías Diabéticas/prevención & control , Animales , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/etiología , Nefropatías Diabéticas/etiología , Humanos
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612835

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular complications account for the majority of deaths caused by diabetes mellitus. Platelet hyperactivity has been shown to increase the risk of thrombotic events and is a therapeutic target for their prevention in diabetes. Modulation of platelet function by diabetes agents in addition to their hypoglycemic effects would contribute to cardiovascular protection Newly introduced antidiabetic drugs of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors may have anti-platelet effects, and in the case of SGLT2i and GLP-1RA may contribute to their proven cardiovascular benefit that has been shown clinically. OBJECTIVE: Here we reviewed the potential effects of these agents on platelet function in diabetes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: GLP-1RA and DPP-4i drugs have antiplatelet properties beyond their primary hypoglycemic effects. Whilst we have little direct evidence for the antiplatelet effects of SGLT2 inhibitors, some studies have shown that these agents may inhibit platelet aggregation and reduce the risk of thrombotic events in diabetes.

13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(4): 2445-2449, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405658

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that has a complex molecular and cellular pathophysiology, resulting in its dynamic progression and that may show differing responses to therapy. The incidence of diabetes mellitus increases with age and requires additive therapeutic agents for its management. SGLT2i and DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are newly introduced antidiabetic drugs that work through differing mechanisms; DPP-4 inhibitors maintain the endogenous level of GLP1; GLP-1RA result in pharmacological levels of GLP1, whilst SGLT2i act on the proximal tubules of the kidney. They have shown efficacy in the management of diabetes and in contrast to other antidiabetic drugs, do not inherently cause hypoglycemia in therapeutic doses. Autophagy as a highly conserved mechanism to maintain cell survival and homeostasis by degradation of damaged or aged organelles and components, and recognised to be increasingly important in diabetes. In the present review, we discuss the modulatory effects of these newly introduced antidiabetic drugs on the autophagy process.


Asunto(s)
Autofagia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/patología , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Pronóstico
14.
Life Sci ; 234: 116776, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425698

RESUMEN

Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a peptide of incretin family which is used in the management of diabetes as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme metabolizes glucagon-like peptide-1 and various dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme inhibitors (DPP-4i) are also used in the management of diabetes. These antidiabetic agents provide anti-hyperglycemic effects via several molecular mechanisms including promoting insulin secretion, suppression of glucagon secretion and slowing the gastric emptying. There is some research suggesting that they can induce insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. In this study, we review the possible molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1RA and DPP-4i can improve insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity in insulin-dependent peripheral tissues.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/uso terapéutico , Receptor del Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón/agonistas , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Resistencia a la Insulina , Animales , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/farmacología , Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón/metabolismo , Receptor del Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón/metabolismo , Glucosa/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Insulina/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos
15.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(2): 1679-1683, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336541

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus prevalence is increasing worldwide leading to increased morbidity and mortality through diabetes related microvascular and macrovascular disease. The treatment of hypertension has been shown to be a major therapeutic intervention for the prevention of cardiovascular events and other diabetes related complications in diabetes. Sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors (SGLT2i) are newly introduced anti-diabetes drugs that lower blood glucose by the inhibition of glucose reuptake and the induction of glycosuria. However, there is increasing evidence showing their cardiovascular benefit beyond the improvement of glycemic control. Here we review the latest findings on the effect of SGLT2i on blood pressure in diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2/uso terapéutico , Transportador 2 de Sodio-Glucosa/química , Humanos , Pronóstico
16.
J Pharmacopuncture ; 22(2): 83-89, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338247

RESUMEN

Introduction: Oxidative stress (OS) during uncontrolled hyperglycemia has a pivotal role in pancreatic dysfunction. Our study aimed to demonstrate that crocin can potentiate anti-oxidant defense systems of pancreatic cells to improve oxidative stress. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups: a normal group, a normal-treated group, a diabetic group and a diabetic-treated group (n = 6 rats per group). Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg/IV). The treated groups received crocin daily for 8 weeks (40 mg/kg/IP). At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and pancreas tissue was obtained. Subsequently, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrate and glutathione as well as the enzymatic activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in all animals. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with appropriate post hoc testing and a probability value of P < 0.05 was considered to represent a statistically significant difference in mean values. Results: Uncontrolled hyperglycemia weakened the anti-oxidant system by decreasing SOD and catalase enzyme activity in pancreatic tissues and induced OS by increasing the MDA content in diabetic non-treated animals. Crocin potentiated the anti-oxidant defense system by increasing the activity of both SOD and catalase, and improved OS by diminishing MDA production in pancreatic cells of rats contained in the diabetic-treated group. Conclusion: Based on our results, it is concluded that uncontrolled hyperglycemia can weaken the anti-oxidant defense system and cause the development of OS. Also, crocin can improve OS in pancreatic cells by potentiating the anti-oxidant defense system.

17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(3): 1923-1927, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235116

RESUMEN

Adipokines are cytokines produced by adipocytes that may mediate inflammatory processes, whilst adipocyte-derived proteins may have the converse effect. C1q/TNF-related protein-3 or CTRP3 is a novel adipokine that is expressed and released by most types of human tissues including adipose tissue. This adipokine, considered as an adiponectin, can normalize blood glucose by several mechanisms. In addition, it can modulate the expression/secretion of other cytokine and adipokines leading to lower insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Beneficial effects of CTRP3 against hyperglycemia-induced complications in the kidney and eye have been reported. In this review, we have presented the latest findings on the in vitro and in vivo hypoglycemic effects of CTRP3, followed by the findings on the preventive/therapeutic effects of CTRP3 adipokines against diabetes related complications.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones de la Diabetes/prevención & control , Homeostasis , Hiperglucemia/prevención & control , Factores de Necrosis Tumoral/metabolismo , Glucemia/análisis , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/etiología , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/etiología , Hiperglucemia/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Insulina
18.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(3): 2214-2218, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235159

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent metabolic disorder contributing to significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Many preventative and therapeutic agents have been developed for normalizing glycemic profile in patients with diabetes. In addition to various pharmacologic strategies, many non-pharmacological agents have also been suggested to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Trehalose is a naturally occurring disaccharide which is not synthesized in human but is widely used in food industries. Some studies have provided evidence indicating that it can potentially modulate glucose metabolism and help to stabilize glucose homeostasis in patients with diabetes. Studies have shown that trehalose can significantly modulate insulin sensitivity via at least 7 molecular pathways leading to better control of hyperglycemia. In the current study, we concluded about possible anti-hyperglycemic effects of trehalose suggesting trehalose as a potentially potent non-pharmacological agent for the management of diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Homeostasis , Hiperglucemia/prevención & control , Resistencia a la Insulina , Trehalosa/farmacología , Humanos
19.
Life Sci ; 231: 116538, 2019 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176776

RESUMEN

Apoptosis is a complicated process that involves activation of a series of intracellular signaling. Tissue injuries from diabetes mellitus mostly occur as a consequence of higher rate of apoptosis process due to activation of a series of molecular mechanisms. Several classes of anti-hyperglycaemic agents have been developed which could potentially modulate the apoptotic process resulting in fewer tissue damages. Novel types of anti-hyperglycaemic medications such as sodium glucose cotransporters-2 inhibitors, glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors have shown to provide potent anti-hyperglycaemic effects, but their influences on diabetes-induced apoptotic injuries is largely unknown. Therefore, in the current study, we reviewed the published data about the possible effects of these anti-hyperglycaemic agents on apoptosis in diabetic milieu as well as in cancer cells.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Hipoglucemiantes/metabolismo , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Glucemia/efectos de los fármacos , Sordera/tratamiento farmacológico , Sordera/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/metabolismo , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/farmacología , Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón/uso terapéutico , Receptor del Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón/metabolismo , Péptidos Similares al Glucagón/agonistas , Humanos , Enfermedades Mitocondriales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Mitocondriales/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2/metabolismo , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2/farmacología
20.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(10): 16987-16997, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825205

RESUMEN

Several classes of antidiabetic agents have been developed that achieve their hypoglycemic outcomes via various molecular mechanisms. Adipose tissue is a major metabolic and energy-storing tissue and plays an important role in many metabolic pathways, including insulin signaling and insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue monitors and regulates whole body homeostasis via production and release of potent proteins, such as adipokine and adiponectin, into the circulation. Therefore, any agent that can modulate adipocyte metabolism can, in turn, affect metabolic and glucose homeostatic pathways. Antidiabetic drugs are not only recognized primarily as hypoglycemic agents but may also alter adipose tissue itself, as well as adipocyte-derived adipokine expression and secretion. In the current review, we present the major evidence concerning routinely used antidiabetic agents on adipocyte metabolism and adipokine expression.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA