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1.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13001, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484708

RESUMEN

Background: The world has made considerable progress in the reduction of adolescent maternity and early marriage. However, this progress has been uneven, with many countries finding themselves far from achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in this dimension. We assessed levels and trends over time in adolescent marriage and maternity prevalence within the West and Central African region as well as their correlation with select macro-level indicators for income and social institutions. Methods: We estimated country-specific prevalence rates using survey data (pooled cross-sectional) conducted between 1986 and 2017. The pooled sample provides information on 262 721 adolescent girls between the ages of 15 and 19. We assessed the relative country-level trends by comparing prevalence rates from the first and latest available survey in each country. We further analyzed regional trends by country income group (low- and middle-income) and examined the association of prevalence rates with measurements of gender discrimination and social institutions at the country-level. Estimations were conducted using survey weights and country-specific weights for population shares in the pooled sample. Results: Prevalence of adolescent maternity declined from 30.1 percent (95% confidence interval (CI) = 29.6%-32.2%) in the 1990s, to 28.7 percent (95% CI = 27.9%-29.6%) in the 2000s and 26.2 percent (95% CI = 25.4%-27.1%) in the 2010s. Adolescent marriage rates decreased from 37.3 percent (95% CI = 35.5%-39.1%) in the 1990s to 27.5 percent (95% CI = 26.5%-28.6%) in the 2000s, and to 24.9 percent (95% CI = 24.1%-25.7%) in the 2010s. Between 1986 and 2017, adolescent marriage decreased in all countries except for the Central African Republic (with a rise from 39% to 55%) and Niger (56% to 61%). The prevalence of adolescent maternity decreased in all but three countries: Congo, Dem. Rep. (25% to 37%), Niger (36% to 40%), and the Central African Republic (36% to 49%). When grouped by income level, the prevalence was 8 percentage points higher in low-income countries than in middle-income countries in both outcomes. We did not establish any statisticly significant association between adolescent marriage and maternity with country-level measures of discrimination against women. However, we found evidence of an association between specific legal measures of protection against early marriage and lower prevalence rates for both early marriage and maternity. Conclusions: Despite considerable progress in the reduction of adolescent maternity and marriage over the last 30 years, current levels of both indicators remain overall high in the WCA region, with high heterogeneity across individual countries. Countries with higher income level and higher standard in legal protection of young girls perform consistently better on both indicators. The prevalence rates of adolescent marriage and maternity reversed over the course of three decades, so that nowadays adolescent maternity rates exceed adolescent marriage rates in most countries. Further research is needed to understand the weak or non-existent association between adolescent marriage and maternity with gender discrimination and social institutions.


Asunto(s)
Renta , Matrimonio , Adolescente , Adulto , África Central , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
2.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13002, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484709

RESUMEN

Background: Early marriage and maternity prevalence rates among adolescent girls remain alarmingly high in West and Central Africa (WCA). This study aims to explore the associations between socio-economic factors and the prevalence of early marriage and maternity, thus contributing to the identification of girls at risk of early pregnancy or marriage. Methods: We pooled data from national representative surveys (1986 - 2017) for 23 countries in WCA to examine associations between wealth, educational attainment, religious affiliation, and place of residence with adolescent marriage and maternity. We decomposed the wealth and education gradients for individual countries, while controlling for common characteristics of the local environment via the use of primary sampling unit fixed-effects. The pooled sample provides information on 262 721 girls (age 15-19 years). Survey weights and population share weights were used in the estimations. Results: The prevalence of adolescent maternity and marriage exhibited a wealth and education gradient. Prevalence of marriage in the poorest wealth quintile was 41.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.8%-43.5%) and 10.5% (95% CI = 9.5%-11.6%) in the richest. For maternity it was 38.3% (95% CI = 36.4%-40.3%) in the poorest quintile and 12.7% (95% CI = 11.5%-13.9%) in the richest. Marriage/maternity is three/two times more likely to occur among girls with incomplete primary or no formal education than in those with at least primary. Maternity and marriage among adolescents exhibit a geographical pattern and differences between religious groups. Adolescent marriage prevalence was 34.4% (95% CI = 32.9%-35.8%) in rural areas compared to 13.3% (95% CI = 12.3%-14.2%) in urban areas. Adolescent maternity prevalence was 32.8% (95% CI = 31.7%-33.9%) in rural compared to 16.3% (95% CI = 15.3%-17.3%) in urban areas. Finally, the prevalence of adolescent marriage was substantially higher among Muslims compared to all other religious groups. Conclusions: Our results highlight the disparities in the prevalence of adolescent marriage and maternity and confirm the existence of wealth and education gradients. These findings can help to improve targeting of vulnerable adolescents and to identify areas for policy implementation.


Asunto(s)
Matrimonio , Población Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , África Central , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
3.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13003, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484710

RESUMEN

Background: Adequate antenatal care (ANC) utilization is recognized as one of the important drivers of safe childbirth and positive birth outcomes. The usage of ANC services fluctuates with various personal, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics and in resource-poor settings, adolescent mothers are at a particularly high risk of insufficient ANC utilization. Objectives: This paper investigates whether the usage of ANC services and institutional delivery as well as newborn birth weight differ systematically between adolescent and adult mothers in West and Central Africa. Moreover, we explore to what extent differences in birth weight are explained by ANC usage, adolescence, and select socio-economic characteristics of the mother. Methods: We pooled cross-sectional data from all Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multi Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) conducted in countries in West and Central Africa region between 1986 and 2017 to estimate measures of ANC usage and qualified delivery assistance (along with a combined measure of "adequate maternal healthcare" aggregating these two factors) and newborn birth weight by maternal age group. We estimated various regression models to analyze a) the association between adolescence and adequate prenatal and maternal health care controlling for select socio-economic maternal characteristics as well as the local environment and b) between adolescence, adequate maternal health care, and newborn birth weight outcomes, also controlling for maternal characteristics and the local environment. All regressions were linear probability models for binary outcomes and simple linear models for continuous outcomes. Results: Adequate maternal health care provision was lowest among adolescent mothers: 23.0% among adolescents vs an average of 29.2% across all other age groups. Moreover, we found maternal education and wealth to be positively and significantly associated with receiving adequate maternal health care. Adolescent mothers had the highest risk of low infantile birth weight with 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 13.6%-15.5%), which is roughly 1.5-2 times higher than in older mothers. We found that adolescence is still strongly associated with low birth weight even when adequate maternal health care and various socio-economic factors as well as the local environment are controlled for. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ANC supply in resource-poor settings should be particularly tailored to adolescent mothers' needs and that further research is necessary to explore what individual maternal characteristics beyond socio-economic and physical (eg, BMI) factors drive the prevalence of low birth weight. Moreover, the currently used measures of maternal care quality are heavily dependent on pure quantitative measures (number of ANC visits). New indicators incorporating measures of factual quality and scope ought to be developed and incorporated into large routine household surveys such as DHS and MICS.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materna , Atención Prenatal , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Peso al Nacer , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Salud Materna , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Embarazo , Factores Socioeconómicos
4.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13004, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484711

RESUMEN

Objective: Early marriage and childbearing have substantial detrimental effects on both, the affected girls and women at the micro level, as well as entire economies on the macro level. West and Central African countries have some of the highest prevalence rates of early marriage and maternity worldwide. This work attempts to quantify the long-term economic, societal, and fertility effects of marriage and pregnancy in early and late adolescence in West and Central Africa. Methods: We used pooled cross-sectional data collected between 1986 and 2017 in 21 West and Central African countries within the DHS and MICS programs to estimate the associations of marriage and maternity during early (10-14) and late (15-19) adolescence retrospectively on wealth accumulation, educational attainment, as well as the woman's lifetime fertility. Results: Descriptively, women who married or gave birth as young or very young adolescents are overrepresented among the poorest and least educated quintiles of the adult population and underrepresented among the richest and most educated. These gradients were confirmed within a regression analysis which additionally controlled for current age of the woman and PSU fixed effects. Marrying in early/late adolescence was associated with a 12%/6% higher likelihood of being in the poorest wealth quintile in later life and 29%/20% increased likelihood of not completing primary education, as compared to women who married as adults. Maternity in early/late adolescence was associated with a 7%/4% higher likelihood of belonging to the poorest quintile and 17%/10% higher likelihood of being uneducated. Moreover, women who married/gave birth during early or late adolescence, on average, have 2.2/2.3 or 1.4/1.5 more children than those who have married/become mothers as adults. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the dire consequences of early marriage and maternity hit youngest girls the hardest - both immediately and long-term. Hence, it is not only worthwhile to prevent adolescent marriage and pregnancy in general, but also specifically target very young girls below age 15 to attempt to at least delay such far-reaching demographic life events.


Asunto(s)
Fertilidad , Matrimonio , Adolescente , Adulto , África Central , Factores de Edad , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos
5.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13005, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484712

RESUMEN

Background: Young women in West and Central Africa have been described by the United Nations as being especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Despite a consensus that increased efforts are necessary to address the needs of this particular demographic, correlates of HIV seropositivity in young West and Central African women have not been systematically described. This study fills this gap using a rich set of publicly available survey data. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we combined HIV test results for young women (age 15-24 years) with information on demographic, cultural and socioeconomic correlates from 17 recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to estimate odds ratios (OR) from fixed effects logistic regression models accounting for potential individual, household-level and contextual risk factors of HIV seropositivity. Results: The prevalence of HIV seropositivity among young women is higher than for men of the same age in all included surveys, except for the Burkina Faso DHS. An important correlate of HIV seropositivity in young women is early sexual activity (OR = 1.510; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.100, 2.072), while higher education is associated with reduced odds of being HIV positive (OR = 0.215; 95% CI = 0.057, 0.820). No significant correlation has been found for individual HIV awareness, but HIV stigma is negatively associated with HIV seropositivity (OR = 0.495; 95% CI = 0.247, 0.990, in the fully adjusted model). Conclusions: The results demonstrate the need to design effective policies addressing behavioral risks in young women. In particular, increasing HIV awareness alone is likely to be insufficient. Instead, information campaigns need to focus on transforming awareness into behavioral change. Moreover, fostering formal education may be an effective tool in the fight against HIV/AIDS.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Seropositividad para VIH , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Seropositividad para VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Conducta Sexual , Adulto Joven
6.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13006, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484713

RESUMEN

Background: Adolescence is a highly vulnerable period of human life characterized by substantial physiological and cognitive changes for which adequate nutrition is crucial. To date, evidence on determinants, prevalence, and trends of undernutrition and anemia for the entire West and Central African region is missing. This paper provides evidence on trends and levels of adolescent anemia and undernutrition in West and Central Africa. Methods: We pooled all Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for West and Central African countries that were conducted between 1986 and 2017 to analyze levels and trends of adolescent anemia and undernutrition. We investigated the association of adolescent undernutrition and anemia within this region with World Bank income level classification of the country. Results: Our findings suggest that the regional prevalence of adolescent anemia and undernutrition remained high at 45% and 19% respectively over the last 20 years. Anemia increased in about one third of countries and undernutrition in about two thirds over the studied period. On the aggregated level, these trends are largely masked and both levels remained stable in the entire region between the years 1998 and 2017. The results of the multivariable regression analysis indicate an association of adolescence with undernutrition and anemia, which was independent of socio-economic factors such as income, education, and place of residence. Conclusion: We conclude that levels of adolescent undernutrition and anemia remain high with little progress over the last 20 years and that adolescence is a significant correlate of both anemia and undernutrition. Given the recognition of the international community that adolescent nutrition is an important public health concern in resource-poor settings, there is an urgent need to improve data availability, quality, and use for decision-making and to design successful high-impact interventions to combat adolescent malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Desnutrición , Adolescente , África Central , Anemia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Prevalencia
7.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13007, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484714

RESUMEN

Background: Adolescence is a formative period when an individual acquires physical, cognitive, emotional, and social resources that are the foundation for later life, health, and well-being [1]. However, in West and Central African region, this trajectory is curtailed by early childbearing associated with an increased risk of undernutrition and anemia. Evidence on socio-economic determinants of anemia and undernutrition in adolescent mothers is limited. This paper aims to shed some light on this issue and, more specifically, assess the socio-economic determinants of anemia among childbearing adolescents in the region. Methods: For this observational study, we pooled data from all Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in countries in West and Central Africa region between 1986 and 2017. Outcomes were undernutrition and anemia in adolescent mothers. Predictors were education, wealth, place of residence (rural/urban), and religion. Descriptive statistics were calculated using survey weights for individual surveys and in the pooled sample each country was additionally weighted with its population share. We estimated multiple regression models with and without primary sampling unit fixed effects for both outcomes. All regressions were linear probability models. Results: Having no formal education was the strongest predictor for both anemia and undernutrition. Belonging to the richest asset quintile was also associated with lower anemia and undernutrition prevalence in some specifications. While urban location of the mother was positively associated with anemia, there was no association with undernutrition. Conclusions: Overall, having any formal education emerged as a sole strong predictor of reduced adolescent maternal undernutrition and anemia. Promotion of female education can potentially serve as a high-impact intervention to improve adolescent girls' health in the region. However, we cannot make conclusions about its causal impact based on this study alone.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Desnutrición , Adolescente , África Central , Anemia/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Madres , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13008, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484715

RESUMEN

Backgound: The global community recognizes the urgent need to end preventable child deaths, making it an essential part of the third Sustainable Development Goal. Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria still remain the leading causes of deaths among children under five years, especially in one of the poorest geographic regions of the world - West and Central Africa. This region carries a disproportionately high share of the global burden, both in terms of morbidity and mortality. The study aims to assess levels and trends of the prevalence of these three childhood diseases in West and Central Africa to better inform ongoing and future programmes to improve child survival. Methods: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys available from 1995 to 2017 for 23 countries in West and Central Africa were analysed. We estimated the prevalence of diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections (ARI), malaria, and fever as a proxy for malaria, and split the data into three time periods to assess these trends in disease prevalence over time. Further analyses were done to assess the variations by geographic location (urban and rural) and gender (boys and girls). Results: In West and Central Africa, the reduction of the prevalence rates of diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections, malaria, and fever has decelerated over time (1995-2009), and little improvements occurred between 2010 and 2017. The reduction within the region has been uneven and the prevalence rates either increased or stagnated for diarrhoea (nine countries), ARI (four countries), and fever (six countries). The proportion of affected children was high in emergency or fragile settings. Disaggregated analyses of population-based data show persistent gaps between the prevalence of diseases by geographic location and gender, albeit not significant for the latter. Conclusions: Without intensified commitment to reducing the prevalence of pneumonia, malaria, and diarrhoea, many countries will not be able to meet the SDG goal to end preventable child deaths. Evidence-driven programmes that focus on improving equitable access to preventive health care information and services must be fostered, especially in complex emergency settings. This will be an opportunity to strengthen primary health care, including community health programmes, to achieve universal health coverage.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , África Central , Niño , Preescolar , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/prevención & control , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/prevención & control , Masculino , Prevalencia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control
9.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13009, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484716

RESUMEN

Background: While the prevalence of childhood diseases and related mortality have been decreasing over the past decades, progress has been unequally distributed. The poorest households often carry the highest disease burden. As morbidity and mortality also decline most slowly among children of the poorest households, socioeconomic status may become a more relevant risk factor for childhood diseases. Methods: We analysed the association between socioeconomic status and highly prevalent childhood diseases, specifically diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections (ARI), and malaria, and how this association changed over time. For this observational study, we used repeated cross-sectional data, namely all available Demographic and Health Surveys as well as Multi-Indicator Cluster Surveys from Western and Central Africa between 1995 and 2017. We estimated the predicted prevalence of each disease for the entire region in three time periods. We repeated the analysis separately for each country to highlight heterogeneity between countries. Results: A notable wealth gradient can be seen in the prevalence rates of diarrhoea, ARI, and malaria in Western and Central Africa. Children in the poorest quartile have a much higher morbidity than children in the richest quartile and have experienced a considerably slower decline in prevalence rates. In the period 2010-2017, predicted prevalence of diarrhoea was 17.5% for children in the poorest quartile and 12.5% for children in the richest quartile. Similarly, the predicted prevalence was 11.1% and 8.6% for ARI, and 54.1% and 24.4% for malaria in endemic countries. The pattern does not differ between boys and girls. While exact prevalence rates vary between countries, only few countries have seen a decline in the wealth gradient for childhood diseases. Conclusions: The increasing wealth gradient in health raises concerns of increasing inequality that goes beyond wealth. It suggests a need to further improve targeting of health programmes. Moreover, these programmes should be adapted to address the interlinked challenges which burden the poorest households.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , África Central , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Diarrea/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Malaria/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos
10.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13010, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484717

RESUMEN

Background: Globally, health care seeking for childhood diseases seems to be on the rise. However, progress is slow and still, many cases of infectious diseases in children remain untreated, leading to preventable child mortality. A better understanding of care seeking behaviour may help to further increase the probability that a sick child is taken to a health facility for care. Methods: We investigated whether mother's and father's age at birth of the child is associated with health care seeking behaviour for childhood diseases and how this association changed over time. For this observational study, we used repeated cross-sectional data, namely all available Demographic and Health Surveys as well as Multi-Indicator Cluster Surveys from Western and Central Africa, 1995 to 2017. We analysed care seeking behaviour for diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections (ARI), and treatment of diarrhoea with oral rehydration solution (ORS). We estimated ordinary least squares regressions, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics of the household and adding survey year- and country-fixed effects. Estimated associations are presented for the entire region and for each country separately to highlight heterogeneity. Results: Overall, the likelihood that care is sought for a child suffering from diarrhoea or ARI is low in Western and Central Africa. Probability of care seeking for diarrhoea ranges between 49% for mothers above 40 years and 53% for mothers between 25 and 29 years. For ARI, the rates are 60% and 62%, respectively. Treatment of diarrhoea with ORS is even lower, ranging between 23% and 26%. The probability that parents seek health care for their child does not seem to be associated with parents' age at birth. Mother's level of education and household's wealth status seem to be more important factors. There is evidence of the relationship between parents' age and care seeking changing over time, suggesting a stronger association in the past. Conclusions: Parents' age at child birth does not seem to have a relevant association with care seeking for common childhood diseases. Identifying relevant factors may help in improving health care seeking behaviour of parents in low- and middle-income countries leading to reductions in child morbidity and mortality.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , África Central , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Padres
11.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e13249, 2021 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309178

RESUMEN

In many countries, water is provided to children under 6 months of age (CU6M) in addition to breast milk (BM), hence increasing the risk of child mortality and morbidity. Factors related to this practice have not been thoroughly investigated either a tool to assess them. Based on the extended theory of planned behaviour (eTPB), we aim to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess psychosocial and environmental factors that may contribute/limit the water provision in addition to BM by mothers of CU6M in the Republic of Guinea. A three-step process was used. Ten focus group discussions (FGDs) were held to identify salient beliefs related to each of the four constructs of the eTPB. Data from FGDs were used to develop a questionnaire composed of 88 items administered to 428 mothers. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to identify latent factors for each construct. A shorter version of the questionnaire was administered to another sample of 300 mothers. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were performed. Hancock and Mueller's H reliability indices were computed on final models to assess the tool's validity and reliability. The final questionnaire included 57 items. For all four final models, most criteria for fit indices of CFA were generally met. Reliability coefficients were all equal to or above 0.90 for each construct. This research offers a tool that could be used to investigate determinants of water provision besides BM among mothers of CU6M. Further validation in other contexts is warranted.

12.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-12, 2020 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993837

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To identify the drivers and challenges of successful nutrition programme implementation in a multisectoral, community-level approach to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in northern Burkina Faso. DESIGN: A qualitative study was conducted in 2019 through (i) individual interviews with key informants from five different sectors (health, agriculture, environment, livestock and education) and association staff, agents and community leaders and (ii) focus groups with mothers of children under the age of 2 years. SETTING: Three health districts in the northern region of Burkina Faso implemented a multisectoral community nutrition programme to improve IYCF practices. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-seven implementing actors and twenty-four beneficiary mothers. RESULTS: Factors influencing successful implementation include community participation; sector commitment and involvement; the existence of nutrition champions; capacity building; the integration of interventions; micronutrient powder distribution; the introduction of nutrition-sensitive interventions, such as the promotion of the consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes; improved food production and small livestock rearing and the effective coordination of actors and complementary funding. The main challenges of the implementation of multisectorality are low participation among nutrition-sensitive sectors, a tendency for siloed work among sectors, scheduling conflicts, high actor mobility, differences in the target population by sector, a lack of technical skills among community workers, insufficient financial resources, low geographic convergence and coverage of beneficiaries, a lack of a multisectoral monitoring mechanism and accountability and insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: Strengthening sector participation, identifying a common targeting strategy and mobilising financial resources have the potential to significantly reduce barriers and improve the quality of implementation.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e036350, 2020 02 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014882

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore the role of individual-level and household-level characteristics for practice of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis (cross-sectional). SETTING: West and Central Africa. PARTICIPANTS: Data are from the Demographic and Health Surveys in the time period between 1986 and 2016. The final sample included between 116 325 and 272 238 observations depending on the outcome. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions were identified based on the UNICEF Conceptual Framework for child undernutrition. These were early breastfeeding initiation, minimum dietary diversity, full age-appropriate immunisation, iodised salt usage, vitamin A supplementation, iron supplementation, deworming in children aged 1 to 5, clean cooking fuel, safe drinking water and improved sanitation. Explanatory variables include household, mother and child characteristics. Linear probability models were fitted for each outcome, both unadjusted as well as fully adjusted including primary sampling unit fixed effects. RESULTS: Prevalence of early breastfeeding initiation was 54.31% (95% CI: 53.22% to 55.41%), minimum dietary diversity 13.89% (95% CI: 13.19% to 14.59%), full age-appropriate immunisation 13.04% (95% CI: 12.49% to 13.59%), iodised salt usage 49.66% (95% CI: 46.79% to 52.53%), vitamin A supplementation 52.87% (95% CI: 51.41% to 54.33%), iron supplementation 10.73% (95% CI: 10.07% to 11.39%), deworming 31.33% (95% CI: 30.06% to 32.60%), clean cooking fuel usage 3.02% (95% CI: 2.66% to 3.38%), safe drinking water 57.85% (95% CI: 56.10% to 59.59%) and improved sanitation 42.49% (95% CI: 40.77% to 44.21%). There was a positive education and wealth gradient for the practices of all interventions except deworming. Higher birth order was positively associated with the practice of early breastfeeding initiation, minimum dietary diversity, vitamin A supplementation and negatively associated with full immunisation and improved sanitation. CONCLUSIONS: Household, maternal, and child-level characteristics explain practices of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions beyond intervention delivery at the regional level.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado Nutricional , África Central/epidemiología , África Occidental/epidemiología , Niño , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/prevención & control , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino
14.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 35(1): 120-139, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271224

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Malnutrition is a multifactorial problem, and multisectoral planning is an indispensable tool. The objective of this study was (a) to evaluate the extent to which nutrition is integrated into policies and (b) to describe the process used by the government of Burkina Faso to reform its policy frameworks and multisectoral nutrition planning. METHODS: This was a qualitative study, and data were collected in two key steps: first, through a policy overview conducted in 2015 and, second, in November 2017, through a document review and individual stakeholder interviews with 32 key actors involved in national nutrition planning. RESULTS: The extent to which nutrition is integrated into development policies varied from one sector to another. Since 2014, Burkina Faso has initiated nutrition planning through a multisectoral approach involving six sectors. This process was implemented in three key stages. Progress includes revision of national nutrition policy towards multisectoral perspective, formulation of a consensual and quality multisectoral nutrition strategic plan, creation of nutrition budget line, and establishment of nutrition technical secretariat. CONCLUSION: To improve the anchoring of multisectoral coordination bodies at the supra-ministerial level, mobilizing resources and promoting sector accountability are key next steps that would contribute to the success of the implementation.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Salud/métodos , Política Nutricional , Burkina Faso/epidemiología , Niño , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/prevención & control , Humanos , Desnutrición/prevención & control , Desnutrición/terapia , Formulación de Políticas , Política
15.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15(2): e12702, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246929

RESUMEN

The objectives of most treatment programs for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children focus on initial recovery only, leaving post-discharge outcomes, such as relapse, poorly understood and undefined. This study aimed to systematically review current literature and conduct secondary data analyses of studies that captured relapse rates, up to 18-month post-discharge, in children following recovery from SAM treatment. The literature search (including PubMed and Google Scholar) built upon two recent reviews to identify a variety of up-to-date published studies and grey literature. This search yielded 26 articles and programme reports that provided information on relapse. The proportion of children who relapsed after SAM treatment varied greatly from 0% to 37% across varying lengths of time following discharge. The lack of a standard definition of relapse limited comparability even among the few studies that have quantified post-discharge relapse. Inconsistent treatment protocols and poor adherence to protocols likely add to the wide range of relapse reported. Secondary analysis of a database from Malawi found no significant association between potential individual risk factors at admission and discharge, except being an orphan, which resulted in five times greater odds of relapse at 6 months post-discharge (95% CI [1.7, 12.4], P = 0.003). The development of a standard definition of relapse is needed for programme implementers and researchers. This will allow for assessment of programme quality regarding sustained recovery and better understanding of the contribution of relapse to local and global burden of SAM.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición Aguda Severa/epidemiología , África/epidemiología , Asia/epidemiología , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Recurrencia , Indias Occidentales/epidemiología
16.
Nutrients ; 10(6)2018 Jun 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912154

RESUMEN

Adequate complementary foods are needed to help reduce the high prevalence of stunting in children in many Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). We assessed the availability, affordability, and nutrient adequacy of imported and locally produced processed cereal-based blends (PCBBs), marketed as complementary food for young children in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Senegal. In total, 19 local producers and 275 points of sale in the four countries were surveyed to evaluate the quantities and accessibility of PCBBs. In addition, 32 PCBBs were analysed for their nutritional composition and packaging information. The results showed that only 7 out of 32 PCBBs could be classified as nutritionally satisfactory. Access to the products was insufficient in all surveyed settings. At the points of sale, the PCBB market was dominated by imported products, even though two out of four imported PCBBs were not nutritionally satisfactory. Imported PCBBs were two to three times more expensive than locally produced PCBBs. Labelling of the PCBBs was inadequate in many aspects. Technical support should be offered to local PCBB producers to ensure the adequate formulation and supply of an appropriate vitamin and mineral premix. The development of national specific regulations on PCBB composition and labelling is strongly recommended in these countries.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Calidad de los Alimentos , Alimentos Infantiles/análisis , Necesidades Nutricionales , Valor Nutritivo , África Occidental , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Lactante , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Estado Nutricional
17.
BMC Med ; 15(1): 87, 2017 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441944

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cash transfer programs (CTPs) aim to strengthen financial security for vulnerable households. This potentially enables improvements in diet, hygiene, health service access and investment in food production or income generation. The effect of CTPs on the outcome of children already severely malnourished is not well delineated. The objective of this study was to test whether CTPs will improve the outcome of children treated for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo over 6 months. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial in children with uncomplicated SAM who received treatment according to the national protocol and counselling with or without a cash supplement of US$40 monthly for 6 months. Analyses were by intention to treat. RESULTS: The hazard ratio of reaching full recovery from SAM was 35% higher in the intervention group than the control group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10 to 1.69, P = 0.007). The adjusted hazard ratios in the intervention group for relapse to moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and SAM were 0.21 (95% CI = 0.11 to 0.41, P = 0.001) and 0.30 (95% CI = 0.16 to 0.58, P = 0.001) respectively. Non-response and defaulting were lower when the households received cash. All the nutritional outcomes in the intervention group were significantly better than those in the control group. After 6 months, 80% of cash-intervened children had re-gained their mid-upper arm circumference measurements and weight-for-height/length Z-scores and showed evidence of catch-up. Less than 40% of the control group had a fully successful outcome, with many deteriorating after discharge. There was a significant increase in diet diversity and food consumption scores for both groups from baseline; the increase was significantly greater in the intervention group than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: CTPs can increase recovery from SAM and decrease default, non-response and relapse rates during and following treatment. Household developmental support is critical in food insecure areas to maximise the efficiency of SAM treatment programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02460848 . Registered on 27 May 2015.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/terapia , Costo de Enfermedad , Desnutrición Aguda Severa/terapia , Peso Corporal , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/economía , Preescolar , Enfermedad Crónica , República Democrática del Congo , Dieta , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Recurrencia , Desnutrición Aguda Severa/economía , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Glob Health Action ; 9: 29548, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818193

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is consensus among stakeholders in Cameroon on the need to develop and strengthen human resource capacity for nutrition. This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for tertiary-level human nutrition training in Cameroon. DESIGN: Participating institutions included university-level institutions offering dedicated nutrition degree programs or other programs in which nutrition courses were taught. A semi-structured questionnaire administered during in-person interviews was used to collect data on existing programs and content of training curricula. Nutrition curricula were reviewed against the following criteria: intended objectives, coverage of nutrition topics, and teaching methods. RESULTS: In total, five nutrition degree programs (four undergraduate programs and one master's program) were identified. Three additional programs were about to be launched at the time of data collection. We did not find any doctorate degree programs in nutrition. All the undergraduate programs only had little focus on public health nutrition whereas the master's program in our sample offered a good coverage of all dimensions of human nutrition including basic and applied nutrition. The predominant teaching method was didactic lecture in all the programs. We did not find any formal documentation outlining the competencies that students were expected to gain upon completion of these programs. Nutrition courses in agricultural and health schools were limited in terms of contact hours and scope. Public health nutrition was not covered in any of the health professional schools surveyed. We found no institution offering in-service nutrition training at the time of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, we recommend that nutrition training programs in Cameroon be redesigned to make them more responsive to the public health needs of the country.


Asunto(s)
Educación Profesional/normas , Ciencias de la Nutrición/educación , Salud Pública/educación , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Camerún , Curriculum , Educación de Postgrado/normas , Educación Profesional/métodos , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Public Health Nutr ; 15(5): 916-27, 2012 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22014596

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To review the prevalence, severity and determinants of anaemia among women in West and Central Africa (WCA) and raise awareness among policy makers and programme planners in the region. DESIGN: Systematic descriptive review of data in the public domain of the ORC Macro MEASURE Demographic and Health Surveys, national nutrition surveys, oral and technical communications at regional meetings, studies published in scientific journals, and WHO and UNICEF databases. SETTING: West and Central Africa region. SUBJECTS: Women of childbearing age. RESULTS: The prevalence of anaemia among pregnant and non-pregnant women is higher than 50 % and 40 %, respectively, in all countries. Within countries, this prevalence varies by living setting (rural v. urban), women's age and education. Across countries, socio-economic and climatic differences have no apparent association with the prevalence of anaemia among women. Several factors contribute either alone or jointly to the high rates of maternal anaemia in this region. These include widespread nutritional deficiencies; high incidence of infectious diseases; low access to and poor quality of health services; low literacy rates; ineffective design, implementation and evaluation of anaemia control programmes; and poverty. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing the multiple causes and minimizing the consequences of anaemia on maternal and child health and development in WCA require integrated multifactorial and multisectoral strategies. This also calls for unprecedented, historical and stronger political will and commitment that put adolescent girls and maternal health at the centre of the development agenda.


Asunto(s)
Anemia/epidemiología , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos/fisiología , Política Nutricional , Necesidades Nutricionales , Salud de la Mujer , Adolescente , Adulto , África Central/epidemiología , África Occidental/epidemiología , Anemia/prevención & control , Concienciación , Femenino , Humanos , Lactancia/fisiología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Hematológicas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
20.
Food Nutr Bull ; 26(4): 356-65, 2005 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16465982

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso and elsewhere in the developing world. Dietary diversification is a promising strategy that needs to be explored to strengthen the country's ongoing supplementation program. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify locally available and acceptable (pro)vitamin A-rich foods to be included in a dietary intervention addressing vitamin A deficiency in children aged six months to three years. METHODS: A food ethnographic study combining recall methods, observation, and focused group discussion was conducted in the dry and rainy seasons. Thirty-five mother-child pairs were randomly selected and included in the study. RESULTS: The dietary pattern of children was characterized by low diversity with extremely low energy and vitamin A intake in both seasons. The study identified the availability of numerous (pro)vitamin A-rich foods, but these foods are either not consumed or consumed by few in low amounts and/or in low frequencies. The main constraining factors identified are related to financial accessibility (for liver), seasonal availability (for egg, milk, mango, papaya, and green leafy vegetables), and beliefs related to consumption and preparation (for green leafy vegetables). However, the study also revealed that the study population associated all identified (pro)vitamin A-rich foods with positive attributes such as health, strength, and vitamin richness, which might offer an entry point for designing and implementing dietary interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings of this formative research, intervention strategies with mango and liver are proposed to improve the vitamin A intake and status of children in the rural areas of Burkina Faso.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos/clasificación , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Deficiencia de Vitamina A/dietoterapia , Deficiencia de Vitamina A/epidemiología , Vitamina A/uso terapéutico , Antropometría , Burkina Faso/epidemiología , Preescolar , Suplementos Dietéticos , Conducta Alimentaria/etnología , Femenino , Análisis de los Alimentos , Humanos , Lactante , Hígado/química , Masculino , Mangifera/química , Valor Nutritivo , Salud Pública , Estaciones del Año , Vitamina A/administración & dosificación
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