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1.
Brain Inj ; 34(10): 1339-1349, 2020 Aug 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811203

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Mild TBI (mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are independent risk factors for suicidal behaviour (SB). Further, co-occurring mTBI and PTSD increase one's risk for negative health and psychiatric outcomes. However, little research has examined the role of comorbid mTBI and PTSD on suicide risk. METHODS: The present study utilized data from the Injury and TRaUmatic STress (INTRuST) Consortium to examine the prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI) and behaviours among four groups: 1) comorbid mTBI+PTSD, 2) PTSD only, 3) mTBI only, and 4) healthy controls. RESULTS: Prevalence of lifetime SI, current SI, and lifetime SB for individuals with mTBI+PTSD was 40%, 25%, and 19%, respectively. Prevalence of lifetime SI, current SI, and lifetime SB for individuals with PTSD only was 29%, 11%, and 11%, respectively. Prevalence of lifetime SI, current SI, and lifetime SB for individuals with mTBI only was 14%, 1%, and 2%, respectively. Group comparisons showed that individuals with mTBI alone experienced elevated rates of lifetime SI compared to healthy controls. History of mTBI did not add significantly to risk for suicidal ideation and behaviour beyond what is accounted for by PTSD. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that PTSD seems to be driving risk for suicidal behaviour.

3.
Ann Epidemiol ; 2020 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738401

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Race differences in health are pervasive in the United States. American-style football players are a racially diverse group with social status and other benefits that may reduce health disparities. Whether race disparities in health exist among former professional football players, and whether they differ by era of play, is unknown. METHODS: We examined the association of self-reported race with health outcomes (e.g., physical and cognitive function, pain, depression, and anxiety), among 3747 participants in the Football Players Health Study, comprising former National Football League players who played since 1960. We conducted analyses stratified by age. RESULTS: Black players had increased risk of all five adverse health outcomes versus white players (risk ratio range = 1.36 to 1.89). Native Hawaiians and men of other races had greater risk of all health outcomes except impaired physical functioning, compared with white players (risk ratio range = 1.25 to 1.64). No clear patterns were observed by era of play. In general, race disparities were not accounted for by health-related exposures during playing years. Adjustment for current BMI somewhat attenuated associations. CONCLUSIONS: Social and economic advantages of playing professional football did not appear to equalize race disparities in health.

4.
J Neurotrauma ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640866

RESUMEN

Recent attention to consequences of head trauma among former professional American-style football players has increased the likelihood that former players and their healthcare providers attribute neurocognitive effects to these exposures. In addition to head trauma, however, many potentially modifiable risk factors are associated with cognitive impairment. We examined the association of self-reported risk factors for cognitive impairment (e.g., cardiovascular health, sleep, pain, depression, anxiety, smoking, physical impairment, and physical activity) with cognition-related quality of life, measured by the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders, Applied Cognition-General Concerns (Neuro-QOL) among 3803 former National Football League (NFL) players. We examined the prevalence of risk factors among men who had experienced a high number of concussion symptoms during playing years, comparing men with good current cognition-related QOL, the "healthy concussed," to men with poor cognition-related QOL, the "unhealthy concussed." Physical functioning, pain, depression, and anxiety were very strongly associated with poor cognitive-related QOL (risk ratio range, 2.21-2.70, p < 0.0001 for all). Short sleep duration and low physical activity were also strongly associated (RR = 1.69 and 1.57, respectively, p < 0.0001 for both). The largest differences between healthy and unhealthy concussed were in chronic pain (72.0% vs. 21.2%), depressive symptoms (50.3% vs. 6.3%), anxiety symptoms (53.4% vs. 11.6%), and physical impairment (52.4% vs. 12.5%). Substantial differences also existed in prevalence of sleep apnea, short sleep duration, high-intensity exercise, weight training, high blood pressure, and body mass index ≥35 kg/m2 (all differences >10 percentage points). We identified cognitive risk factors, including chronic pain, mood problems, sleep problems, obesity, and lack of exercise, that were commonly present in former football players with cognition-related impairment. Better treatment for these factors may reduce cognitive problems in this population.

5.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720179

RESUMEN

Sport-related brain injury is very common, and the potential long-term effects include a wide range of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, and potentially neurodegeneration. Around the globe, researchers are conducting neuroimaging studies on primarily homogenous samples of athletes. However, neuroimaging studies are expensive and time consuming, and thus current findings from studies of sport-related brain injury are often limited by small sample sizes. Further, current studies apply a variety of neuroimaging techniques and analysis tools which limit comparability among studies. The ENIGMA Sports Injury working group aims to provide a platform for data sharing and collaborative data analysis thereby leveraging existing data and expertise. By harmonizing data from a large number of studies from around the globe, we will work towards reproducibility of previously published findings and towards addressing important research questions with regard to diagnosis, prognosis, and efficacy of treatment for sport-related brain injury. Moreover, the ENIGMA Sports Injury working group is committed to providing recommendations for future prospective data acquisition to enhance data quality and scientific rigor.

6.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 273, 2020 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641012

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Restoring community walking remains a highly valued goal for persons recovering from traumatic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, studies report that brief episodes of low-oxygen breathing (acute intermittent hypoxia, AIH) may serve as an effective plasticity-inducing primer that enhances the effects of walking therapy in persons with chronic (> 1 year) SCI. More persistent walking recovery may occur following repetitive (weeks) AIH treatment involving persons with more acute SCI, but this possibility remains unknown. Here we present our clinical trial protocol, designed to examine the distinct influences of repetitive AIH, with and without walking practice, on walking recovery in persons with sub-acute SCI (< 12 months) SCI. Our overarching hypothesis is that daily exposure (10 sessions, 2 weeks) to AIH will enhance walking recovery in ambulatory and non-ambulatory persons with subacute (< 12 months) SCI, presumably by harnessing endogenous mechanisms of plasticity that occur soon after injury. METHODS: To test our hypothesis, we are conducting a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 85 study participants who we stratify into two groups according to walking ability; those unable to walk (non-ambulatory group) and those able to walk (ambulatory group). The non-ambulatory group receives either daily AIH (15, 90s episodes at 10.0% O2 with 60s intervals at 20.9% O2) or daily SHAM (15, 90s episodes at 20.9% O2 with 60s intervals at 20.9% O2) intervention. The ambulatory group receives either 60-min walking practice (WALK), daily AIH + WALK, or daily SHAM+WALK intervention. Our primary outcome measures assess overground walking speed (10-Meter Walk Test), endurance (6-Minute Walk Test), and balance (Timed Up & Go Test). For safety, we also measure levels of pain, spasticity, systemic hypertension, and autonomic dysreflexia. We record outcome measures at baseline, days 5 and 10, and follow-ups at 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months post-treatment. DISCUSSION: The goal of this clinical trial is to reveal the extent to which daily AIH, alone or in combination with task-specific walking practice, safely promotes persistent recovery of walking in persons with traumatic, subacute SCI. Outcomes from this study may provide new insight into ways to enhance walking recovery in persons with SCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02632422 . Registered 16 December 2015.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473110

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether commonly used comorbidity indexes (Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index, Elixhauser comorbidity index, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services [CMS] comorbidity tiers) capture comorbidities in the acute traumatic and nontraumatic SCI inpatient rehabilitation population. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Data were obtained from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation from October 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017 for adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) (Medicare-established Impairment Group Codes 04.110-04.230, 14.1, 14.3). This study included SCI discharges (N=66,235) from 833 inpatient rehabilitation facilities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision-Clinical Modifications (ICD-10-CM) codes were used to assess 3 comorbidity indexes (Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index, Elixhauser comorbidity index, CMS comorbidity tiers). The comorbidity codes that occurred with >1% frequency were reported. The percentages of discharges for which no comorbidities were captured by each comorbidity index were calculated. RESULTS: Of the total study population, 39,285 (59.3%) were men and 11,476 (17.3%) were tetraplegic. The mean number of comorbidities was 14.7. There were 13,939 distinct ICD-10-CM comorbidity codes. There were 237 comorbidities that occurred with >1% frequency. The Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index, Elixhauser comorbidity index, and the CMS tiers did not capture comorbidities of 58.4% (95% confidence interval, 58.08%-58.84%), 29.4% (29.07%-29.76%), and 66.1% (65.73%-66.46%) of the discharges in our study, respectively, and 28.8% (28.42%-29.11%) of the discharges did not have any comorbidities captured by any of the comorbidity indexes. CONCLUSION: Commonly used comorbidity indexes do not reflect the extent of comorbid disease in the SCI rehabilitation population. This work suggests that alternative measures may be needed to capture the complexity of this population.

10.
Brain Inj ; 34(3): 299-315, 2020 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078407

RESUMEN

This comprehensive review discusses clinical studies of patients following brain injuries (traumatic, acquired, or stroke), who have been treated with amantadine or memantine. Both amantadine and memantine are commonly used in the acute rehabilitation setting following brain injuries, despite their lack of FDA-approval for neuro-recovery. Given the broad utilization of such agents, there is a need to review the evidence supporting this common off-label prescribing. The purpose of this review is to describe the mechanisms of action for memantine and amantadine, as well as to complete a comprehensive review of the clinical uses of these agents. We included 119 original, clinical research articles from NCBI Medline, published before 2019. We focused on the domains of neuroplasticity, functional recovery, motor recovery, arousal, fatigue, insomnia, behavior, agitation, and cognition. Most of the existing research supporting the use of amantadine and memantine in recovery from brain injuries was done in very small populations, limiting the significance of conclusions. While most studies are positive; small effect sizes are usually reported, or populations are subject to bias. Furthermore, evidence is so limited that this review includes research regarding both acute and chronic acquired brain injury populations. Fortunately, reported short-term side effects generally are modest, and stop soon after amantadine/memantine is discontinued. However, responses are inconsistent, and the phenotype of responders remains elusive.

11.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(6): 1072-1089, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087109

RESUMEN

Persons who have disorders of consciousness (DoC) require care from multidisciplinary teams with specialized training and expertise in management of the complex needs of this clinical population. The recent promulgation of practice guidelines for patients with prolonged DoC by the American Academy of Neurology, American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM), and National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) represents a major advance in the development of care standards in this area of brain injury rehabilitation. Implementation of these practice guidelines requires explication of the minimum competencies of clinical programs providing services to persons who have DoC. The Brain Injury Interdisciplinary Special Interest Group of the ACRM, in collaboration with the Disorders of Consciousness Special Interest Group of the NIDILRR-Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems convened a multidisciplinary panel of experts to address this need through the present position statement. Content area-specific workgroups reviewed relevant peer-reviewed literature and drafted recommendations which were then evaluated by the expert panel using a modified Delphi voting process. The process yielded 21 recommendations on the structure and process of essential services required for effective DoC-focused rehabilitation, organized into 4 categories: diagnostic and prognostic assessment (4 recommendations), treatment (11 recommendations), transitioning care/long-term care needs (5 recommendations), and management of ethical issues (1 recommendation). With few exceptions, these recommendations focus on infrastructure requirements and operating procedures for the provision of DoC-focused neurorehabilitation services across subacute and postacute settings.

12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 121: 108-117, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809943

RESUMEN

To date, few studies have evaluated the contribution of early life experiences to neurocognitive abnormalities observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Childhood maltreatment is common among individuals with PTSD and is thought to catalyze stress-related biobehavioral changes that might impact both brain structure and function in adulthood. The current study examined differences in brain morphology (brain volume, cortical thickness) and neuropsychological performance in individuals with PTSD characterized by low or high self-reported childhood maltreatment, compared with healthy comparison participants. Data were drawn from the INjury and TRaUmatic STress (INTRuST) Clinical Consortium imaging repository, which contains MRI and self-report data for individuals classified as PTSD positive (with and without a history of mild traumatic brain injury [mTBI]), individuals with mTBI only, and healthy comparison participants. The final sample included 36 individuals with PTSD without childhood maltreatment exposure (PTSD, n = 30 with mTBI), 31 individuals with PTSD and childhood maltreatment exposure (PTSD + M, n = 26 with mTBI), and 114 healthy comparison participants without history of childhood maltreatment exposure (HC). The PTSD + M and PTSD groups demonstrated cortical thinning in prefrontal and occipital regions, and poorer verbal memory and processing speed compared to the HC group. PTSD + M participants demonstrated cortical thinning in frontal and cingulate regions, and poorer executive functioning relative to the PTSD and HC groups. Thus, neurocognitive features varied between individuals with PTSD who did versus did not have exposure to childhood maltreatment, highlighting the need to assess developmental history of maltreatment when examining biomarkers in PTSD.

13.
Brain Inj ; 34(1): 34-41, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638455

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the effect of Huperzine A on memory and learning in individuals with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II clinical trial.Methods: Subjects were randomly assigned to receive Huperzine A or placebo for 12 weeks and were assessed during in-person visits at screening/baseline, and 6, 12, 24, and 52 weeks post-injury. Changes in memory and learning scores on the California Verbal Learning Test - 2nd Edition (CVLT-II) from baseline to week 12 were assessed using permutation tests and regression analyses.Results: There was no difference between the Huperzine A and placebo groups in memory performance after 12 weeks of treatment. In the placebo group, significant improvements were noted in learning and memory scores. Both groups showed clinically important improvements in depression on the Beck Depression Index.Conclusions: The clinically important improvements in cognitive and emotional outcomes observed in both the placebo and active treatment arms of this clinical trial of Huperzine A are best understood in the context of a placebo effect. Future trials involving patients with moderate-severe TBI in the subacute to chronic phases of recovery should be designed to account for placebo effects as failure to do so may lead to spurious conclusions.

14.
J Neurotrauma ; 37(8): 1021-1028, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672091

RESUMEN

Clinical practice strongly relies on patients' self-report. Former professional American-style football players are hesitant to seek help for mental health problems, but may be more willing to report cognitive symptoms. We sought to assess the association between cognitive symptoms and diagnosed mental health problems and quality of life among a cohort of former professional players. In a cross-sectional design, we assessed self-reported cognitive function using items from the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QOL) Item Bank. We then compared mental health diagnoses and quality of life, assessed by items from the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®), between former professional players reporting daily problems in cognitive function and former players not reporting daily cognitive problems. Of the 3758 former professional players included in the analysis, 40.0% reported daily problems due to cognitive dysfunction. Former players who reported daily cognitive problems were more likely to also report depression (18.0% vs. 3.3%, odds ratio [OR] = 6.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] [4.90-8.40]) and anxiety (19.1% vs. 4.3%, OR = 5.29, 95% CI [4.14-6.75]) than those without daily cognitive problems. Further, former players reporting daily cognitive problems were more likely to report memory loss and attention deficit(/hyperactivity) disorder and poorer general mental health, lower quality of life, less satisfaction with social activities and relationships, and more emotional problems. These findings highlight the potential of an assessment of cognitive symptoms for identifying former players with mental health, social, and emotional problems.

15.
Am J Med ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743658
16.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 167: 531-543, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753153

RESUMEN

Rehabilitation of elderly persons is accompanied by unique challenges, as the physiologic changes with aging may be compounded by a multitude of psychologic, social, and genetic factors. In this chapter we present an overview of the impairments that develop with aging. We discuss factors to consider when evaluating a patient with functional complaints and opportunities for treatment. We provide an overview of common injuries encountered in the elderly, prognostication, and general strategies employed for rehabilitation. New treatment options and areas of ongoing research are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Anciano Frágil , Fragilidad/rehabilitación , Rehabilitación/métodos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Am J Sports Med ; 47(12): 2871-2880, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468987

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Former American football players have a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment than that of the US general population. It remains unknown what aspects of playing football are associated with neuropsychiatric outcomes. HYPOTHESIS: It was hypothesized that seasons of professional football, playing position, and experience of concussions were associated with cognition-related quality of life (QOL) and indicators of depression and anxiety. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS: The authors examined whether seasons of professional football, playing position, and experience of concussions, as measured by self-report of 10 symptoms, were associated with cognition-related QOL and indicators of depression and anxiety in a cross-sectional survey conducted 2015 to 2017. Cognition-related QOL was measured by the short form of the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders: Applied Cognition-General Concerns. The Patient Health Questionnaire-4 measured depression and anxiety symptoms. Of 13,720 eligible men with apparently valid contact information, 3506 players returned a questionnaire at the time of this analysis (response rate = 25.6%). RESULTS: Seasons of professional play (risk ratio [RR] per 5 seasons = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.06-1.34) and playing position were associated with cognition-related QOL. Each 5 seasons of play was associated with 9% increased risk of indicators of depression at borderline statistical significance (P = .05). When compared with former kickers, punters, and quarterbacks, men who played any other position had a higher risk of poor cognition-related QOL, depression, and anxiety. Concussion symptoms were strongly associated with poor cognition-related QOL (highest concussion quartile, RR = 22.3, P < .001), depression (highest quartile, RR = 6.0, P < .0001), and anxiety (highest quartile, RR = 6.4, P < .0001), even 20 years after last professional play. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that seasons of play and playing position in the NFL are associated with lasting neuropsychiatric health deficits. Additionally, poor cognition-related QOL, depression, and anxiety appear to be associated with concussion in the long term.

20.
Exp Neurol ; 320: 112980, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229638

RESUMEN

Our earlier work generated a powerful platform technology of polymeric scaffolding of stem cells to investigate and treat the injured or diseased central nervous system. However, the reciprocal sequelae between biophysical properties of the polymer and responses of the stem cell have not been examined in situ in lesioned spinal cords. We postulated that implantable synthetic scaffolds, acting through physical features, might affect donor cell behavior and host tissue remodeling. To test this hypothesis, poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) in either low/soft or high/hard rigidity was fabricated for carrying adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hMSCs). The construct was transplanted into the epicenter of a rat model of acute T9-10 segmental hemisection to evaluate the effect of PLGA rigidity on the therapeutic potential and fate of hMSCs for neural repair. Compared to controls, only treatment with soft PLGA-scaffolded hMSCs significantly improved sensorimotor function via activation of recovery neurobiology mechanisms. The main benefits included inhibiting neuroinflammation and enhancing tissue protection. Also detected in the treated lesion region were expressions of neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory factors together with proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells, impacts likely derived from hMSCs' functional multipotency maintained by soft PLGA-scaffolding. Conversely, hard rigidity PLGA activated mechanotransduction and mesoderm lineage differentiation of hMSCs that ectopically produced bone, cartilage and muscle markers in neural parenchyma. The findings collectively suggested that the physical texture of polymeric scaffolds should be tailored for sustaining the stemness of hMSCs to constructively interact with the spinal cord for functional restoration.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/métodos , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico-Ácido Poliglicólico , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal , Andamios del Tejido/química , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
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