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Br Dent J ; 229(12): 769-773, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339922


The oral ecosystem is shaped by complex interactions between systemic health disease and the resident oral microbiota. Research in the last two decades has produced datasets describing the genetics and physiology of the host and the oral microbiome in health and disease. There are inter-individual differences in the ability to tolerate oral disease-promoting challenges. Identification of the key factors that drive a healthy and resilient oral ecosystem is urgently needed. So far, progress is being made towards replicating the host-microbiota interplay in vitro. Clinical studies may shed light on the mechanisms of oral health resilience. However, most clinical studies are cross-sectional and are insufficient for understanding resilience or for identifying biomarkers that correlate with the point of transition from oral health to dysbiosis. Mathematical and computational models, including artificial intelligence approaches, offer an opportunity to inform the design of clinical studies by identifying key biomarkers and interaction networks in complex datasets and predicting important parameters. This paper discusses some of the challenges and opportunities for understanding the biological basis of resilience of the oral ecosystem. It discusses the current status and challenges, and proposes a way forward to better understand resilience towards oral diseases.

PeerJ ; 8: e9503, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742792


Background: Biofilm formation in dental unit waterlines (DUWL) may lead to health risks for dental staff and patients. Therefore, dental unit waterlines need to be disinfected, for instance by using chemical disinfectants. However, the application of chemical disinfectants may lead to the selection of specific microorganisms. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the microbial composition of water-derived biofilms, after a continuous exposure to maintenance doses of commercially available chemical disinfectants, in vitro. Methods: The AAA-model was used to grow water derived biofilms. The biofilms were subjected to the maintenance dose of each disinfectant. To determine the microbial composition, the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. The sequences were clustered in operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Results: The bacterial composition of biofilms in all treatment groups differed significantly (PERMANOVA F = 4.441, p = 0.001). Pairwise comparisons revealed Anoxyl treated biofilms were significantly different from all groups (p = 0.0001). In the Anoxyl-treated biofilms, the relative abundance of Comamonadaceae and Sphingopyxis was high compared to the Dentosept, Green and Clean and Oxygenal groups. Conclusion: We concluded that exposure to low doses of the chlorine-based chemical disinfectant Anoxyl led to a substantially different composition of water derived biofilms compared to biofilms exposed to H2O2-based chemical disinfectants.

Sex Transm Infect ; 96(5): 342-347, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241905


OBJECTIVES: In 2016, WHO estimated 376 million new cases of the four main curable STIs: gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and syphilis. Further, an estimated 290 million women are infected with human papillomavirus. STIs may lead to severe reproductive health sequelae. Low-income and middle-income countries carry the highest global burden of STIs. A large proportion of urogenital and the vast majority of extragenital non-viral STI cases are asymptomatic. Screening key populations and early and accurate diagnosis are important to provide correct treatment and to control the spread of STIs. This article paints a picture of the state of technology of STI point-of-care testing (POCT) and its implications for health system integration. METHODS: The material for the STI POCT landscape was gathered from publicly available information, published and unpublished reports and prospectuses, and interviews with developers and manufacturers. RESULTS: The development of STI POCT is moving rapidly, and there are much more tests in the pipeline than in 2014, when the first STI POCT landscape analysis was published on the website of WHO. Several of the available tests need to be evaluated independently both in the laboratory and, of particular importance, in different points of care. CONCLUSION: This article reiterates the importance of accurate, rapid and affordable POCT to reach universal health coverage. While highlighting the rapid technical advances in this area, we argue that insufficient attention is being paid to health systems capacity and conditions to ensure the swift and rapid integration of current and future STI POCT. Unless the complexity of health systems, including context, institutions, adoption systems and problem perception, are recognised and mapped, simplistic approaches to policy design and programme implementation will result in poor realisation of intended outcomes and impact.

Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención/organización & administración , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/prevención & control , Infecciones por Chlamydia/transmisión , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonorrea/prevención & control , Gonorrea/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma genitalium , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/prevención & control , Sífilis/transmisión , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/prevención & control , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/transmisión
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 212, 2019 09 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511002


BACKGROUND: This systematic scoping review aimed to identify changes in biomarkers of microbiological, immunological and biochemical origin during experimental gingivitis (EG) studies that might indicate resistance and resilience. METHODS: The term 'experimental gingivitis' was run in PubMed from inception to April 11th, 2018. From the 411 studies retrieved, 22 studies were included for this review. RESULTS: Studies reporting data on biomarker changes during and after full mouth EG trial were included. Two studies reported findings on changes in biomarkers of microbiological, 12 on immunological and eight on biochemical origin. Changes were reported in the induction phase, and occasionally in the resolution phase. The microbiological composition of both supragingival and subgingival dental plaque changed over the course of EG to a more pathogenic direction, but showed a shift back to a more normal composition. This indicates resilience of the oral microbiome. For immunological biomarkers, it was challenging to retrieve a robust pattern of changes across multiple studies. IL-1ß and IL-6 in saliva and in gingival crevicular fluid increased during induction phase and returned in the resolution phase below baseline values. The biochemical parameters cystatin-SN, cystatin-S and lactoferrin in saliva were increased at the end of induction phase, however also here no clear pattern emerged based on all available studies. CONCLUSIONS: More research is needed to investigate which microbiological, immunological, and biochemical biomarkers can be useful for future investigations into the resistance and resilience of the oral cavity to experimental gingivitis.

Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Niño , Femenino , Líquido del Surco Gingival , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Índice Periodontal , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular , Adulto Joven
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0178007, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28531183


BACKGROUND: Bio-aerosols originate from different sources and their potentially pathogenic nature may form a hazard to healthcare workers and patients. So far no extensive review on existing evidence regarding bio-aerosols is available. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to review evidence on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental setting. The objectives were 1) What are the sources that generate bio-aerosols?; 2) What is the microbial load and composition of bio-aerosols and how were they measured?; and 3) What is the hazard posed by pathogenic micro-organisms transported via the aerosol route of transmission? METHODS: Systematic scoping review design. Searched in PubMed and EMBASE from inception to 09-03-2016. References were screened and selected based on abstract and full text according to eligibility criteria. Full text articles were assessed for inclusion and summarized. The results are presented in three separate objectives and summarized for an overview of evidence. RESULTS: The search yielded 5,823 studies, of which 62 were included. Dental hand pieces were found to generate aerosols in the dental settings. Another 30 sources from human activities, interventions and daily cleaning performances in the hospital also generate aerosols. Fifty-five bacterial species, 45 fungi genera and ten viruses were identified in a hospital setting and 16 bacterial and 23 fungal species in the dental environment. Patients with certain risk factors had a higher chance to acquire Legionella in hospitals. Such infections can lead to irreversible septic shock and death. Only a few studies found that bio-aerosol generating procedures resulted in transmission of infectious diseases or allergic reactions. CONCLUSION: Bio-aerosols are generated via multiple sources such as different interventions, instruments and human activity. Bio-aerosols compositions reported are heterogeneous in their microbiological composition dependent on the setting and methodology. Legionella species were found to be a bio-aerosol dependent hazard to elderly and patients with respiratory complaints. But all aerosols can be can be hazardous to both patients and healthcare workers.

Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Infección Hospitalaria/transmisión , Equipo Dental/microbiología , Microbiología del Aire , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Hongos/aislamiento & purificación , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Virus/aislamiento & purificación
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0163365, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27706174


BACKGROUND: This review aimed to synthesize and analyze the diagnostic accuracy and the likelihood of providing correct treatment of the syndromic approach Vaginal Discharge Flowchart in managing cervical infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and vaginal infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Candida albicans. This review will inform updating the WHO 2003 guidelines on Vaginal Discharge syndromic case management. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted on published studies from 01-01-2000 to 30-03-2015 in multiple databases. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy and validation of the WHO Vaginal Discharge Flowchart were included. Validation parameters including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and the 95% confidence intervals for the different types of the flowchart were taken as outcomes, re-calculated, and analysed using a fixed model meta-analysis for data pooling. The level of agreement between the index and reference test were determined by the Cohen's Kappa co-efficiency test. Each individual study was assessed on quality using the QUADAS-2 tool. FINDINGS: The search yielded 2,845 studies of which 16 met the eligibility criteria for final analysis. The diagnostic performance to identify cervical infections was low and resulted in a high proportion of over and missed treatment. The four flowcharts had a sensitivity between 27.37% in history and risk assessment and 90.13% with microscopy, with the inverse in specificity rates. The treatment performances between the flowcharts were inconsistent. The same applies to the use of vaginal discharge flowchart for treating vaginal infections. For vaginal infections the vaginal discharge flowchart had a good performance in flowchart 3 with 91.68% of sensitivity; 99.97% specificity; 99.93% PPV and 0.02% who missed their treatment and 8.32% of women who were over treated by the vaginal discharge flowchart. CONCLUSION: The vaginal discharge flowchart should focus on management of vaginal infection. It could be used as an intermediate approach for cervical infections for sex workers until a point of care test is available in resource poor settings.

Candidiasis/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Excreción Vaginal , Vaginosis Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Candidiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Candidiasis/epidemiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/epidemiología , Vaginosis Bacteriana/tratamiento farmacológico , Vaginosis Bacteriana/epidemiología