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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009566, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555124

RESUMEN

The hemagglutinin (HA) of A/H3N2 pandemic influenza viruses (IAVs) of 1968 differed from its inferred avian precursor by eight amino acid substitutions. To determine their phenotypic effects, we studied recombinant variants of A/Hong Kong/1/1968 virus containing either human-type or avian-type amino acids in the corresponding positions of HA. The precursor HA displayed receptor binding profile and high conformational stability typical for duck IAVs. Substitutions Q226L and G228S, in addition to their known effects on receptor specificity and replication, marginally decreased HA stability. Substitutions R62I, D63N, D81N and N193S reduced HA binding avidity. Substitutions R62I, D81N and A144G promoted viral replication in human airway epithelial cultures. Analysis of HA sequences revealed that substitutions D63N and D81N accompanied by the addition of N-glycans represent common markers of avian H3 HA adaptation to mammals. Our results advance understanding of genotypic and phenotypic changes in IAV HA required for avian-to-human adaptation and pandemic emergence.

2.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375071

RESUMEN

Bats are often claimed to be a major source for future viral epidemics, as they are associated with several viruses with zoonotic potential. Here we describe the presence and biodiversity of bats associated with intensive pig farms devoted to the production of heavy pigs in northern Italy. Since chiropters or signs of their presence were not found within animal shelters in our study area, we suggest that fecal viruses with high environmental resistance have the highest likelihood for spillover through indirect transmission. In turn, we investigated the circulation of mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs), coronaviruses (CoVs) and astroviruses (AstVs) in pigs and bats sharing the same environment. Results of our preliminary study did not show any bat virus in pigs suggesting that spillover from these animals is rare. However, several AstVs, CoVs and MRVs circulated undetected in pigs. Among those, one MRV was a reassortant strain carrying viral genes likely acquired from bats. On the other hand, we found a swine AstV and a MRV strain carrying swine genes in bat guano, indicating that viral exchange at the bat-pig interface might occur more frequently from pigs to bats rather than the other way around. Considering the indoor farming system as the most common system in the European Union (EU), preventive measures should focus on biosecurity rather than displacement of bats, which are protected throughout the EU and provide critical ecosystem services for rural settings.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros , Porcinos , Animales , Biodiversidad , Quirópteros/virología , Virus ADN/clasificación , Virus ADN/genética , Ecosistema , Filogenia , Virus ARN/clasificación , Virus ARN/genética , Virus Reordenados/genética , Porcinos/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Virosis/veterinaria
3.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066257

RESUMEN

This investigation focused on an episode of chronic mortality observed in juvenile Huso huso sturgeons. The examined subjects underwent pathological, microbiological, molecular, and chemical investigations. Grossly severe body shape deformities, epaxial muscle softening, and multifocal ulcerative dermatitis were the main observed findings. The more constant histopathologic findings were moderate to severe rarefaction and disorganization of the lymphohematopoietic lymphoid tissues, myofiber degeneration, atrophy and interstitial edema of skeletal epaxial muscles, and degeneration and atrophy of the gangliar neurons close to the myofibers. Chemical investigations showed a lower selenium concentration in affected animals, suggesting nutritional myopathy. Other manifestations were nephrocalcinosis and splenic vessel wall hyalinosis. Septicemia due to bacteria such as Aeromonas veronii, Shewanella putrefaciens, Citrobacter freundii, Chryseobacterium sp., and pigmented hyphae were found. No major sturgeon viral pathogens were detected by classical methods. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis confirmed the absence of viral pathogens, with the exception of herpesvirus, at the order level; also, the presence of Aeromonas veronii and Shewanella putrefaciens was confirmed at the family level by the metagenomic classification of NGS data. In the absence of a primary yet undetected biological cause, it is supposed that environmental stressors, including nutritional imbalances, may have led to immune system impairment, facilitating the entry of opportunistic bacteria and mycotic hyphae.

4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 2775-2788, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438523

RESUMEN

Avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV), are economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. IBV is responsible for causing severe losses to the commercial poultry sector globally. The objectives of this study were to identify the viruses that were causing outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in chickens in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) and to characterize the strains. Swab samples were collected from birds showing severe respiratory signs in five farms on the island of Trinidad. Samples were tested for the presence of IBV, as well as avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). All samples from the five farms tested negative for AIV, NDV and aMPV; however, samples from clinically affected birds in all five of the farms tested positive for IBV. Genetic data revealed the presence of TCoV in chickens on two of the farms. Interestingly, these two farms had never reared turkeys. Phylogenetic analysis showed that IBV S1 sequences formed two distinct clusters. Two sequences grouped with vaccine strains within the GI-1 lineage, whereas three sequences grouped together, but separately from other defined lineages, forming a likely new lineage of IBV. Pairwise comparison revealed that the three unique variant strains within the distinct lineage of IBV were significantly different in their S1 nucleotide coding regions from viruses in the closest lineage (16% difference) and locally used vaccine strains (>20% difference). Results also suggested that one of the samples was a recombinant virus, generated from a recombination event between a Trinidad virus of the GI-1 lineage and a Trinidad virus of the newly defined lineage. Many amino acid differences were also observed between the S1 coding regions of the circulating field and vaccine strains, indicating that the IBV vaccines may not be protective. Vaccine-challenge studies are however needed to prove this.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Pollos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Patos , Gansos , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/clasificación , Filogenia , Codorniz , ARN Viral , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN/veterinaria , Trinidad y Tobago , Pavos , Vacunación/veterinaria
5.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456089

RESUMEN

Mammalian Orthoreoviruses (MRV) are segmented dsRNA viruses in the family Reoviridae. MRVs infect mammals and cause asymptomatic respiratory, gastro-enteric and, rarely, encephalic infections. MRVs are divided into at least three serotypes: MRV1, MRV2 and MRV3. In Europe, swine MRV (swMRV) was first isolated in Austria in 1998 and subsequently reported more than fifteen years later in Italy. In the present study, we characterized two novel reassortant swMRVs identified in one same Italian farm over two years. The two viruses shared the same genetic backbone but showed evidence of reassortment in the S1, S4, M2 segments and were therefore classified into two serotypes: MRV3 in 2016 and MRV2 in 2018. A genetic relation to pig, bat and human MRVs and other unknown sources was identified. A considerable genetic diversity was observed in the Italian MRV3 and MRV2 compared to other available swMRVs. The S1 protein presented unique amino acid signatures in both swMRVs, with unexpected frequencies for MRV2. The remaining genes formed distinct and novel genetic groups that revealed a geographically related evolution of swMRVs in Italy. This is the first report of the complete molecular characterization of novel reassortant swMRVs in Italy and Europe, which suggests a greater genetic diversity of swMRVs never identified before.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Orthoreovirus de los Mamíferos/genética , Infecciones por Reoviridae/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Animales , Proteínas de la Cápside/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Europa (Continente) , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Italia , Mutación , Orthoreovirus de los Mamíferos/clasificación , Orthoreovirus de los Mamíferos/aislamiento & purificación , Filogenia , Serogrupo , Porcinos , Células Vero
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 851-854, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403984

RESUMEN

A second case of a novel rabies variant described once in a capuchin monkey from Mato Grosso, Brazil, was discovered in a rabid wild kinkajou from the same region, indicating a public health risk following exposure to either of the two animals.


Asunto(s)
Cebus/virología , Procyonidae/virología , Virus de la Rabia/aislamiento & purificación , Rabia/transmisión , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Genes Virales , Filogenia , Salud Pública , Virus de la Rabia/genética
7.
Infect Genet Evol ; 83: 104342, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348876

RESUMEN

Since 2005, H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the Goose/Guangdong (Gs/GD) lineage have spread worldwide, affecting poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe, Africa and North America. So far, the role of Western Asia and the Middle East in the diffusion dynamics of this virus has been poorly explored. In order to investigate the genetic diversity and the role of Iran in the transmission dynamics of the Gs/GD lineage, we sequenced the complete genome of twenty-eight H5Nx viruses which were circulating in the country between 2016 and 2018. We reported the first characterization of the HPAI H5N6 subtype of clade 2.3.4.4B in Iran and gave evidence of the high propensity of the Gs/GD H5 AIVs to reassort, describing six novel H5N8 genotypes of clade 2.3.4.4B, some of them likely generated in this area, and one H5N1 reassortant virus of clade 2.3.2.1c. Our spatial analyses demonstrated that the viruses resulted from different viral introductions from Asia and Europe and provided evidence of virus spread from Iran to the Middle East. Therefore, Iran may represent a hot-spot for virus introduction, dissemination and for the generation of new genetic variability. Increasing surveillance efforts in this high-risk area is of utmost importance for the early detection of novel emerging strains with zoonotic potential.

8.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(2)2020 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919171

RESUMEN

The comber alphavirus was isolated from a fish cell line from the brain of an apparently healthy Serranus cabrilla specimen collected during wild fish surveillance in southern Italy. The comber alphavirus is a new member of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae.

9.
Virol J ; 16(1): 140, 2019 11 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752912

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Next generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming widely used among diagnostics and research laboratories, and nowadays it is applied to a variety of disciplines, including veterinary virology. The NGS workflow comprises several steps, namely sample processing, library preparation, sequencing and primary/secondary/tertiary bioinformatics (BI) analyses. The latter is constituted by a complex process extremely difficult to standardize, due to the variety of tools and metrics available. Thus, it is of the utmost importance to assess the comparability of results obtained through different methods and in different laboratories. To achieve this goal, we have organized a proficiency test focused on the bioinformatics components for the generation of complete genome sequences of salmonid rhabdoviruses. METHODS: Three partners, that performed virus sequencing using different commercial library preparation kits and NGS platforms, gathered together and shared with each other 75 raw datasets which were analyzed separately by the participants to produce a consensus sequence according to their own bioinformatics pipeline. Results were then compared to highlight discrepancies, and a subset of inconsistencies were investigated more in detail. RESULTS: In total, we observed 526 discrepancies, of which 39.5% were located at genome termini, 14.1% at intergenic regions and 46.4% at coding regions. Among these, 10 SNPs and 99 indels caused changes in the protein products. Overall reproducibility was 99.94%. Based on the analysis of a subset of inconsistencies investigated more in-depth, manual curation appeared the most critical step affecting sequence comparability, suggesting that the harmonization of this phase is crucial to obtain comparable results. The analysis of a calibrator sample allowed assessing BI accuracy, being 99.983%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the applicability and the usefulness of BI proficiency testing to assure the quality of NGS data, and recommend a wider implementation of such exercises to guarantee sequence data uniformity among different virology laboratories.


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional/métodos , Biología Computacional/normas , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/normas , Virus de la Necrosis Hematopoyética Infecciosa/genética , Novirhabdovirus/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/normas , Animales , Peces , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Control de Calidad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5310, 2019 11 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757953

RESUMEN

The role of Africa in the dynamics of the global spread of a zoonotic and economically-important virus, such as the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5Nx of the Gs/GD lineage, remains unexplored. Here we characterise the spatiotemporal patterns of virus diffusion during three HPAI H5Nx intercontinental epidemic waves and demonstrate that Africa mainly acted as an ecological sink of the HPAI H5Nx viruses. A joint analysis of host dynamics and continuous spatial diffusion indicates that poultry trade as well as wild bird migrations have contributed to the virus spreading into Africa, with West Africa acting as a crucial hotspot for virus introduction and dissemination into the continent. We demonstrate varying paths of avian influenza incursions into Africa as well as virus spread within Africa over time, which reveal that virus expansion is a complex phenomenon, shaped by an intricate interplay between avian host ecology, virus characteristics and environmental variables.


Asunto(s)
Gripe Aviar/transmisión , Gripe Humana/transmisión , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/transmisión , África , África Occidental , Animales , Humanos , Subtipo H5N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Gripe Aviar/economía , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Gripe Aviar/virología , Gripe Humana/economía , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/virología , Filogenia , Aves de Corral , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/economía , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología
11.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(41)2019 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601657

RESUMEN

Rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K (RELIK) was discovered in the genome of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In our study, we present three complete genome sequences of RELIK viruses generated using a target amplification approach performed on the RNA of commercial rabbits from Italy.

12.
Vet Ital ; 55(3): 221-229, 2019 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599546

RESUMEN

Porcine astroviruses (PoAstV) are found in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy and diseased pigs worldwide. However, their role in causing enteric disease in pigs and other animals has not been elucidated. In the present report, we describe for the first time in Italy, the identification and genetic characterization, through whole genome sequencing, of a PoAstV2 in pigs in Northeast Italy in 2015. This instance is the first detection of PoAstV2 in pigs in Italy. The phylogenetic analysis of the complete ORF2 segment highlights the high similarity of this virus to those circulating that same year in Japan. There are very few full astrovirus genomes available, and the present data represent an important contribution towards a better understanding of the characteristics and evolution of these viruses.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Astroviridae/veterinaria , Genoma Viral , Mamastrovirus/genética , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Animales , Infecciones por Astroviridae/virología , Heces/virología , Femenino , Italia , Mamastrovirus/clasificación , Filogenia , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN/veterinaria , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma/veterinaria
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533635

RESUMEN

Using a metagenomics approach, we were able to determine for the first time the full-genome sequence of a psittacine adenovirus 1 isolate that was recovered from the liver of a dead Senegal parrot (Poicephalus senegalus) in Italy. The results of the phylogenetic investigations revealed the existence of high genetic diversity among adenoviruses circulating in psittacine birds.

14.
Virus Evol ; 4(2): vey019, 2018 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046454

RESUMEN

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a naked double-stranded RNA virus with a bi-segmented genome that is classified within the family Birnaviridae, genus Aquabirnavirus. IPNV was first detected in Italian trout farms in the late 1970s and ultimately became endemic. To characterize the evolution of IPNV circulating in Italy, particularly whether there is a link between evolutionary rate and virulence, we obtained and analyzed the VP1 (polymerase) and the pVP2 (major capsid protein precursor) sequences from 75 IPNV strains sampled between 1978 and 2017. These data revealed that the Italian IPNV exhibit relatively little genetic variation over the sampling period, falling into four genetic clusters within a single genogroup (group 2 for VP1 and genogroup V for pVP2) and contained one example of inter-segment reassortment. The mean evolutionary rates for VP1 and pVP2 were estimated to be 1.70 and 1.45 × 10-4 nucleotide substitutions per site, per year, respectively, and hence significantly lower than those seen in other Birnaviruses. Similarly, the relatively low ratios of non-synonymous (dN) to synonymous (dS) nucleotide substitutions per site in both genes indicated that IPNV was subject to strong selective constraints, again in contrast to other RNA viruses infecting salmonids that co-circulate in the same area during the same time period. Notably, all the Italian IPNV harbored a proline at position 217 (P217) and a threonine at position 221 (T221) in pVP2, both of which are associated with a low virulence phenotype. We therefore suggest the lower virulence of IPNV may have resulted in reduced rates of virus replication and hence lower rates of evolutionary change. The data generated here will be of importance in understanding the factors that shape the evolution of Aquabirnaviruses in nature.

15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(7): 1371-1374, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912707

RESUMEN

In 2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus was detected in poultry in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Whole-genome phylogeny showed the virus clustered with H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4B strains from birds in central and southern Asia. Emergence of this virus in central Africa represents a threat for animal health and food security.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Gripe Aviar/virología , Animales , Pollos , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Patos , Geografía , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/clasificación , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/patogenicidad , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/historia , Gripe Humana/virología , Uganda/epidemiología
17.
J Fish Dis ; 41(7): 1063-1075, 2018 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572941

RESUMEN

This study fully describes a severe disease outbreak occurred in 2016 in black bullhead catfish farmed in Italy. Affected fish showed nervous clinical signs as well as emaciations and haemorrhagic petechiae on the skin at the fin bases, abdomen and gills. Viral isolation in cell culture allowed the subsequent identification of a rhabdovirus, tentatively named ictalurid rhabdovirus (IcRV), through electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and whole genome sequencing (WGS). The newly isolated virus, together with 14 additional viral strains stored in our repository and detected during similar mortality episodes in the period 1993-2016, was phylogenetically analysed on the basis of the nucleoprotein and the glycoprotein nucleotide and amino acid sequences. The genetic distances among Italian IcRV strains were also estimated. Our results show that all the IcRV strains belong to the genus Sprivivirus and are closely related to the tench rhabdovirus (TenRV). Italian catfish production is constantly decreasing, mainly due to viral infections, which include the newly characterized IcRV. Data presented in this work will assist to investigate the molecular epidemiology and the diffusive dynamics of this virus and to develop adequate surveillance activities.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Peces/epidemiología , Ictaluridae , Infecciones por Rhabdoviridae/veterinaria , Rhabdoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Peces/virología , Italia/epidemiología , Filogenia , Rhabdoviridae/clasificación , Rhabdoviridae/genética , Infecciones por Rhabdoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Rhabdoviridae/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN/veterinaria
18.
J Gen Virol ; 99(5): 693-703, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580370

RESUMEN

The surveillance activities for abnormal bivalve mortality events in Italy include the diagnosis of ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1) in symptomatic oysters. OsHV-1-positive oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were used as a source for in vivo virus propagation and a virus-rich sample was selected to perform shotgun sequencing based on Illumina technology. Starting from this unpurified supernatant sample from gills and mantle, we generated 3.5 million reads (2×300 bp) and de novo assembled the whole genome of an Italian OsHV-1 microvariant (OsHV-1-PT). The OsHV-1-PT genome encodes 125 putative ORFs, 7 of which had not previously been predicted in other sequenced Malacoherpesviridae. Overall, OsHV-1-PT displays typical microvariant OsHV-1 genome features, while few polymorphisms (0.08 %) determine its uniqueness. As little is known about the genetic determinants of OsHV-1 virulence, comparing complete OsHV-1 genomes supports a better understanding of the virus pathogenicity and provides new insights into virus-host interactions.


Asunto(s)
Crassostrea/virología , Virus ADN/clasificación , Genoma Viral , Animales , Virus ADN/aislamiento & purificación , Virus ADN/patogenicidad , ADN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Italia , Sistemas de Lectura Abierta , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético
19.
Infect Genet Evol ; 58: 279-289, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355607

RESUMEN

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been documented in almost every species of bat sampled. Bat CoVs exhibit both extensive genetic diversity and a broad geographic range, indicative of a long-standing host association. Despite this, the respective roles of long-term virus-host co-divergence and cross-species transmission (host-jumping) in the evolution of bat coronaviruses are unclear. Using a phylogenetic approach we provide evidence that CoV diversity in bats is shaped by both species richness and their geographical distribution, and that CoVs exhibit clustering at the level of bat genera, with these genus-specific clusters largely associated with distinct CoV species. Co-phylogenetic analyses revealed that cross-species transmission has been more common than co-divergence across coronavirus evolution as a whole, and that cross-species transmission events were more likely between sympatric bat hosts. Notably, however, an analysis of the CoV RNA polymerase phylogeny suggested that many such host-jumps likely resulted in short-term spill-over infections, with little evidence for sustained onward transmission in new co-roosting host species.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Animales/virología , Quirópteros/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Coronavirus/genética , Animales , Coronavirus/clasificación , Evolución Molecular , Variación Genética , Genoma Viral , Especificidad del Huésped , Filogenia , Filogeografía
20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 57: 98-105, 2018 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29104094

RESUMEN

Phylogenetic analyses of the complete genomes of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 2.3.2.1c H5N1 virus strains causing outbreaks in Nigeria's poultry population from 2014 to 2016 showed evidence of distinct co-circulating genotypes and the emergence of reassortant viruses. One of these reassortants became the predominant strain by 2016, and the NA protein of this strain possessed the V96A substitution known to confer reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibiting antiviral drugs. Our findings also demonstrated evolutionary relationships between Nigerian isolates and European and Middle Eastern strains of H5N1 which provides further evidence for the proposed role of migratory birds in spreading the virus, although the involvement of the live poultry trade cannot be excluded. Efforts must be directed towards improving biosecurity and gaining the cooperation of poultry farmers for more effective control of HPAI, in order to mitigate the emergence of HPAI strains in Nigeria with biological properties that are potentially even more dangerous to animals and humans.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Molecular , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Subtipo H5N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/clasificación , Subtipo H5N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/virología , Genoma Viral , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza/genética , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Filogenia , Virus Reordenados/genética , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
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