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1.
J Res Pharm Pract ; 8(2): 39-44, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367637

RESUMEN

Throughout the years, changes occurred in pharmacists' roles on international levels. These changes are not being followed in Lebanon where community pharmacy is still practiced in a traditional way. Laws need to be updated to align with international standards to drive a change at the practice level. The Lebanese Order of Pharmacists' (OPL) mission is to raise the level of the profession. It also enforces the laws, defends the rights of pharmacists, and improves the level of practice and development of scientific competence. It is also aiming at providing the conditions for enhancing the patient's access to the appropriate medications and its safe use. Meanwhile, the OPL is facing several challenges, most importantly, the deteriorating financial situation of community pharmacists and the decrease in the retirement fund input. To find proper answers to all these issues, the OPL started working, since 2016, on solutions from a proper governance perspective, jointly with all the stakeholders such as the Ministry of Public Health, the Ministry of Education and Higher Education, the universities, and other professional associations. The suggested solutions include the application of the principles of good governance, provision of paid services, developing pharmacists' core and advanced competencies, accreditation standards generation, and new laws and decrees suggestions concerning clinical pharmacy application in hospitals and community settings, continuing education consolidation and professional development, and research- and assessment-based decisions. The suggested solutions are expected to overcome challenges and barriers while leveraging the profession and advancing it to reach international standards.

2.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(6): 582-588, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310391

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite the rigorous regulations governing the pharmacy profession in Lebanon, the increasing numbers of pharmacy graduates seem to be the greatest threat of demise. No forecast is available to assess the long-term projections of pharmacists supply. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this manuscript is to project the future size of the Lebanese pharmacy workforce till 2050 and discuss their potential consequences on the labour market. METHODS: This study was carried out in collaboration with the Lebanese Order of Pharmacists (OPL), where official numbers were retrieved from the registered pharmacists' database from 2006 to 2017. The data were analyzed as time series using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method. Projected numbers were plotted using Microsoft Excel office. RESULTS: The ratio of pharmacists to 10 000 inhabitants up till the end of 2017 was estimated at 17.52, compared with a worldwide mean of 5.09, with a continuous increase seen with the coming years, possibly reaching an estimated 41.17 pharmacists per 10 000 inhabitants by the year 2050. The total number of pharmacies increased from 1546 in 2006 up to 3174 at the end of 2017 nationwide, with a major increase seen in Bekaa (206.35%) and South Lebanon (171.08%) governorates, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that the dramatic increase in pharmacy graduates will worsen with time. To curb it, it is important to vote and apply new laws, and initiate a collaborative work between academia, professional associations, and employers from all sectors to find innovative solutions.

3.
Saudi Pharm J ; 27(4): 550-557, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061624

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess the interest, knowledge, practice and barriers of Lebanese community-based pharmacists towards research, and to examine factors associated with interest. Methods: A cross-sectional survey, conducted between January and May 2017, enrolled community pharmacists using a proportionate random sample of community pharmacies in the five districts of Lebanon, using the list of pharmacies provided by the Lebanese Order of Pharmacists. In the absence of validated questionnaires to answer our objectives, we created a questionnaire based on previous research. The questionnaire was modified based on the experiences and issues raised during focus groups with research active pharmacists and research oriented community pharmacists. Results: A total of 399 pharmacists was enrolled. The results showed that 231 (72%) were conscious about the important role of research in the community pharmacy setting whereas only 5.6% considered it not important. Over two-thirds (68.5%) of the pharmacists declared being interested in participating in research. There was a statistical difference in the percentage of correct answers between auto-declared and corrected responses for all terms, with all p < 0.001.The most reported barrier was lack of time during hours of work (90.9%), followed by the lack of pharmacy staff (73.7%), lack of financial resources (68.9%), patient's lack of education and resistance to participation (64.8%), and lack of support (63.8%). Age (aOR = 0.92), years of experience (aOR = 1.06), and having been involved in research (aOR = 3.17) were associated with higher interest in research. Having studied in Lebanon (aOR = 3.63), having received previous research courses (aOR = 11.12) and being interested in research (aOR = 2.74) were associated with having participated in research projects during their professional experience. Conclusion: Lebanese pharmacists have the good will to conduct and participate in research, but are lacking knowledge; this issue needs to be addressed vividly. Addressing the identified barriers could improve the research output of Lebanese community pharmacists.

4.
East Mediterr Health J ; 24(9): 914-921, 2018 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570124

RESUMEN

Background: The Lebanese American University has a well-functioning inter-professional education (IPE) programme; this is a fundamental pedagogical approach in healthcare education in which students from different professions learn together, ultimately leading to improving the skills of the health care workforce and thus improving patient outcomes. The programme includes nursing, nutrition, medicine, pharmacy and social work students, and has now been running for 6 years. Aims: This paper aims at describing the implementation of an IPE programme in Lebanon by focusing on how to overcome the main challenges. Methods: We describe our experience using the categories of challenges developed by Sunguya et al. (2014), where they analysed published reports of IPE programmes in developed countries. We identified three additional challenges that might be relevant throughout the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region or in countries with similar socioeconomic characteristics. Results: The challenges encountered in designing and implementing the IPE programme were similar to other programmes: curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes and attitudes, variety of students, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargon and accreditation as well as assessment of learning, security and logistics. Conclusions: This paper provides data and successful strategies that can be used by planned or implemented programmes in similar socioeconomic contexts in the MENA region.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/educación , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Curriculum , Humanos , Líbano , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
5.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 16(2): 1159, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30023023

RESUMEN

Background: Continuing education (CE) is an international tool that requires lifelong active participation in learning activities allowing the pharmacist to stay a major player among others. In 2014 the CE program was introduced to the pharmacists licensed in Lebanon as a mandatory requirement for re-licensure. In the absence of guidelines regarding the quality and quantity of CE programs, behavioral resistance to precipitate in the CE programs might be encountered among the pharmacists. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the perceptions of pharmacists working in Lebanese hospitals on the continuing education preferences. The advantage of this program is to collect information that would help the Order of Pharmacy in Lebanon to upgrade the CE program in a way that is more acceptable and convenient for the pharmacists. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2016, using a proportionate random sample of Lebanese hospital pharmacies from all governorates in Lebanon. A structured questionnaire was distributed to all hospital pharmacies in Lebanon. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all study variables. This includes the mean and standard deviation for continuous measures, counts and percentages for categorical variables. Results: A total of 107 (53.5%) participants completed the questionnaires. The majority of participants were from Beirut and Mount Lebanon. The percentage of participants working at private hospitals was (68.2%).The majority of participants who completed the questionnaire (86.2%) agreed that continuing education programs affects their way of practice and increases their knowledge. Their preferred CE types to be used in the future were the computer based ones (60.6%), interactive workshops (45.5%) and printed materials (44.9%). Their considerations for selecting the CE type is based on their interest in the topic (80.6%), the ease of access to print or online material (77.2%), or the convenience of being offered during an event (67.1%). Participants noted that barriers to attend live CEs were mainly work responsibilities (76%), travel distance (65.6%), family commitments (48.4%) and scheduling (40.6%). Conclusions: Lebanese hospital pharmacists are highly committed to CE. They consider it a practical tool for career development and advancement.

6.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 16(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-174786

RESUMEN

Background: Continuing education (CE) is an international tool that requires lifelong active participation in learning activities allowing the pharmacist to stay a major player among others. In 2014 the CE program was introduced to the pharmacists licensed in Lebanon as a mandatory requirement for re-licensure. In the absence of guidelines regarding the quality and quantity of CE programs, behavioral resistance to precipitate in the CE programs might be encountered among the pharmacists. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the perceptions of pharmacists working in Lebanese hospitals on the continuing education preferences. The advantage of this program is to collect information that would help the Order of Pharmacy in Lebanon to upgrade the CE program in a way that is more acceptable and convenient for the pharmacists. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2016, using a proportionate random sample of Lebanese hospital pharmacies from all governorates in Lebanon. A structured questionnaire was distributed to all hospital pharmacies in Lebanon. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all study variables. This includes the mean and standard deviation for continuous measures, counts and percentages for categorical variables Results: A total of 107 (53.5%) participants completed the questionnaires. The majority of participants were from Beirut and Mount Lebanon. The percentage of participants working at private hospitals was (68.2%).The majority of participants who completed the questionnaire (86.2%) agreed that continuing education programs affects their way of practice and increases their knowledge. Their preferred CE types to be used in the future were the computer based ones (60.6%), interactive workshops (45.5%) and printed materials (44.9%). Their considerations for selecting the CE type is based on their interest in the topic (80.6%), the ease of access to print or online material (77.2%), or the convenience of being offered during an event (67.1%). Participants noted that barriers to attend live CEs were mainly work responsibilities (76%), travel distance (65.6%), family commitments (48.4%) and scheduling (40.6%). Conclusions: Lebanese hospital pharmacists are highly committed to CE. They consider it a practical tool for career development and advancement


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/organización & administración , Educación Continua en Farmacia/organización & administración , Técnicos de Farmacia/educación , Líbano , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Capacitación Profesional
7.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(5): 561-567, 2018 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28164230

RESUMEN

Background: Lack of adequate tobacco-related content in pharmacy curricula can interfere with pharmacist's ability to provide tobacco cessation interventions. This study aims to determine the extent of tobacco-related content in pharmacy schools' curricula across the Middle East region, instructional methods used, perceived adequacy and importance of tobacco education, and barriers for inclusion of tobacco-related content in pharmacy curricula. Methods: A web-based survey was sent to 120 schools of pharmacy in 13 Middle Eastern countries. Key faculty members were identified and sent an e-mail with an online link to the survey. Data were descriptively analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22. Results: Of the 120 pharmacy schools contacted, 59 schools completed the survey (49.2% response rate). Of this, 44 (74.6%) reported including tobacco-related content in their undergraduate curricula. Nicotine pharmacology and principles of addiction (64.4%), pharmacologic aids for tobacco cessation (61%), and health effects of tobacco (61%) were the most commonly reported topics. The topics that were least perceived to be adequately covered were monitoring outcomes of tobacco cessation interventions (5.9%) and epidemiology of tobacco use (15.4%). The top barriers to inclusion of tobacco-related topics in the curriculum were lack of time (75.9%), lack of experiential training sites focusing on tobacco cessation interventions (72.2%), lack of faculty expertize (66%), and perceived lack of priority of tobacco related content in pharmacy schools (66%). Conclusions: The current findings suggest that more efforts should be geared towards increasing content for tobacco education in schools of pharmacy across the Middle East and towards overcoming the identified barriers. Implications: This study is the first to assess the extent of tobacco-related content in pharmacy schools curricula across the Middle East countries. If pharmacy students are expected to deliver effective tobacco cessation services when they graduate as pharmacists, then schools of pharmacy in the Middle East should consider providing adequate tobacco-related content and training in undergraduate curricula. Pharmacy schools have to work on circumventing the identified barriers including lack of time, lack of experiential training sites offering tobacco cessation interventions, shortage of faculty with relevant expertize and placing low priority on tobacco education in pharmacy schools.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Uso de Tabaco , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Curriculum , Humanos , Medio Oriente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 39(5): 1084-1094, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28756580

RESUMEN

Background Patients' knowledge of their medications play a pivotal role in their disease management. Objective Assess the knowledge and practices of Lebanese outpatients regarding their own medication use and risks. Setting Four hundred and sixty community pharmacies across Lebanon. Method It was a cross-sectional study performed from March through May 2016 among Lebanese outpatients, using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate all participants' responses. The association between categorical variables were evaluated using Pearson χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. Binary logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with medication patients' knowledge and interest. Main outcome measure Ability of the patients to identify own medications' elements: name, strength, dosage regimen, indication, and adverse drug reactions. Results Our study comprised 921 patients, with around 16% taking ≥5 medications/day. Around 56% of our patients showed sub-optimal medication knowledge. Patients' higher educational level, number of chronic diseases, and patient physician interaction were associated with higher medication knowledge. Many patients admitted not discussing their medications each time they visit their physicians (38.7%); not reading the leaflet of each medication they take (61.2%); and not regularly asking their pharmacist about the potential interactions of OTC drugs with prescribed medications (53.9%). Conclusion This study showed suboptimal medication-related knowledge, and suboptimal patient's interactions with primary care givers. Our findings serve as a platform for healthcare providers to understand patients' needs and educate them about medication use and risks.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Errores de Medicación/prevención & control , Prioridad del Paciente , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Errores de Medicación/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prioridad del Paciente/psicología , Farmacias/normas , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 15(1): 853, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503219

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current community pharmacists' interventions and job satisfaction, secondary to the alteration in the financial rewards. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out, using a proportionate random sample of Lebanese community pharmacy owners from all districts of Lebanon. RESULTS: Out of 1618 distributed questionnaires, 1465 (90.5%) were collected back from pharmacy owners. Our study results showed that the monthly sales and profit decreased significantly in the last decade as well as the number of loyal customers (p<0.001 for all). The rent, the total assistant pharmacists' and employees' salaries, income taxes, municipality fees, the total bills (electricity, water, cleaning, security) and the disposal of expired products per year significantly increased during the last 10 years (p<0.001). 95% of the owners said they cannot afford to hire any more pharmacists while 45% said they cannot afford buying software for their pharmacies. Finally, 89% of these owners admitted that their situation was better 10 years ago compared to nowadays. CONCLUSION: Most Lebanese community pharmacists are not financially satisfied; their financial situation deteriorated in the last decade. The ministry of Health along with the Order of Pharmacists in Lebanon should cooperate together to resolve this problem since they are two entities responsible for the patient's health.

10.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 11: 331-342, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28280306

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. METHODS: A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. RESULTS: Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to the textual warnings effects. A higher motivation to quit cigarette smoking was seen among the following groups of smokers: males (odds ratio [OR] =1.8, P=0.02), who had stopped smoking for at least 1 month during the last year due to textual warning (OR =2.79, P<0.001), who considered it very important to report health warning on cigarette packs (OR =1.92, P=0.01), who had chronic expectoration (OR =1.81, P=0.06) and who would change their favorite cigarette pack if they found shocking images on the pack (OR =1.95, P=0.004). CONCLUSION: Low-dependent smokers and highly motivated to quit smokers appeared to be more hypothetically susceptible to shocking pictorial warnings. Motivation to quit was associated with sensitivity to warnings, but not with the presence of all chronic respiratory symptoms.

11.
Clin Interv Aging ; 12: 65-73, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28115835

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) should be avoided by the aged population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of PIMs among Lebanese aged outpatients using Beers criteria of 2012. The secondary objectives were to identify the correlates of the PIMs use and to compare the PIMs prevalence rates as per Beers criteria of 2003 and 2012. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted among aged outpatients of different accredited community pharmacies across Lebanon. Data were collected through a validated questionnaire. The Beers criteria of 2012 were used to evaluate PIMs. The association between PIMs used and independent variables were analyzed by logistic regression. The differences between PIMs use according to Beers criteria 2003 and 2012 were calculated using chi-squared and McNemar's tests. RESULTS: A total of 248 outpatients were analyzed. We identified 112 (45.2%) out of 248 patients taking PIMs. The leading classes of medications identified to cause PIMs were those acting on the central nervous system (71.4%). The factors associated with PIMs use were age, osteoporosis, Alzheimer/dementia, diabetes, and alcohol consumption. PIMs use increased significantly between Beers criteria 2003 and 2012 (Chi-squared test, P<0.001; McNemar's test, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our study showed a high prevalence of PIMs use in Lebanon, which is associated with various correlates. Education of health care providers and medication review should be considered to improve medication safety of older adults.


Asunto(s)
Prescripción Inadecuada/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropiados , Prevalencia
12.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 38(6): 1436-1444, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27770350

RESUMEN

Background Pharmacists' involvement in patient care has improved the quality of care and reduced medication errors. However, this has required a lot of work that could not have been accomplished without documentation of interventions. Several means of documenting errors have been proposed in the literature but without a consistent comprehensive process. Recently, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) recognized that pharmacy practice lacks a consistent process for direct patient care and discussed several options for a pharmaceutical care plan, essentially encompassing medication therapy assessment, development and implementation of a pharmaceutical care plan and finally evaluation of the outcome. Therefore, as per the recommendations of ACCP, we sought to retrospectively analyze interventions by grouping them according to medication related problems (MRP) and their nodes such as prescribing; administering; monitoring; documenting and dispensing. Objective The aim of this study is to report interventions according to medication error (ME) nodes and show the impact of pharmacy interventions in reducing MRPs. Setting The study was conducted at the cardiology and infectious diseases services at a teaching hospital located in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Intervention documentation was completed by pharmacy students on infectious diseases and cardiology rotations then reviewed by clinical pharmacists with respective specialties. Before data analysis, a new pharmacy reporting sheet was developed in order to link interventions according to MRP. Then, MRPs were grouped in the five ME nodes. During the documentation process, whether MRP had reached the patient or not may have not been reported which prevented the classification to the corresponding medication error nodes as ME. Main outcome Reduction in medication related problems across all ME nodes. Results A total of n = 1174 interventions were documented. N = 1091 interventions were classified as MRPs. Interventions were analyzed per 1000 patient days and resulted in 340 medication related problem/1000 patient days. A 72 % reduction in MRP across all ME nodes was seen. The majority of interventions were in the field of cardiology followed by infectious disease related. When interventions per ME nodes were analyzed, a high percentage of intervention acceptance was noted across all nodes especially prescribing (68.30 %) monitoring (77.7 %) and in documenting errors (79.36 %). Conclusion The role of pharmacists in reducing preventable MRPs can be shown when pharmacy interventions are analyzed according to corresponding MRP and ME nodes.


Asunto(s)
Errores de Medicación/prevención & control , Farmacéuticos , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/métodos , Rol Profesional , Humanos , Farmacéuticos/normas , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/normas , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudiantes de Farmacia
13.
J Interprof Care ; 30(2): 165-74, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27026188

RESUMEN

The Lebanese American University Interprofessional Education (LAU IPE) Steps Framework consists of a five-step workshop-based series that is offered throughout the curriculum of health and social care students at an American university in Lebanon. The aim of the present study was to report students' perceptions of their readiness for interprofessional learning before and after completing the IPE steps, their evaluations of interprofessional learning outcomes, as well as their satisfaction with the learning experience as a whole. A longitudinal survey design was used: questionnaires were completed by students before IPE exposure and after each step. The results showed that before IPE exposure, students' perceptions of their readiness for interprofessional learning were generally favourable, with differences across genders (stronger professional identity in females compared to males) and across professions (higher teamwork and collaboration in pharmacy and nutrition students compared to other professions and lower patient centredness in nursing students compared to others). After participation in the IPE steps, students showed enhanced readiness for interprofessional learning and differences between genders and professions decreased. Participants were satisfied with the learning experience and assessment scores showed that all IPE learning outcomes were met. The LAU IPE Steps Framework may be of value to other interprofessional education course developers.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Personal de Salud/educación , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/psicología , Competencia Clínica , Conducta Cooperativa , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/organización & administración , Percepción , Factores Sexuales
14.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 11: 1421-7, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26445541

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Response to clopidogrel varies widely with nonresponse rates ranging from 4% to 30%. A reduced function of the gene variant of the CYP2C19 has been associated with lower drug metabolite levels, and hence diminished platelet inhibition. Drugs that alter CYP2C19 activity may also mimic genetic variants. The aim of the study is to investigate the cumulative effect of CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms and drug interactions that affects clopidogrel dosing, and apply it into a new clinical-pharmacogenetic algorithm that can be used by clinicians in optimizing clopidogrel-based treatment. METHOD: Clopidogrel dose optimization was analyzed based on two main parameters that affect clopidogrel metabolite area under the curve: different CYP2C19 genotypes and concomitant drug intake. Clopidogrel adjusted dose was computed based on area under the curve ratios for different CYP2C19 genotypes when a drug interacting with CYP2C19 is added to clopidogrel treatment. A clinical-pharmacogenetic algorithm was developed based on whether clopidogrel shows 1) expected effect as per indication, 2) little or no effect, or 3) clinical features that patients experience and fit with clopidogrel adverse drug reactions. RESULTS: The study results show that all patients under clopidogrel treatment, whose genotypes are different from *1*1, and concomitantly taking other drugs metabolized by CYP2C19 require clopidogrel dose adjustment. To get a therapeutic effect and avoid adverse drug reactions, therapeutic dose of 75 mg clopidogrel, for example, should be lowered to 6 mg or increased to 215 mg in patients with different genotypes. CONCLUSION: The implementation of clopidogrel new algorithm has the potential to maximize the benefit of clopidogrel pharmacological therapy. Clinicians would be able to personalize treatment to enhance efficacy and limit toxicity.

15.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 8: 1195-204, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25228798

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the appropriateness of laboratory-test monitoring recommended for patients on chronic medication therapies in the Lebanese community setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In October 2011, all outpatients visiting selected community pharmacies in Lebanon were screened by pharmacists to evaluate their use of one or more chronic medications requiring safety and/or therapeutic laboratory tests. The list of medications was elaborated after an extensive review of laboratory-test monitoring recommendations from pertinent up-to-date clinical guidelines, medications that have been issued black box warnings for monitoring, and the most current information from the US Food and Drug Administration website. Patients receiving these medications were subjected to a questionnaire assessing the appropriateness of their laboratory-test monitoring. The study was approved by the Lebanese American University's Institutional Review Board. RESULTS: A total of 284 outpatients, with almost equal distribution by sex, were identified during the aforementioned period to be on one or more of the specified medications. The majority of the sample (68%) was younger than 65 years of age. Overall, most of the study group (65%) were found to be partially monitored with laboratory tests, while only 27% were fully monitored and 8% were not monitored at all. The study group reported clinic-visit intervals as follows: more than a year (35%), on yearly basis (18%), every 6 months (25%), every 3 months (16%), less than 3 months (6%). CONCLUSION: Seventy-three percent (73%) of the study group were receiving incomplete therapeutic/safety laboratory-test monitoring recommended for patients on chronic medication in the Lebanese community. It is concluded from the results that patients need to better understand the importance of recommended test monitoring for the safe and effective use of their medications. Education by physicians may be required to achieve better understanding.

16.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 77(9): 195, 2013 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24249857

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To develop, implement, and assess student-learning outcomes from an assignment designed to expose first-year pharmacy students (P1) to a wide range of pharmacy career pathways. DESIGN: Students enrolled in a required Pharmacy Practice and Ethics course at the Lebanese American University chose 1 pharmacist career to investigate from a suggested list of 28 career pathways. Students completed a literature review on the selected career, interviewed a pharmacist practicing that career path in Lebanon, wrote a paper, and prepared and delivered a summary presentation to their classmates about the career pathway. Students peer evaluated their classmates after each presentation. ASSESSMENT: More than 85% of the students scored ≥70% on the assignment based on their achievement of student learning outcomes. Responses on an anonymous questionnaire showed that more than 94.6% of students were satisfied with the extent to which the course allowed them to meet the established learning outcomes. CONCLUSION: A career exploration assignment provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to widen their knowledge and understanding of the different career pathways that are available for them.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Curriculum , Evaluación Educacional , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Revisión por Expertos , Servicios Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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