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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027464

RESUMEN

Although evidence suggests that a positive family history of bladder cancer in first-degree relatives is an important risk factor for bladder cancer occurrence, results remain unclear. The influence of family history of non-bladder cancers and more distant relatives on bladder cancer risk is inconsistent. This research therefore, aims to increase the understanding of the association between family history and bladder cancer risk based on worldwide case-control studies. In total 4,327 cases and 8,948 non-cases were included. Pooled odds ratios (ORs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were obtained using multilevel logistic regression models, adjusted by age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, and smoking pack-years. The results show bladder cancer risk increased by having a first- or second-degree relative affected with bladder cancer (OR 2.72, 95%CI 1.55-4.77 and OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.22-2.40, respectively), and non-urologic cancers (OR 1.61, 95%CI 1.19-2.18). Moreover, bladder cancer risk increased by number of cancers affected first-degree relatives (for 1 and >1 first-degree relatives: OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.02-2.04; OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.84-3.86, respectively). Our findings highlight an increased bladder cancer risk for a positive bladder cancer family history in first- and second-degree relatives, and indicate a possible greater effect for an increment of numbers of affected relatives.

2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(11)2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740916

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Early literature on the COVID-19 pandemic indicated striking ethnic inequalities in SARS-CoV-2-related outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to describe the presence and magnitude of associations between ethnic groups and COVID-19-related outcomes. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched from December 2019 through September 2020. Studies reporting extractable data (ie, crude numbers, and unadjusted or adjusted risk/ORs) by ethnic group on any of the five studied outcomes: confirmed COVID-19 infection in the general population, hospitalisation among infected patients, and disease severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality among hospitalised patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, were included using standardised electronic data extraction forms. We pooled data from published studies using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: 58 studies were included from seven countries in four continents, mostly retrospective cohort studies, covering a total of almost 10 million individuals from the first wave until the summer of 2020. The risk of diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher in most ethnic minority groups than their White counterparts in North American and Europe with the differences remaining in the US ethnic minorities after adjustment for confounders and explanatory factors. Among people with confirmed infection, African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans were also more likely than White-Americans to be hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 infection. No increased risk of COVID-19 outcomes (ie, severe disease, ICU admission and death) was found among ethnic minority patients once hospitalised, except for a higher risk of death among ethnic minorities in Brazil. CONCLUSION: The risk of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was higher in most ethnic minorities, but once hospitalised, no clear inequalities exist in COVID-19 outcomes except for the high risk of death in ethnic minorities in Brazil. The findings highlight the necessity to tackle disparities in social determinants of health, preventative opportunities and delay in healthcare use. Ethnic minorities should specifically be considered in policies mitigating negative impacts of the pandemic. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020180085.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Prueba de COVID-19 , Hospitalización , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Grupos Minoritarios , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud
3.
Trials ; 22(1): 791, 2021 Nov 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763714

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Problems continue to exist with the reporting quality and risk of bias in search methods and strategies in systematic reviews and related review types. Peer reviewers who are not familiar with what is required to transparently and fully report a search may not be prepared to review the search components of systematic reviews, nor may they know what is likely to introduce bias into a search. Librarians and information specialists, who have expertise in searching, may offer specialized knowledge that would help improve systematic review search reporting and lessen risk of bias, but they are underutilized as methodological peer reviewers. METHODS: This study will evaluate the effect of adding librarians and information specialists as methodological peer reviewers on the quality of search reporting and risk of bias in systematic review searches. The study will be a pragmatic randomized controlled trial using 150 systematic review manuscripts submitted to BMJ and BMJ Open as the unit of randomization. Manuscripts that report on completed systematic reviews and related review types and have been sent for peer review are eligible. For each manuscript randomized to the intervention, a librarian/information specialist will be invited as an additional peer reviewer using standard practices for each journal. First revision manuscripts will be assessed in duplicate for reporting quality and risk of bias, using adherence to 4 items from PRISMA-S and assessors' judgements on 4 signaling questions from ROBIS Domain 2, respectively. Identifying information from the manuscripts will be removed prior to assessment. DISCUSSION: The primary outcomes for this study are quality of reporting as indicated by differences in the proportion of adequately reported searches in first revision manuscripts between intervention and control groups and risk of bias as indicated by differences in the proportions of first revision manuscripts with high, low, and unclear bias. If the intervention demonstrates an effect on search reporting or bias, this may indicate a need for journal editors to work with librarians and information specialists as methodological peer reviewers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework. Registered on June 17, 2021, at https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/W4CK2 .


Asunto(s)
Bibliotecólogos , Humanos , Servicios de Información , Revisión por Pares , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Informe de Investigación
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21522, 2021 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728658

RESUMEN

There is controversy whether IL-6 (receptor) antagonists are beneficial in treating COVID-19 patients. We therefore update our systematic review to answer the following research questions: (1) Do patients hospitalized for COVID-19 treated with IL-6 (receptor) antagonists have lower mortality compared to standard of care? (2) Do patients hospitalized for COVID-19 treated with IL-6 (receptor) antagonists have more side effects compared to standard of care? The following databases were search up to December 1st 2020: PubMed, PMC PubMed Central, MEDLINE, WHO COVID-19 Database, Embase, Web-of-Science, COCHRANE LIBRARY, Emcare and Academic Search Premier. In order to pool the risk ratio (RR) and risk difference of individual studies we used random effects meta-analysis. The search strategy retrieved 2975 unique titles of which 71 studies (9 RCTs and 62 observational) studies comprising 29,495 patients were included. Mortality (RR 0.75) and mechanical ventilation (RR 0.78) were lower and the risk of neutropenia (RR 7.3), impaired liver function (RR 1.67) and secondary infections (RR 1.26) were higher for patients treated with IL-6 (receptor) antagonists compared to patients not treated with treated with IL-6 (receptor) antagonists. Our results showed that IL-6 (receptor) antagonists are effective in reducing mortality in COVID-19 patients, while the risk of side effects was higher. The baseline risk of mortality was an important effect modifier: IL-6 (receptor) antagonists were effective when the baseline mortality risk was high (e.g. ICU setting), while they could be harmful when the baseline mortality risk was low.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inhibidores , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/efectos adversos , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/inmunología , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/virología , Humanos , Oportunidad Relativa , Respiración Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Tasa de Supervivencia
5.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(12): e893-e898, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608893

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study examines the association between 8-h time weighted N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) air exposure and potential hepatocellular injury in a retrospective study among fibre-production workers in four European factories. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-nine (1.5%) of 1844 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) observations had liver values two times above normal; 0.2% three times above normal and 0.05% five times above normal. Two (0.1%) observations were indicative of hepatocellular injury. Logistic regression analyses showed an odds ratio for elevated ALT of 0.88 per 1 ppm (P trend = 0.39). Linear random effects regression analyses showed a decrease of one international unit (IU/L) ALT per 1 ppm increase of DMAc exposure (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This study found no association between DMAc exposure and hepatoxicity amongst European workers. The prevalence of elevated liver values was lower compared to the general population without occupational exposure.

6.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353775

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is characterized by frequent recurrences and a risk of progression in stage and grade. Increased knowledge of underlying biological mechanisms is needed. OBJECTIVE: To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with recurrence-free (RFS) and progression-free (PFS) survival in NMIBC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed outcome data from 3400 newly diagnosed NMIBC patients from the Netherlands, the UK, Canada, and Spain. We generated genome-wide germline SNP data using Illumina OmniExpress and Infinium Global Screening Array in combination with genotype imputation. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Cohort-specific genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for RFS and PFS were performed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Results were combined in a fixed-effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Candidate genes for the identified SNP associations were prioritized using functional annotation, gene-based analysis, expression quantitative trait locus analysis, and transcription factor binding site databases. Tumor expression levels of prioritized genes were tested for association with RFS and PFS in an independent NMIBC cohort. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: This meta-analysis revealed a genome-wide significant locus for RFS on chromosome 14 (lead SNP rs12885353, hazard ratio [HR] C vs T allele 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-1.82, p = 4.0 × 10-8), containing genes G2E3 and SCFD1. Higher expression of SCFD1 was associated with increased RFS (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.59-0.84, pFDR = 0.003). Twelve other loci were suggestively associated with RFS (p < 10-5), pointing toward 18 additional candidate genes. For PFS, ten loci showed suggestive evidence of association, indicating 36 candidate genes. Expression levels of ten of these genes were statistically significantly associated with PFS, of which four (IFT140, UBE2I, FAHD1, and NME3) showed directional consistency with our meta-analysis results and published literature. CONCLUSIONS: In this first prognostic GWAS in NMIBC, we identified several novel candidate loci and five genes that showed convincing associations with recurrence or progression. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we searched for inherited DNA changes that affect the outcome of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We identified several genes that are associated with disease recurrence and progression. The roles and mechanisms of these genes in NMIBC prognosis should be investigated in future studies.

7.
Mol Metab ; 53: 101293, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265467

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The diabetic heart is characterized by extensive lipid accumulation which often leads to cardiac contractile dysfunction. The underlying mechanism involves a pivotal role for vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase, functioning as endosomal/lysosomal proton pump). Specifically, lipid oversupply to the heart causes disassembly of v-ATPase and endosomal deacidification. Endosomes are storage compartments for lipid transporter CD36. However, upon endosomal deacidification, CD36 is expelled to translocate to the sarcolemma, thereby inducing myocardial lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, and contractile dysfunction. Hence, the v-ATPase assembly may be a suitable target for ameliorating diabetic cardiomyopathy. Another function of v-ATPase involves the binding of anabolic master-regulator mTORC1 to endosomes, a prerequisite for the activation of mTORC1 by amino acids (AAs). We examined whether the relationship between v-ATPase and mTORC1 also operates reciprocally; specifically, whether AA induces v-ATPase reassembly in a mTORC1-dependent manner to prevent excess lipids from entering and damaging the heart. METHODS: Lipid overexposed rodent/human cardiomyocytes and high-fat diet-fed rats were treated with a specific cocktail of AAs (lysine/leucine/arginine). Then, v-ATPase assembly status/activity, cell surface CD36 content, myocellular lipid uptake/accumulation, insulin sensitivity, and contractile function were measured. To elucidate underlying mechanisms, specific gene knockdown was employed, followed by subcellular fractionation, and coimmunoprecipitation. RESULTS: In lipid-overexposed cardiomyocytes, lysine/leucine/arginine reinternalized CD36 to the endosomes, prevented/reversed lipid accumulation, preserved/restored insulin sensitivity, and contractile function. These beneficial AA actions required the mTORC1-v-ATPase axis, adaptor protein Ragulator, and endosomal/lysosomal AA transporter SLC38A9, indicating an endosome-centric inside-out AA sensing mechanism. In high-fat diet-fed rats, lysine/leucine/arginine had similar beneficial actions at the myocellular level as in vitro in lipid-overexposed cardiomyocytes and partially reversed cardiac hypertrophy. CONCLUSION: Specific AAs acting through v-ATPase reassembly reduce cardiac lipid uptake raising the possibility for treatment in situations of lipid overload and associated insulin resistance.

8.
J Smok Cessat ; 2021: 6639731, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306227

RESUMEN

Introduction: An increasing number of parents use both e-cigarettes and cigarettes (dual users). Previous studies have shown that dual users may have higher rates of contemplating smoking cessation than parents who only smoke cigarettes. This study was aimed to assess the delivery of tobacco cessation treatment (prescription for nicotine replacement therapy and referral to the quitline) among parents who report being dual users vs. cigarette-only smokers. Methods: A secondary analysis of parent survey data collected between April and October 2017 at 10 pediatric primary care practices participating in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention was conducted. Parents were considered to be dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes if they reported smoking a cigarette, even a puff, in the past seven days and using an e-cigarette within the past 30 days. Parents were asked if they received a prescription for nicotine replacement therapy and referral to the quitline to help them quit from their child's clinician. Multivariable logistic regression examined factors (dual use, insurance status, relationship to the child, race, and education status of the parent) associated with delivery of smoking cessation treatment (receiving prescriptions and/or enrollment in quitline) to smoking parents. Further, we compared the rates of tobacco cessation treatment delivery to dual users in the usual-care control practices vs. intervention practices. Results: Of 1007 smokers or recent quitters surveyed in the five intervention practices, 722 parents reported current use of cigarettes-only and 111 used e-cigarettes. Of these 111 parents, 82 (73.9%) reported smoking cigarettes. Parents were more likely to report receiving any treatment if they were dual users vs. cigarette-only smokers (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.38, 4.29). Child's insurance status, parents' sex, education, and race were not associated with parental receipt of tobacco cessation treatment in the model. No dual users in the usual-care control practices reported receiving treatment. Discussion. Dual users who visited CEASE intervention practices were more likely to receive treatment than cigarette-only smokers when treatments were discussed. An increased uptake of tobacco cessation treatments among dual users reinforces the importance of discussing treatment options with this group, while also recognizing that cigarette-only smokers may require additional intervention to increase the acceptance rate of cessation assistance. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01882348.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299979

RESUMEN

Investigating causation is a primary goal in forensic/legal medicine, aiming to establish the connection between an unlawful/negligent act and an adverse outcome. In malpractice litigation involving a healthcare-associated infection due to a failure of infection prevention and control practices, the medicolegal causal analysis needs to quantify the individual causal probabilities to meet the evidentiary requirements of the court. In this paper, we present the investigation of the most probable cause of bacterial endocarditis in a patient who underwent an invasive procedure at a dental/oral surgical practice where an outbreak of bacterial endocarditis had already been identified by the state Department of Health. We assessed the probability that the patient's endocarditis was part of the outbreak versus that it was an unrelated sporadic infection using the INFERENCE (Integration of Forensic Epidemiology and the Rigorous Evaluation of Causation Elements) approach to medicolegal causation analysis. This paper describes the step-by-step application of the INFERENCE approach to demonstrate its utility in quantifying the probability of causation. The use of INFERENCE provides the court with an evidence-based, transparent, and reliable guide to determine liability, causation, and damages.


Asunto(s)
Endocarditis Bacteriana , Mala Praxis , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Orales , Causalidad , Endocarditis Bacteriana/epidemiología , Medicina Legal , Humanos
10.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 80: 102178, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971538

RESUMEN

A crucial role in the external postmortem examination system of the Netherlands is that of the attending physicians, who are either general practitioners or physicians in hospitals. They perform 85% of all external postmortem examinations and must immediately report to forensic physicians all unnatural deaths and deaths that they are not convinced to be natural. These attending physicians need therefore to be properly qualified and need to be competent, by acting consistently and by having knowledge of the appropriate laws surrounding external postmortem examination. The aim of this study is to analyse the competence of the attending physicians in hospital settings. This research studied whether they regard themselves as competent, whether they had knowledge of and acted according to the appropriate laws, and whether they acted consistently in following the procedures around external postmortem examinations. A survey was conducted among clinicians. After discarding 23 questionnaires for various reasons, 326 datasets remained on which the research was based. There was no significant difference between the medical specialists (79%) and the residents and fellows (86%) in their feeling of being competent in undertaking external postmortem examinations. The answers of the respondents showed at least one inconsistency in 54%. Of the respondents 34% were considered as to have knowledge of relevant laws. Of the respondents 21% felt competent, was consistent in all their answers and scored a 100% on legal knowledge. The study showed that though a physician might feel competent, this does not mean he actually is competent in performing an external postmortem examination. Furthermore, the extent of a respondents' ignorance of the appropriate laws and the inconsistency in acts and thoughts is undermining the system of postmortem examination.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia , Competencia Clínica , Certificado de Defunción , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales , Competencia Profesional , Humanos , Países Bajos
11.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(8): 781-792, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036467

RESUMEN

Evidence on the effects of meat consumption from different sources on the risk of bladder cancer (BC) is limited and controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the associations between meat consumption and BC risk using a pooled data approach. Individual data from 11 prospective cohorts comprising 2848 BC cases and 515,697 non-cases with a total of 5,498,025 person-years of follow-up was pooled and analysed to investigate the potential associations between total red meat and products, red meat, processed meat, poultry and total fish and BC risk. Hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were estimated using Cox regression models stratified on cohort. Overall, an increased BC risk was found for high intake of organ meat (HR comparing highest with lowest tertile: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.36, p-trend = 0.03). On the contrary, a marginally inverse association was observed for total fish intake and BC risk among men (HR comparing highest with lowest tertile: 0.79, 95% CI 0.65, 0.97, p-trend = 0.04). No associations were observed for other meat sources. Results of this prospective study suggest that organ meat consumption may be associated with BC development. Replication in large-scale prospective studies and investigation of possible causal mechanisms is needed.


Asunto(s)
Peces , Carne Roja/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/etiología , Adulto , Animales , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809101

RESUMEN

Injury claims associated with minimal damage rear impact traffic crashes are often defended using a "biomechanical approach," in which the occupant forces of the crash are compared to the forces of activities of daily living (ADLs), resulting in the conclusion that the risk of injury from the crash is the same as for ADLs. The purpose of the present investigation is to evaluate the scientific validity of the central operating premise of the biomechanical approach to injury causation; that occupant acceleration is a scientifically valid proxy for injury risk. Data were abstracted, pooled, and compared from three categories of published literature: (1) volunteer rear impact crash testing studies, (2) ADL studies, and (3) observational studies of real-world rear impacts. We compared the occupant accelerations of minimal or no damage (i.e., 3 to 11 kph speed change or "delta V") rear impact crash tests to the accelerations described in 6 of the most commonly reported ADLs in the reviewed studies. As a final step, the injury risk observed in real world crashes was compared to the results of the pooled crash test and ADL analyses, controlling for delta V. The results of the analyses indicated that average peak linear and angular acceleration forces observed at the head during rear impact crash tests were typically at least several times greater than average forces observed during ADLs. In contrast, the injury risk of real-world minimal damage rear impact crashes was estimated to be at least 2000 times greater than for any ADL. The results of our analysis indicate that the principle underlying the biomechanical injury causation approach, that occupant acceleration is a proxy for injury risk, is scientifically invalid. The biomechanical approach to injury causation in minimal damage crashes invariably results in the vast underestimation of the actual risk of such crashes, and should be discontinued as it is a scientifically invalid practice.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Actividades Cotidianas , Aceleración , Cabeza , Humanos , Voluntarios
13.
Front Oncol ; 11: 626748, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718196

RESUMEN

The use of immune checkpoint blockade, in particular PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors, is now commonplace in many clinical settings including the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Notwithstanding, little information exists regarding the expression of the alternative PD-1 ligand, PD-L2 in urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). We therefore set out to characterise the expression of PD-L2 in comparison to PD-L1. Firstly, we assessed PD-L2 expression by immunohistochemistry and found widespread expression of PD-L2 in UBC, albeit with reduced expression in MIBC. We further investigated these findings using RNA-seq data from a cohort of 575 patients demonstrating that PDCD1LG2 (PD-L2) is widely expressed in UBC and correlated with CD274 (PD-L1). However, in contrast to our immunohistochemistry findings, expression was significantly increased in advanced disease. We have also provided detailed evidence of constitutive PD-L2 expression in normal urothelium and propose a mechanism by which PD-L2 is cleaved from the cell surface in MIBC. These data provide a comprehensive assessment of PD-L2 in UBC, showing PD-L2 is abundant in UBC and, importantly, constitutively present in normal urothelium. These data have implications for future development of immune checkpoint blockade, and also the understanding of the function of the immune system in the normal urinary bladder.

14.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 56, 2021 03 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685459

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although a potential inverse association between vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk has been reported, epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. This research aimed to elucidate the association between vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk by conducting a pooled analysis of data from prospective cohort studies. METHODS: Vegetable intake in relation to bladder cancer risk was examined by pooling individual-level data from 13 cohort studies, comprising 3203 cases among a total of 555,685 participants. Pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified by cohort for intakes of total vegetable, vegetable subtypes (i.e. non-starchy, starchy, green leafy and cruciferous vegetables) and individual vegetable types. In addition, a diet diversity score was used to assess the association of the varied types of vegetable intake on bladder cancer risk. RESULTS: The association between vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk differed by sex (P-interaction = 0.011) and smoking status (P-interaction = 0.038); therefore, analyses were stratified by sex and smoking status. With adjustment of age, sex, smoking, energy intake, ethnicity and other potential dietary factors, we found that higher intake of total and non-starchy vegetables were inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer among women (comparing the highest with lowest intake tertile: HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64-0.98, P = 0.037 for trend, HR per 1 SD increment = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.81-0.99; HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.97, P = 0.034 for trend, HR per 1 SD increment = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.79-0.98, respectively). However, no evidence of association was observed among men, and the intake of vegetable was not found to be associated with bladder cancer when stratified by smoking status. Moreover, we found no evidence of association for diet diversity with bladder cancer risk. CONCLUSION: Higher intakes of total and non-starchy vegetable are associated with reduced risk of bladder cancer for women. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these results reflect causal processes and potential underlying mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Verduras , Frutas , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/epidemiología
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e044640, 2021 01 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431495

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the associations of age and sex with the risk of COVID-19 in different severity stages ranging from infection to death. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase through 4 May 2020. STUDY SELECTION: We considered cohort and case-control studies that evaluated differences in age and sex on the risk of COVID-19 infection, disease severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We screened and included studies using standardised electronic data extraction forms and we pooled data from published studies and data acquired by contacting authors using random effects meta-analysis. We assessed the risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: We screened 11.550 titles and included 59 studies comprising 36.470 patients in the analyses. The methodological quality of the included papers was high (8.2 out of 9). Men had a higher risk for infection with COVID-19 than women (relative risk (RR) 1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12). When infected, they also had a higher risk for severe COVID-19 disease (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.27), a higher need for intensive care (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.74) and a higher risk of death (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.91). The analyses also showed that patients aged 70 years and above have a higher infection risk (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.50 to 1.81), a higher risk for severe COVID-19 disease (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.32), a higher need for intensive care (RR 2.70, 95% CI 1.59 to 4.60) and a higher risk of death once infected (RR 3.61, 95% CI 2.70 to 4.84) compared with patients younger than 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analyses on 59 studies comprising 36.470 patients showed that men and patients aged 70 and above have a higher risk for COVID-19 infection, severe disease, ICU admission and death. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020180085.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Factores de Edad , COVID-19/mortalidad , Hospitalización , Humanos , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales
16.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(5): 504-517, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452857

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore the current evidence on interventions to influence antibiotic prescribing behaviour of health professionals in outpatient settings in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, an underrepresented area in the literature. METHODS: The systematic review protocol for this study was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020170504). We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for studies relating to antibiotic prescribing of health professionals in outpatient settings in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Behavioural interventions were classified as persuasive, enabling, restrictive, structural or bundle (mix of different interventions). In total, 3,514 abstracts were screened and 42 studies were selected for full-text review, with 13 studies included in the final narrative synthesis. RESULTS: Of the 13 included studies, five were conducted in Vietnam, two in Sudan, two in Tanzania, two in India and two in Kenya. All studies were conducted in the outpatient or ambulatory setting: eight took place in primary health centres, two in private clinics and three in pharmacies. Our review found that enabling or educational interventions alone may not be sufficient to overcome the ingrained incentives to link revenue generation to sales of antibiotics, and hence, their inappropriate prescription or misuse. Bundle interventions appear to be very effective at changing prescription behaviour among healthcare providers, including drug sellers and pharmacists. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-faceted bundle interventions that combine regulation enforcement with face-to-face education and peer influence may be more effective than educational interventions alone at curbing inappropriate antibiotic use.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Prescripción Inadecuada/prevención & control , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos , India , Kenia , Sudán , Tanzanía , Vietnam
17.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 132: 71-78, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278612

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: When the probability of being cited depends on the outcome of that study, this is called citation bias. The aim of this study is to assess the determinants of citation and how these compare across six different biomedical research fields. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Citation network analyses were performed for six biomedical research questions. After identifying all relevant publications, all potential citations were mapped together with the actually performed citations in each network. As determinants of citation we assessed the following: study outcome, study design, sample size, journal impact factor, gender, affiliation, authority and continent of the corresponding author, funding source, title of the publication, number of references, and self-citation. Random effect logistic regression analysis was used to assess these factors. RESULTS: Four out of six networks showed evidence for citation bias. Self-citation, authority of the author, and journal impact factor were also positively associated with the probability of citation in all networks. CONCLUSION: The probability of being cited seems associated with positive study outcomes, the authority of its authors, and the journal in which that article is published. In addition, each network showed specific characteristics that impact the citation dynamics and that need to be considered when performing and interpreting citation analyses.


Asunto(s)
Bibliometría , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Sesgo de Publicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Proyectos de Investigación , Humanos
18.
Bladder Cancer ; 6(3): 401, 2020 Sep 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283032

RESUMEN

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3233/BLC-180172.].

19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187384

RESUMEN

A fundamental purpose of forensic medical, or medicolegal, analysis is to provide legal factfinders with an opinion regarding the causal relationship between an alleged unlawful or negligent action and a medically observed adverse outcome, which is needed to establish legal liability. At present, there are no universally established standards for medicolegal causal analysis, although several different approaches to causation exist, with varying strengths and weaknesses and degrees of practical utility. These approaches can be categorized as intuitive or probabilistic, which are distributed along a spectrum of increasing case complexity. This paper proposes a systematic approach to evidence-based assessment of causation in forensic medicine, called the INtegration of Forensic Epidemiology and the Rigorous EvaluatioN of Causation Elements (INFERENCE) approach. The INFERENCE approach is an evolution of existing causal analysis methods and consists of a stepwise method of increasing complexity. We aimed to develop a probabilistic causal analysis approach that (1) fits the needs of legal factfinders who require an estimate of the probability of causation, and (2) is still sufficiently straightforward to be applied in real-world forensic medical practice. As the INFERENCE approach is most relevant in complex cases, we also propose a process for selecting the most appropriate causal analysis method for any given case. The goal of this approach is to improve the reproducibility and transparency of causal analyses, which will promote evidence-based practice and quality assurance in forensic medicine, resulting in expert opinions that are reliable and objective in legal proceedings.


Asunto(s)
Causalidad , Testimonio de Experto , Medicina Legal , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Medicina Legal/métodos , Medicina Legal/normas , Humanos , Probabilidad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
20.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(10): e17864, 2020 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084592

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Approximately 90% of currently published clinical and public health research is in the form of observational studies. Having a detailed and registered study protocol prior to data collection is important in any empirical study. Without this, there is no reliable way to assess the occurrence of publication bias, outcome reporting bias, and other protocol deviations. However, there is currently no solid guidance available on the information that a protocol for an observational study should contain. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to formulate the Standardized Protocol Items Recommendations for Observational Studies (SPIROS) reporting guidelines, which focus on 3 main study designs of analytical epidemiology: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. METHODS: A scoping review of published protocol papers of observational studies in epidemiology will identify candidate items for the SPIROS reporting guidelines. The list of items will be extended with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist items and recommendations from the SPIROS steering committee. This long list serves as the basis for a 2-round Delphi survey among experts to obtain consensus on which items to include. Each candidate item from the long list will be rated on a 5-point Likert scale to assess relevance for inclusion in the SPIROS reporting guidelines. Following the Delphi survey, an expert-driven consensus workshop will be convened to finalize the reporting guidelines. RESULTS: A scoping review of published observational study protocols has been completed, with 59 candidate items identified for inclusion into the Delphi survey, itself launched in early 2020. CONCLUSIONS: This project aims to improve the timeliness, completeness, and clarity of study protocols of observational studies in analytical epidemiology by producing expert-based recommendations of items to be addressed. These reporting guidelines will facilitate and encourage researchers to prepare and register study protocols of sufficient quality prior to data collection in order to improve the transparency, reproducibility, and quality of observational studies. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/17864.

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