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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682643

RESUMEN

Mexico is one of the countries most affected by COVID-19. Studies have found that smoking behaviors have been impacted by the pandemic as well; however, results have varied across studies, and it remains unclear what is causing the changes. This study of an open cohort of smokers recruited from a consumer panel (n = 2753) examined changes in cigarettes per day (CPD), daily vs. non-daily smoking, recent quit attempts, perceived stress, depression, and perceived severity of COVID-19 at two points during the pandemic: March and July 2020. Differences in CPD between waves were estimated with Poisson regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Differences in perceived stress were estimated with linear regression using GEE, and differences in recent quit attempts, depression, and perceived severity of COVID-19 were estimated using separate logistic regression GEE models. Rates of depression were higher in July compared to March (AOR = 1.55, 95% C.I. 1.31-1.85), and the likelihood of recent quit attempt was lower in July compared to March (AOR = 0.85, 95% C.I. 0.75-0.98). There was no statistically significant change in CPD, daily smoking, or perceived stress. Perceived COVID-19 severity for oneself increased significantly (AOR: 1.24, 95% C.I. 1.02-1.52); however, the perceived COVID-19 severity for smokers remained constant. Our study suggests that as the COVID-19 pandemic expanded in Mexico, smoking frequency remained stable, and quit attempts decreased, even as adult smokers increasingly perceived infection with COVID-19 for themselves as severe. These results can aid in the development of health communication strategies to educate smokers about their risk for COVID-19, potentially capitalizing on concerns that stem from this syndemic of communicable and smoking-related non-communicable disease.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Humanos , Salud Mental , México/epidemiología , Pandemias , Percepción , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumadores , Fumar/epidemiología
2.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0248215, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153063

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nondaily smoking has been on the rise, especially in Mexico. While Mexico has strengthened its tobacco control policies, their effects on nondaily smokers have gone largely unexamined. We developed a simulation model to estimate the impact of tobacco control policies on daily and nondaily smoking in Mexico. METHODS: A previously validated Mexico SimSmoke model that estimated overall trends in smoking prevalence from 2002 through 2013 was extended to 2018 and adapted to distinguish daily and nondaily smoking prevalence. The model was then validated using data from Mexican surveys through 2016. To gauge the potential effects of policies, we compared the trends in smoking under current policies with trends from policies kept at their 2002 levels. RESULTS: Between 2002 and 2016, Mexico SimSmoke underestimated the reduction in male and female daily smoking rates. For nondaily smoking, SimSmoke predicted a decline among both males and females, while survey rates showed increasing rates in both genders, primarily among ages 15-44. Of the total reduction in smoking rates predicted by the model by 2018, tax policies account for more than 55%, followed by health warnings, cessation treatment, smoke-free air laws, and tobacco control spending. CONCLUSIONS: Although Mexico SimSmoke did not successfully explain trends in daily and nondaily smoking, it helps to identify gaps in surveillance and policy evaluation for nondaily smokers. Future research should consider appropriate measures of nondaily smoking prevalence, trajectories between daily and nondaily smoking, and the separate impact of tobacco control policies on each group.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/prevención & control , Fumar Cigarrillos/tendencias , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Causalidad , Fumar Cigarrillos/efectos adversos , Simulación por Computador , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , México , Prevalencia , Política Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/tendencias , Tabaco/efectos adversos , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Uso de Tabaco/prevención & control , Uso de Tabaco/tendencias
3.
Tob Control ; 30(3): 305-311, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381679

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in cigarette brand preference among Mexican smokers during the implementation period of key WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommendations. METHODS: Data came from two nationally representative, comparable surveys, namely the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009 and 2015 and the National Survey on Addictions 2011 and 2016. Logistic models were used to estimate the adjusted prevalence of each brand purchased, as well as individual correlates of purchasing the single brand with a large growth over the study period. Multiple linear regressions were also employed to analyse cigarette prices across brands. RESULTS: Six brand families accounted for about 90% of the cigarette market, with Marlboro clearly dominating all brands at 54%-61%. Only the share of Pall Mall brand, however, registered a rapid increase over the period-from 1% in 2009 to 14% in 2016. Women and younger smokers (15-24 years) were more likely to prefer Pall Mall over other brands. While the typical price segmentation between international (premium) brands and national (discount) brands was observed, the price of Pall Mall is within the range of the latter. Importantly, most varieties of this brand include flavour capsule varieties (FCVs). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the strong campaign of brand migration, the pricing strategy and the aggressive introduction of FCVs expanded Pall Mall in the Mexican cigarette market. Therefore, better control policies of cigarette contents and taxes that reduce price differentials across brands should be encouraged to promote public health.


Asunto(s)
Fumadores , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto , Comercio , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Femenino , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiología , Impuestos
4.
Tob Control ; 29(6): 687-691, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019893

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Mexico was the first Latin American country to ratify the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2004, after which it implemented some key FCTC policies (e.g., taxes, smoke-free, pictorial warnings and ad bans). This study assessed trends in the prevalence of current, daily and non-daily smoking in Mexico before and after the implementation of key FCTC policies. METHODS: Data were analysed from two comparable, nationally representative surveys (i.e., the National Survey on Addictions 2002, 2011 and 2016, and the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009 and 2015). The pooled sample comprised 100 302 persons aged 15-65 years. Changes in the prevalence of current, daily and non-daily smoking were assessed. RESULTS: From 2002 to 2016, the prevalence of current smoking fell 11% in relative terms (from 21.5% to 19.0%). The decrease was registered between 2002 and 2009, and after that, a slight increase was observed (from 16.5% in 2009 to 19% in 2016). The prevalence of daily smoking decreased by about 50% between 2002 and 2016 (from 13.5% to 7.0%) with most of the decrease occurring by 2009. Conversely, the prevalence of non-daily smoking increased by 35% between 2009 and 2016 (from 8.8% to 11.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Full implementation of the FCTC is necessary to further reduce smoking. Specific interventions may be needed to target non-daily smokers, who now comprise more than half of current smokers in Mexico.


Asunto(s)
Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , México/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Fumar/epidemiología , Organización Mundial de la Salud
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936477

RESUMEN

This study describes the prevalence and correlates of adult smokers' discussions about electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) with health professionals (HPs), including whether these discussions may lead smokers and vapers to use e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. METHODS: We analyzed data from an online survey of Mexican smokers recruited from a consumer panel for marketing research. Participants who had visited an HP in the prior four months (n = 1073) were asked about discussions of e-cigarettes during that visit and whether this led them to try to quit. Logistic models regressed these variables on socio-demographics and tobacco use-related variables. RESULTS: Smokers who also used e-cigarettes (i.e., dual users) were more likely than exclusive smokers to have discussed e-cigarettes with their HP (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.96; 95% C.I. 2.73, 5.74), as were those who had recently attempted to quit smoking (AOR = 1.89; 95% C.I. 1.33, 2.7). Of smokers who had discussed e-cigarettes, 53.3% reported that the discussion led them to use e-cigarettes in their quit attempt. Also, dual users (AOR = 2.6; 95% C.I. 1.5, 4.5) and daily smokers (>5 cigarettes per day) (AOR = 3.62; 95% C.I. 1.9, 6.8) were more likely to report being led by their HP to use e-cigarettes in the quit attempt compared to exclusive smokers and non-daily smokers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Discussions between HP and smokers about e-cigarettes were relatively common in Mexico, where e-cigarettes are banned. These discussions appear driven by the use of e-cigarettes, as well as by greater smoking frequency and intentions to quit smoking.


Asunto(s)
Consejo/métodos , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud , Mercadotecnía/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/epidemiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumadores , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Productos de Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
Salud Publica Mex ; 62(6): 820-828, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620978

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of flavor capsule cigarette, use among Mexicans who are 10 years and older, to determine the proportion of smokers who use flavor capsules, and to characterize the sociodemographic correlates of flavor capsule cigarette use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data came from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2018-19. The prevalence and proportion of flavor capsule cigarette use were estimated by sex, age, education, and wealth. Poisson models were used to evaluate sociodemographic factors as-sociated with flavor capsule cigarette use. RESULTS: Among Mexicans,the prevalence of flavor capsule cigarettes use was 6.6%, which is 43% of all smokers. Women, adolescents, and young adults were more likely than other groups to use flavor capsule cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Mexicans report a high prevalence of flavor capsule cigarette use. Banning cigarettes with flavors may reduce the appeal of smoking, particularly for youth and women.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Aromatizantes , Productos de Tabaco , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Fumadores , Adulto Joven
7.
Salud Publica Mex ; 61(6): 764-774, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869541

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the social factors associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption in Mexican adolescents from populations under 100 000 inhabitants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut100k). It included adolescents between 10-19 years. Adjusted logistic regression models were estimated, obtaining Odds Ratio (OR) and confidence intervals 95% (CI95%). RESULTS: Prevalence of tobacco consumption in the last month was 5.5% (10-14 years= 1.0%, 15-19 years= 11.2%); alcohol consumption 9.3%, and excessive alcohol consumption, 2.8%. Associated factors: smoking, sex (male, OR=6.00, CI95%: 2.89-12.46), age (OR=1.73, CI95%: 1.46-2.04), remunerated work (OR=2.87, CI95%: 1.12-7.34), affiliation to health services (OR=0.26, CI95%: 0.08-0.82); alcohol consumption, (male, OR=5.11, CI95%: 2.38-11.00), age (OR=1.70, CI95%: 1.51-1.92), remunerated work (OR=2.51, CI95%: 1.01-6.24). CONCLUSIONS: To reduce the consumption of alcohol and tobacco in adolescents, comprehensive prevention strategies must be implemented that consider the individual and social context.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Densidad de Población , Prevalencia , Factores Sociológicos , Adulto Joven
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(6): 764-774, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252165

RESUMEN

Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar los factores sociales asociados con el consumo de tabaco y alcohol en adolescentes mexicanos de poblaciones menores a 100 000 habitantes. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal a partir de resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut 100k) que se enfocó en adolescentes de entre 10 y 19 años. Se estimaron modelos de regresión logística ajustados y se obtuvieron razones de momios (RM) e intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC95%). Resultados: La prevalencia de consumo de tabaco en el último mes fue de 5.5% (10-14 años=1.0%, 15-19 años= 11.2%); de consumo de alcohol, 9.3%, y de consumo excesivo de alcohol, 2.8%. Factores asociados: consumo de tabaco, sexo (hombre, RM= 6.00; IC95%: 2.89-12.46), edad (RM=1.73; IC95%: 1.46-2.04), trabajo remunerado (RM= 2.87; IC95%: 1.12-7.34) y afiliación a servicios de salud (RM= 0.26; IC95%: 0.08-0.82); consumo de alcohol, (hombre, RM= 5.11; IC95%: 2.38-11.0), edad (RM= 1.70; IC95%: 1.51-1.92) y trabajo remunerado (RM= 2.51; IC95%: 1.01-6.24). Conclusiones: Para reducir el consumo de alcohol y tabaco en adolescentes deben implementarse estrategias de prevención integrales que tomen en cuenta el contexto individual y social.


Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the social factors associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption in Mexican adolescents from populations under 100 000 inhabitants. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study based on the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut100k). It included adolescents between 10-19 years. Adjusted logistic regression models were estimated, obtaining Odds Ratio (OR) and confidence intervals 95% (CI95%). Results: Prevalence of tobacco consumption in the last month was 5.5% (10-14 years= 1.0%, 15-19 years= 11.2%); alcohol consumption 9.3%, and excessive alcohol consumption, 2.8%. Associated factors: smoking, sex (male, OR=6.00, CI95%: 2.89-12.46), age (OR=1.73, CI95%: 1.46-2.04), remunerated work (OR=2.87, CI95%: 1.12-7.34), affiliation to health services (OR=0.26, CI95%: 0.08-0.82); alcohol consumption, (male, OR=5.11, CI95%: 2.38-11.00), age (OR=1.70, CI95%: 1.51-1.92), remunerated work (OR=2.51, CI95%: 1.01-6.24). Conclusions: To reduce the consumption of alcohol and tobacco in adolescents, comprehensive prevention strategies must be implemented that consider the individual and social context.

9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 204: 107585, 2019 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590130

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has increased worldwide among youth, even in countries like Mexico that ban them. This study aimed to assess the correlates of e-cigarette use frequency among Mexican students who currently use ecigarettes, as well as to describe their reasons for use. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a school-based survey of 57 public middle schools from the three largest cities in Mexico. Primary analyses were confined to those who used e-cigarettes in the prior 30 days. Censored binomial models for truncated distributions were estimated, regressing lifetime and past month frequency of use on participant sociodemographics, other substance use (smoking, alcohol, drugs), technophilia (appeal of new technologies), characteristics of e-cigarettes used, and family's and friends' use of nicotine products. RESULTS: Being male (APR = 1.93 95% CI 1.53-2.44), using drugs, (APR = 1.51 95% CI 1.03-2.20), higher technophilia (APR = 1.66 CI 1.21-2.29) and having a family member who uses e-cigarettes and cigarettes were associated with more frequent use in the last month. Students who preferred fruit and combined flavors had used e-cigarettes more often in their lifetime compared to students who preferred mint/menthol flavors. CONCLUSIONS: Some risk factors for more frequent e-cigarette use among Mexican youth are similar to those foudn in other countries (having relatives who use ecigarettes, using drugs, and use of fruit flavors). Additionally, the novel measure of technophilia was positively associated with frequency of e-cigarette use. The appeal of flavors, in particular, suggests the importance of reducing youth access to flavored products to impede product initiation and progression.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Motivación , Instituciones Académicas/tendencias , Estudiantes/psicología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Aromatizantes/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Distribución Aleatoria , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
10.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 591-600, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127322

RESUMEN

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados con la exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM) en lugares públicos y privados. Material y métodos: Se analizó la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Drogas, Alcohol y Tabaco 2016. La exposición al HTSM se evaluó mediante modelos Poisson multinivel. La muestra del estudio incluye únicamente no fumadores. Resultados: La exposición al HTSM fue similar en los estados que tienen prohibición total para fumar en espacios cerrados en comparación con estados con prohibición parcial. Adultos jóvenes, hombres y personas con nivel educativo alto tienen mayor exposición al HTSM en bares y restaurantes. Los hombres tienen mayor exposición al HTSM en el trabajo, los adultos de mayor edad en el transporte público, mientras las mujeres y adolescentes en el hogar. Conclusiones: La exposición al HTSM continúa elevada y afecta diferencialmente a la población mexicana. Para reducirla, se requiere aplicar totalmente el artículo octavo del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco.


Abstract: Objective: To assess the correlates of secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) in public and private settings. Materials and methods: Data came from the 2016 National Survey of Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco use. Multilevel Poisson models were conducted to evaluate factors associated with SHS. Results: Having a higher education, being male and being a young adult were associated with higher SHS in bars and restaurants. Men had greater SHS at work, while women and adolescents had greater exposure at home. Adults older than 45 years had higher SHS on public transportation compared to adolescents between 12-17 years old. Conclusions: Exposure to SHS remains high and affects the population differentially. To reduce SHS, it is necessary to apply Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

11.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 591-600, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127355

RESUMEN

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados con la exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM) en lugares públicos y privados. Material y métodos: Se analizó la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Drogas, Alcohol y Tabaco 2016. La exposición al HTSM se evaluó mediante modelos Poisson multinivel. La muestra del estudio incluye únicamente no fumadores. Resultados: La exposición al HTSM fue similar en los estados que tienen prohibición total para fumar en espacios cerrados en comparación con estados con prohibición parcial. Adultos jóvenes, hombres y personas con nivel educativo alto tienen mayor exposición al HTSM en bares y restaurantes. Los hombres tienen mayor exposición al HTSM en el trabajo, los adultos de mayor edad en el transporte público, mientras las mujeres y adolescentes en el hogar. Conclusiones: La exposición al HTSM continúa elevada y afecta diferencialmente a la población mexicana. Para reducirla, se requiere aplicar totalmente el artículo octavo del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco.


Abstract: Objective: To assess the correlates of secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) in public and private settings. Materials and methods: Data came from the 2016 National Survey of Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco use. Multilevel Poisson models were conducted to evaluate factors associated with SHS. Results: Having a higher education, being male and being a young adult were associated with higher SHS in bars and restaurants. Men had greater SHS at work, while women and adolescents had greater exposure at home. Adults older than 45 years had higher SHS on public transportation compared to adolescents between 12-17 years old. Conclusions: Exposure to SHS remains high and affects the population differentially. To reduce SHS, it is necessary to apply Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

12.
Salud Publica Mex ; 61(5): 591-600, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314210

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the correlates of secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) in public and private settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data came from the 2016 National Survey of Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco use. Multilevel Poisson models were conducted to evaluate factors associated with SHS. RESULTS: Having a higher education, being male and being a young adult were associated with higher SHS in bars and restaurants. Men had greater SHS at work, while women and adolescents had greater exposure at home. Adults older than 45 years had higher SHS on public transportation compared to adolescents between 12-17 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to SHS remains high and affects the population differentially. To reduce SHS, it is necessary to apply Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Correlación de Datos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Persona de Mediana Edad , Instalaciones Privadas , Instalaciones Públicas , Adulto Joven
13.
Salud Publica Mex ; 61(3): 276-285, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276343

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the patterns of e-cigarette use andtheir association with smoking behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-based representative cohort of adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Surveys in Mexico. The analytic sample (n=760) was restricted to participants who were followed up from wave 6 (2012) to wave 7 (2014-2015). GEE models regressed e-cigarette use at follow-up and changes in cigarettes per day (CPD) between waves, on baseline sociodemographic variables, smoking status (daily, non-daily, quit), e-cigarette trial, and quit intentions. RESULTS: Smokers who were younger, had a higher income, and had tried e-cigarettes at baseline were more likely to be current e-cigarette users at follow-up. Ecigarette use at follow-up was not associated with a change in CPD over time. CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette use does not appear to have promoted smoking cessation or reduction in this sample of Mexican smokers.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Intención , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Reducción del Consumo de Tabaco/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
14.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(3): 276-285, may.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094465

RESUMEN

Abstract: Objective: Evaluate the patterns of e-cigarette use and their association with smoking behavior. Materials and methods: We analyzed data from a population-based representative cohort of adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Surveys in Mexico. The analytic sample (n=760) was restricted to participants who were followed up from wave 6 (2012) to wave 7 (2014-2015). GEE models regressed e-cigarette use at follow-up and changes in cigarettes per day (CPD) between waves, on baseline sociodemographic variables, smoking status (daily, non-daily, quit), e-cigarette trial, and quit intentions. Results: Smokers who were younger, had a higher income, and had tried e-cigarettes at baseline were more likely to be current e-cigarette users at follow-up. E-cigarette use at follow-up was not associated with a change in CPD over time. Conclusions: E-cigarette use does not appear to have promoted smoking cessation or reduction in this sample of Mexican smokers.


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar los patrones de uso de cigarros electrónicos y su asociación con el uso de tabaco. Material y métodos: Se usaron datos de una cohorte de fumadores adultos mexicanos de la Encuesta Internacional de Evaluación de Políticas del Control del Tabaco (n=760) con seguimiento de la ronda 6 (2012) a la 7 (2014-2015). Se usaron modelos GEE para evaluar el uso de cigarros electrónicos y el cambio en el número de cigarros por día (CPD) en variables de la basal sobre características sociodemográficas, consumo del cigarro (diario, no diario, haber dejado de fumar), prueba de cigarros electrónicos e intención de dejar de fumar. Resultados: Fumadores jóvenes, con ingresos altos y que probaron cigarros electrónicos en la medición basal tenían más posibilidad de usar cigarros electrónicos. No se encontró relación entre uso de cigarros electrónicos y cambio en CPD. Conclusiones: Los cigarros electrónicos no parecen promover el abandono ni la reducción del consumo de cigarros en esta muestra de fumadores mexicanos.

15.
Salud Publica Mex ; 61(2): 136-146, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958956

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physical and psychological dependence to tobacco of Mexican smokers and its association with physical, psychological and social factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 2016 National Alcohol and Tobacco Drug Consumption Survey (n=7 331) was analyzed using the Fagerström nicotine physical dependence scale (FTND) and the short scale of psychological dependence on tobacco (TAPDSc). Bivariate analyzes and generalized ordinal logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the associated factors. RESULTS: 82.3% of daily smokers and 98.8% of occasional smokers reported mild physical dependence, while 47.9 and 37.9% respectively reported moderate psychological dependence. The age of initiation of tobacco use, drug use, high alcohol consumption and high emotional distress were associated with high levels of psychological dependence in all smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The exclusive use of FTND does not allow to adequately evaluate Mexican smokers. The physical and psychological dependence on tobacco should be assessed with independent and validated scales in this population.


Asunto(s)
Fumadores/psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nicotina , Agonistas Nicotínicos , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(2): 136-146, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058966

RESUMEN

Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la dependencia física y psicológica de los fumadores mexicanos y su asociación con factores físicos, psicológicos y sociales. Material y métodos: A partir de la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Drogas, Alcohol y Tabaco 2016 (n=7 331), se analizó la escala de dependencia física a la nicotina de Fagerström (FTND) y la escala corta de dependencia psicológica al tabaco (TAPDSc). Se realizaron análisis bivariados y regresiones logísticas ordinales generalizadas para evaluar los factores asociados. Resultados: 82.3% de fumadores diarios y 98.8% de ocasionales reportaron dependencia física leve, mientras que 47.9 y 37.9%, respectivamente, presentaron dependencia psicológica moderada. La edad de inicio temprana de consumo de tabaco, uso de drogas, consumo alto de alcohol y malestar emocional se asociaron con niveles altos de dependencia psicológica en todos los fumadores. Conclusión: El uso exclusivo de FNTD no permite evaluar adecuadamente a los fumadores mexicanos. La dependencia física y psicológica al tabaco debe ser diagnosticada con escalas independientes y validadas en esta población.


Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the physical and psychological dependence to tobacco of Mexican smokers and its association with physical, psychological and social factors. Materials and methods: The 2016 National Alcohol and Tobacco Drug Consumption Survey (n=7 331) was analyzed using the Fagerström nicotine physical dependence scale (FTND) and the short scale of psychological dependence on tobacco (TAPDSc). Bivariate analyzes and generalized ordinal logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the associated factors. Results: 82.3% of daily smokers and 98.8% of occasional smokers reported mild physical dependence, while 47.9 and 37.9% respectively reported moderate psychological dependence. The age of initiation of tobacco use, drug use, high alcohol consumption and high emotional distress were associated with high levels of psychological dependence in all smokers. Conclusion: The exclusive use of FTND does not allow to adequately evaluate Mexican smokers. The physical and psychological dependence on tobacco should be assessed with independent and validated scales in this population.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892159

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess sex differences in predictors for becoming a current exclusive electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) user, current exclusive smoker, or current dual user (concurrent smoking and e-cigarette use). This longitudinal study included 2399 females and 2177 males who had tried neither cigarettes nor e-cigarettes at baseline and attended 57 middle schools in the three largest cities in Mexico. We estimated multinomial logistic models stratified by sex. At follow-up, the prevalence of current exclusive e-cigarette use was 6.4% for males and 5.5% for females; current exclusive smoking was similar among males (3.6%) and females (3.5%); dual use was 2.4% females and 1.8% males. In the adjusted model, current e-cigarette use among females was associated with baseline current drinking (ARR = 1.85; p < 0.05), having a job (ARR = 1.99; p < 0.05), higher technophilia (ARR = 1.27; p < 0.05), and higher positive smoking expectancies (ARR = 1.39; p < 0.05). Among males, only having friends who smoke cigarettes at baseline was a significant predictor of current exclusive e-cigarette use at follow-up (ARR = 1.44; p < 0.05). For both sexes, current exclusive smoking at follow-up was associated with baseline current drinking (male ARR = 2.56; p < 0.05; female ARR = 2.31; p < 0.05) and, among males, only with having a parent who smoked (ARR = 1.64; p < 0.05). For both sexes, dual use at follow-up was associated with baseline current drinking (male ARR = 3.52; p < 0.005; female ARR = 2.77; p < 0.05); among females, with having paid work (ARR = 2.50; p < 0.001); and among males, with parental smoking (ARR = 3.20; p < 0.05). Results suggested both common and different risk factors by sex, suggesting that interventions may need to consider targeting sex differences.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumadores/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Vapeo/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Vapeo/epidemiología
18.
Glob Epidemiol ; 12019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907731

RESUMEN

Introduction: Public health surveillance of smoking prevalence is essential in gauging the magnitude of the problem, identifying groups most affected, and evaluating polices. However, little attention has focused on how prevalence is measured, particularly in low-and middle-income countries, where smoking patterns may not mirror those in high-income countries and where the burden of tobacco use is rapidly growing. Mexico provides a unique opportunity to gauge how the questions used to define established smokers can affect prevalence estimates. This study assesses how using the 100-cigarette lifetime question to define smoking status affects estimates of smoking prevalence. Methods: We consider data from four nationally representative surveys in Mexico, from 2002 to 2016. These surveys ask about current smoking even for adults who do not indicate having smoked 100 cigarettes in their lifetime. We compare estimates of daily and nondaily smoking prevalence by age and gender with and without the 100-cigarette screen. Results: The relative difference in prevalence estimates with and without the screen was greater for nondaily than daily smoking and for females than males. The difference was especially pronounced for nondaily smokers aged 15-24, where there was a 50%-75% relative difference in estimates, albeit smaller discrepancies (20-49% relative difference) were also found among older smokers. In recent years, the relative difference was greatest at lower levels of educational attainment. Conclusions: With the growth in nondaily smoking, using the 100-cigarettes screen to define smoking status can have important implications regarding size of smoking population. Further research is warranted in other countries.

19.
Salud Publica Mex ; 60(5): 598-604, 2018.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550122

RESUMEN

The new tobacco products that include electronic cigarettes (called "E Cig", "e-hookahs", "mods", "vape-pens"), electronic nicotine delivery systems (SEAN, Spanish acronym), similar systems without nicotine (SSSN, Spanish acronym) and alternative nicotine consumption systems (SACN, Spanish acronym), are positioned in the global market with a discourse of harm reduction and risk minimization. This manuscript summarizes the scientific evidence and presents a regulatory proposal for this technological innovation, oriented to guide the decision making of legislators, government institutions and organized civil society. The scientific evidence concludes that there is no safe tobacco product for health. The addictive nature of nicotine and the health damages for children, adolescents and pregnant women is the fundamental argument. These new products promote the transition to conventional cigarettes and have not shown efficacy for smoking cessation, on the contrary, they promote dual use. High-level regulation must be formulated without the intervention of the manufacturers or institutions with a conflict of interest in the context of the complete and integral World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control implementation.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Industria del Tabaco , Productos de Tabaco , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , México , Dispositivos para Fumar
20.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(5): 598-604, sep.-oct. 2018. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004652

RESUMEN

Resumen Los nuevos productos de tabaco, entre los que se incluyen los cigarros electrónicos (denominados "E Cigs", "e-hookahs", "mods", "vape-pens"), los sistemas electrónicos de administración de nicotina (SEAN), los sistemas similares sin nicotina (SSSN) y los sistemas alternativos de consumo de nicotina (SACN), incursionan en el mercado global con un discurso de reducción del daño y minimización del riesgo. Este manuscrito resume la evidencia científica y una propuesta regulatoria sobre esta innovación tecnológica, con el fin de orientar la toma de decisiones de legisladores, instituciones gubernamentales y la sociedad civil organizada. La evidencia científica concluye que no existe un producto de tabaco seguro para la salud; la naturaleza adictiva de la nicotina y los daños a la salud causados en niños, adolescentes y mujeres embarazadas constituyen el argumento fundamental. Estos nuevos productos promueven la transición al consumo de cigarros combustibles y no han demostrado eficacia para la cesación tabáquica; por el contrario, promueven el uso dual. Toda regulación debe formularse sin la intervención de los fabricantes o instituciones con conflicto de interés y en el marco de la implementación completa e integral del Convenio Marco de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para el Control del Tabaco.


Abstract: The new tobacco products that include electronic cigarettes (called "E Cig", "e-hookahs", "mods", "vape-pens"), electronic nicotine delivery systems (SEAN, Spanish acronym), similar systems without nicotine (SSSN, Spanish acronym) and alternative nicotine consumption systems (SACN, Spanish acronym), are positioned in the global market with a discourse of harm reduction and risk minimization. This manuscript summarizes the scientific evidence and presents a regulatory proposal for this technological innovation, oriented to guide the decision making of legislators, government institutions and organized civil society. The scientific evidence concludes that there is no safe tobacco product for health. The addictive nature of nicotine and the health damages for children, adolescents and pregnant women is the fundamental argument. These new products promote the transition to conventional cigarettes and have not shown efficacy for smoking cessation, on the contrary, they promote dual use. High-level regulation must be formulated without the intervention of the manufacturers or institutions with a conflict of interest in the context of the complete and integral World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control implementation.

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