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1.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547490

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has become an increasingly utilized imaging modality for patients suspected of having small intestinal diseases. However, data regarding the role of SBCE in patients with Billroth II gastrojejunostomy are limited. The objective is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of SBCE in Billroth II gastrojejunostomy patients. METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients with Billroth II gastrojejunostomy who underwent MiroCam capsule endoscopy between August 2013 and October 2019. Baseline patient characteristics; gastroscopic and SBCE findings; capsule transit time; and the occurrence of adverse events were collected and compared between groups with and without anastomotic lesions. RESULTS: In total, 30 patients were analyzed in the study. The median age was 59 years, and 26 patients (86.7%) were men. The majority of SBCE positive findings including ulcers (10.0%), angioectasias (6.7%) and polyps (6.7%). In patients with (n = 10) and without (n = 20) anastomotic lesions, the anastomotic lesion was significantly associated with a delayed gastric transit time (GTT) (P = 0.026), but the two groups showed no significant difference in completion (P > 0.05). All patients underwent successful SBCE examinations without adverse events, except device transit into the afferent loop, where it remained for nearly 2 h, occurred in one case with anastomotic ulcers. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study demonstrates that SBCE is a safe and effective diagnostic tool in patients with Billroth II gastrojejunostomy with a favorable gastroscopic evaluation within 7 days prior. The frequently real-time monitoring is suggested due to the risk of retention in the afferent loop, and a delayed food intake is required when a prolonged stay in the afferent loop occurred.

2.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 379(2): 10, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544237

RESUMEN

Fluorescence imaging is an important method in the field of biomedicine. Fluorescence imaging is nondestructive, has high efficiency and sensitivity, high resolution and allows real-time dynamic monitoring of living cells. However, it also has some disadvantages, such as high background signals and low selectivity. Bioorthogonal reactions, with the advantages of being both nondestructive and effective, are used to trace and analyze biological interactions in vivo. This review focuses on recent progress in understanding the mechanism of action of fluorescence probes.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548926

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To be efficient, intraoperative task-presentation systems must accurately present various language and cognitive tasks to patients undergoing awake surgery, and record behavioral data without compromising convenience of surgery. OBJECTIVE: To present an integrated brain mapping task-presentation system we developed and evaluate its effectiveness in intraoperative task presentation. METHODS: The Brain Mapping Interactive Stimulation System (Brain MISS) is a flexible task presentation system that adjusts for patient comfort, needs of the surgeon, and operating team, with multivideo recording for patients' behavior. A total of 48 patients from 3 centers underwent intraoperative language task test during awake brain surgery with the Brain MISS. Each patient was assigned 5 questions each on picture naming, reading, and listening comprehension before and during awake surgeries. The accuracy of intraoperative stimulus-response (without electrical stimulation) was recorded. The Brain MISS was to be considered effective, if the lower limit of 95% CI of patients' intraoperative response was ≥80% and also if the accuracy of intraoperative response of all patients was statistically higher than 80%. RESULTS: All patients successfully underwent intraoperative assessment with the Brain MISS. The overall accuracy of stimulus response was 95.8% (95% CI 90.18%-100.00%), with the lower limit being higher than 80% and the response accuracy also significantly being higher than 80% in all patients (P = .006). CONCLUSION: The Brain MISS is a portable and effective system for presenting and streamlining complicated language and cognitive tasks during awake surgery. It can also record standardized patient response data for neuroscientific research.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555280

RESUMEN

Hydroboration of carbon dioxide (CO2) catalysed by bis(phosphinite) (POCOP) pincer nickel complexes is among the most efficient homogeneous processes for the reduction of CO2 to the methanol level. Although both POCOP pincer nickel hydride and thiolate complexes are effective catalysts, the latter is far more effective under the same conditions. The mechanism for nickel hydride complexes catalysed reactions is well-established. However, that for nickel thiolate complex catalysed reactions remains elusive. In this work, the mechanism for the reduction of CO2 catalysed by POCOP pincer nickel thiolate complexes was investigated using density functional theory. The calculated results indicated that the reaction occurs via a concerted catalytic process involving two active species and the hydride is transferred by a shuttle species. Specifically, the reaction proceeds through four cycles: formation of two active species (cycle I) followed by further reaction of these two species to form a hydride transfer shuttle which is responsible for hydride transfers CO2→HCOOBcat (cycle II), HCOOBcat→CH2O (cycle III) and CH2O→catBOCH3 (cycle IV). The calculated mechanism is in good agreement with the experimental observation that the reaction is exothermic with simultaneous HBcat degradation.

5.
Phytopathology ; : PHYTO07200279R, 2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544003

RESUMEN

Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) is ubiquitous in most organisms, catalyzing the reversible isomerization of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate. In this study, we investigated biological and genetic functions of FgGPI in the phytopathogen Fusarium graminearum. We found that hyphal growth, conidial germination, and septa formation were significantly inhibited in FgGPI deletion mutant ∆FgGPI. FgGPI was also positively associated with glucose metabolism, ATP biosynthesis, and carbon source utilization. In addition, pyruvate production, deoxynivalenol (DON) biosynthesis, and virulence were reduced in ∆FgGPI. A coimmunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that FgGPI interacts with Fgß2. More importantly, the coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that carbendazim-resistant substitutions in ß2 tubulin could reduce the interaction intensity between FgGPI and Fgß2, thereby increasing FgGPI expression and accelerating DON biosynthesis in carbendazim-resistant strains. Taken together, our work revealed the indispensable role of FgGPI in fungal developmental processes, DON biosynthesis, and pathogenicity in F. graminearum.

6.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529574

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Observational retrospective data suggests that an artificial cycle frozen embryo transfer may be associated with a higher risk of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy when compared with a natural cycle frozen embryo transfer among women with regular ovulatory cycles. The corpus luteum, which is not present in the artificial frozen cycles, is at least partly responsible for this poor obstetrical outcome. However, an artificial cycle is the most frequently used regimen for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing frozen embryo transfer. Whether the risk of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy could be mitigated by employing a physiological frozen embryo transfer protocol that lead to the development of a corpus luteum for PCOS patients remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of letrozole use during frozen embryo transfer cycles on obstetric and perinatal outcomes of singleton and twin pregnancies compared with artificial frozen cycles among women with PCOS. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study involved women with PCOS who had undergone artificial frozen cycles or letrozole-stimulated frozen cycles during the period from 2010 to 2018 at a tertiary care center. The primary outcome was the incidence of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to control for the relevant confounders. RESULTS: A total of 2,427 women with PCOS were included for final analysis. Of these, 1,168 women underwent artificial cycles and 1,259 women underwent letrozole treatment, of which 25% of women treated by letrozole alone and 75% of women receiving letrozole combined with gonadotropins. After controlling for maternal characteristics and treatment variables, no significant differences were noticed regarding gestational diabetes mellitus, abnormal placentation and preterm premature rupture of membranes between groups in both singleton and twin pregnancies. For birth outcomes, the prevalence of preterm birth, perinatal death and birthweight outcomes were all comparable between groups in both singletons and twins. However, singleton pregnancies resulting from letrozole-stimulated cycles had a lower risk of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy than those conceived by artificial cycles (adjusted odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.98). Further, a decreased risk of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy was also seen among women with twin deliveries resulting from letrozole-stimulated cycles versus artificial cycles (adjusted odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.87). In addition, the caesarean section rate was significantly lower for singletons but not for twins in the letrozole group in comparison to pregnancies from the artificial cycle group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50-0.78 and adjusted odds ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.65-2.23, respectively). CONCLUSION: In women with PCOS undergoing frozen embryo transfer, letrozole use for endometrial preparation was associated with a lower risk of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy compared with artificial cycles. Our findings provided a foundation that the increased risk of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy associated with frozen embryo transfer might be mitigated by the utilization of physiological endometrial preparation protocols that lead to the development of a corpus luteum, such as a mild ovarian stimulation cycle for oligo- or anovulatory women.

7.
Plant Cell ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570606

RESUMEN

How raffinose (Raf) family oligosaccharides (RFOs), the major translocated sugars in the vascular bundle in cucurbits, are hydrolyzed and subsequently partitioned has not been fully elucidated. By performing reciprocal grafting of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruits to branch stems, we observed that Raf was hydrolyzed in the fruit of cultivar watermelons but was backlogged in the fruit of wild ancestor species. Through a genome-wide association study (GWAS), the alkaline alpha-galactosidase ClAGA2 was identified as the key factor controlling stachyose (Sta) and Raf hydrolysis, and it was determined to be specifically expressed in the vascular bundle. Analysis of transgenic plants confirmed that ClAGA2 controls fruit Raf hydrolysis and reduces sugar content in fruits. Two SNPs within the ClAGA2 promoter affect the recruitment of the transcription factor ClNF-YC2 (nuclear transcription factor Y subunit C) to regulate ClAGA2 expression. Moreover, this study demonstrates that C. lanatus Sugars Will Eventually Be Exported Transporter 3 (ClSWEET3) and Tonoplast Sugar Transporter (ClTST2) participate in plasma membrane sugar transport and sugar storage in fruit cell vacuoles, respectively. Knocking out ClAGA2, ClSWEET3 and ClTST2 affected fruit sugar accumulation. Genomic signatures indicate that the selection of ClAGA2, ClSWEET3 and ClTST2 for carbohydrate partitioning led to the derivation of modern sweet watermelon from non-sweet ancestors during domestication.

8.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 77, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568123

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We compared the advantages and disadvantages of modified triangular anastomosis and tubular anastomosis for digestive tract reconstruction in patients undergoing laparoscopic-assisted radical resection of right colon cancer. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of 92 cases of laparoscopic-assisted resection of right colon cancer, treated from June 2017 to June 2018, at the Huai'an No. 1 People's Hospital in China. Patients were divided into a modified triangular anastomosis group (n = 33) and a tubular anastomosis group (n = 59). In the modified triangular anastomosis group, digestive tract reconstruction was conducted using side-to-side anastomosis of the ileo-transverse colon with a 60-mm linear stapler. The common entry hole was closed with a running suture. The tubular anastomosis group underwent end-to-side anastomosis of the ileo-transverse colon with a tubular stapler anchor placed at the end of the ileum. RESULTS: At baseline and perioperatively, there were no significant between-group differences in age, sex, body mass index, tumor location, pathological stage, or tumour size (P > 0.05). There were also no significant between-group differences in operation time, estimated blood loss, the number of harvested lymph nodes, the first postoperative flatulence time, hospitalisation time, or postoperative complications (P > 0.05); however, the total cost of hospitalization for the triangular anastomosis group was significantly lower than the tubular anastomosis group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Modified triangular anastomosis is a safe and feasible procedure for laparoscopic-assisted radical resection of right colon cancer. These results affirm the safety and effectiveness of total laparoscopic radical resection of right colon cancer. Given the equivalent outcomes between the two procedures, the modified triangular procedure may be more a more cost-effective option for clinical application.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Colon , Laparoscopía , Anastomosis Quirúrgica , China , Colectomía , Neoplasias del Colon/cirugía , Humanos , Periodo Posoperatorio , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588019

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease. In recent years, machine learning methods have been widely used on analysis of neuroimage for quantitative evaluation and computer-aided diagnosis of AD or prediction on the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. In this study, we aimed to develop a new deep learning method to detect or predict AD in an efficient way. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We proposed a densely connected convolution neural network with connection-wise attention mechanism to learn the multi-level features of brain MR images for AD classification. We used the densely connected neural network to extract multi-scale features from pre-processed images, and connection-wise attention mechanism was applied to combine connections among features from different layers to hierarchically transform the MR images into more compact high-level features. Furthermore, we extended the convolution operation to 3D to capture the spatial information of MRI. The features extracted from each 3D convolution layer were integrated with features from all preceding layers with different attention, and were finally used for classification. Our method was evaluated on the baseline MRI of 968 subjects from ADNI database to discriminate (1) AD versus healthy subjects, (2) MCI converters versus healthy subjects, and (3) MCI converters versus non-converters. RESULTS: The proposed method achieved 97.35% accuracy for distinguishing AD patients from healthy control, 87.82% for MCI converters against healthy control, and 78.79% for MCI converters against non-converters. Compared with some neural networks and methods reported in recent studies, the classification performance of our proposed algorithm was among the top ranks and improved in discriminating MCI subjects who were in high risks of conversion to AD. CONCLUSIONS: Deep learning techniques provide a powerful tool to explore minute but intricate characteristics in MR images which may facilitate early diagnosis and prediction of AD.

10.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(1): 79-83, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565406

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of early goal directed sedation (EGDS) on cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with acute brain injury. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 108 patients with acute brain injury admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Third Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital from January 2015 to December 2019 were enrolled. According to the patient's condition, dexmedetomidine contraindication and tolerance, and combined with the wishes of patients' families, they were divided into EGDS group and on-demand sedation group. Routine treatments such as surgery, mechanical ventilation, dehydration and reduction of intracranial pressure with mannitol, hemostasis or antiplatelets therapy were given according to the patient's condition. All patients were continuously given sufentanil by intravenous infusion for analgesia. Patients in the EGDS group were sedated by continuously intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine (0.2-0.7 µg×kg-1×min-1) for 72 consecutive hours. Patients in the on-demand sedation group received intravenous bolus of propofol (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) when treatments were interfered due to agitation. Hemodynamic indexes [heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), intracranial pressure (ICP)], sedation indexes [bispectral index (BIS)], severity indexes [acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Glasgow coma score (GCS)] and cerebral oxygen metabolism indexes [jugular venous blood lactate (Lac), jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2), cerebral arterial oxygen content (CaO2), cerebral extraction rate of oxygen (CERO2), cerebral arteriovenous blood oxygen content difference (a-vDO2)] were compared between the two groups before sedation and at 24, 48 and 72 hours of sedation. RESULTS: (1) Among the 108 patients, 3 patients with cerebral hemorrhage received secondary surgery or had worsening of cerebral hernia were excluded. 105 patients were enrolled in the study, including 54 patients in the EGDS group and 51 patients in the on-demand sedation group. There were no statistically significant differences in gender, age, type of craniocerebral injury, GCS score, proportion of mechanical ventilation and operation ratio between the two groups. (2) Compared with before sedation, Lac, CERO2 and a-vDO2 of both groups gradually reduced over time of sedation while SjvO2 and CaO2 were gradually higher. Those changes were more quickly in the EGDS group, Lac, SjO2, CERO2 and a-vDO2 significantly improved at 24 hours of sedation compared with those before sedation. Above indexes at 72 hours of sedation in the EGDS group were obviously better than those in the on-demand sedation group [Lac (mmol/L): 1.81±0.31 vs. 2.19±0.12, SjvO2: 0.714±0.125 vs. 0.683±0.132, CaO2 (mL/L): 201.21±15.25 vs. 179.65±14.07, CERO2: (27.87±3.66)% vs. (33.00±2.58)%, a-vDO2 (mL/L): 44.32±5.68 vs. 48.57±8.22, all P < 0.05]. (3) Compared with before sedation, HR, MAP and ICP decreased in the two groups over time while CPP, BIS and GCS score showed increasing trend, especially more quickly in the EGDS group, HR at 24 hours of sedation, MAP, CPP, BIS and GCS score at 48 hours significantly improved as compared with those before sedation. Hemodynamics and sedation related parameters and GCS score at 72 hours of sedation in the EGDS group were significantly better than those in the on-demand sedation group [HR (bpm): 70.69±7.80 vs. 79.85±9.77, MAP (mmHg, 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 84.23±8.76 vs. 89.97±9.48, ICP (mmHg): 14.23±8.76 vs. 15.97±9.48, BIS: 60.56±24.58 vs. 56.86±33.44, GCS score: 8.06±3.63 vs. 7.86±2.98, all P < 0.05]. The APACHE II scores were significantly reduced at 72 hours of sedation in both groups as compared with those before sedation, while there was no statistical difference between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the on-demand sedation, EGDS could reduce cerebral oxygen metabolism, improve the coma degree, and reduce the severity of the disease in patients with acute brain injury.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Encefálicas , Objetivos , Análisis de los Gases de la Sangre , Humanos , Oxígeno , Estudios Prospectivos
11.
Laryngoscope ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571378

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the efficacy of initial sirolimus therapy in the treatment of intractable head and neck lymphatic malformations (LMs) in children. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective open-label study. METHODS: In this study, Twenty-seven children diagnosed with LMs were given oral sirolimus as primary treatment over a minimum 6-month trial. The major parameter to evaluate therapeutic outcome was percentage of lesion volume change compared with baseline. Average serum sirolimus concentrations, and adverse side effects, were monitored throughout the study period. RESULTS: Fifteen girls and twelve boys, average age 27 months (16 days-171 months), constitute the study group. Treatment was deemed effective for twenty-three participants, judged as fair in seven, good in nine, and excellent in seven. Two patients had minimal improvement, and two had increased volume to some degree. Effectiveness differed among LMs subtypes with responsiveness of macrocystic LMs exceeding that of microcystic LMs (P < .05). Adverse drug reactions totaled 27 events in ten patients, the majority being mild with upper respiratory infections being most common. CONCLUSIONS: Sirolimus as initial therapy is effective in decreasing lesion volume in intractable LMs in head and neck region, especially in macrocystic subtypes. Although most cases cannot be completely cured, side effects are few and tolerable. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV Laryngoscope, 2021.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573896

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this reseach was to compare the effects of different periodic periodontal scaling protocols on the periodontal health of adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances by assessing the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in gingival crevicular fluid and periodontal clinical indexes in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Forty-eight adolescents were divided into 3 groups according to the interval of periodontal scaling (group A: once a month; group B: once every 3 months; group C: once every 6 months). The AST and ALP levels in the gingival crevicular fluid were measured before orthodontic treatment (T0) and at 1 (T1), 3 (T2), 6 (T3), and 9 (T4) months during orthodontic treatment. Periodontal clinical indexes (plaque index [PI], gingival index [GI], and probing depth) were also assessed. RESULTS: At T2, significantly lower AST and ALP levels were observed in group A than in groups B and C (P <0.05). At T3 and T4, lower AST and ALP levels were detected in groups A and B than in group C (P <0.05), and there was no significant difference between the A and B groups at T4 (P >0.05). At T2, the PI and GI were increased in groups B and C compared with group A, and at T3 and T4, significantly lower PI and GI values were observed in groups A and B than in group C (P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal scaling promotes the oral hygiene of adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment, and periodontal scaling protocols administered monthly and once every 3 months are better for controlling periodontal health than treatments administered once every 6 months.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(4): 048002, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576668

RESUMEN

We perform combined x-ray tomography and shear force measurements on a cyclically sheared granular system with highly transient behaviors, and obtain the evolution of microscopic structures and macroscopic shear force during the shear cycle. We explain the macroscopic behaviors of the system based on microscopic processes, including particle level structural rearrangement and frictional contact variation. Specifically, we show how contact friction can induce large structural fluctuations and cause significant shear dilatancy effect for granular materials, and we also construct an empirical constitutive relationship for the macroscopic shear force.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(8)2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593919

RESUMEN

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced by atmospheric oxidation of primary emitted precursors is a major contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution worldwide. Observations during winter haze pollution episodes in urban China show that most of this SOA originates from fossil-fuel combustion but the chemical mechanisms involved are unclear. Here we report field observations in a Beijing winter haze event that reveal fast aqueous-phase conversion of fossil-fuel primary organic aerosol (POA) to SOA at high relative humidity. Analyses of aerosol mass spectra and elemental ratios indicate that ring-breaking oxidation of POA aromatic species, leading to functionalization as carbonyls and carboxylic acids, may serve as the dominant mechanism for this SOA formation. A POA origin for SOA could explain why SOA has been decreasing over the 2013-2018 period in response to POA emission controls even as emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have remained flat.

15.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929154, 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594036

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Malignant giant cell tumor of bone (MGCTB) is a rare histological type of malignant tumor that has a high tendency for local relapse and distant metastasis and ultimately leads to a poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological features, identify the prognostic factors, and construct nomograms for patients with MGCTB. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients with MGCTB that was histologically diagnosed between 1973 and 2014 were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database as a training set. Survival analysis, Lasso regression, and random forests were used to identify the prognostic variables and establish the nomograms for patients with MGCTB, while an external cohort of 37 patients from our own institution and an external cohort of 163 patients from the SEER database in 2016 were used to validate the generalization performance of the nomograms. RESULTS In total, univariate and multivariable analysis indicated that age, International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, historical stage, primary site, surgery information, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic variables for overall survival or cause-specific survival. Nomograms based on the multivariable models were built to predict survival, and we achieved a higher C-index in subsequent multidimensional validation. CONCLUSIONS Age, historical stage, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic variables for overall survival and cause-specific survival of MGCTB patients, and radiotherapy and primary site were independent prognostic variables for overall survival. Nomograms based on significant clinicopathological features and clinical experience can be effective in predicting the probability of survival for MGCTB patients.

16.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594887

RESUMEN

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine is a promising candidate in cancer immunotherapy as it can encode tumor-associated antigens with an excellent safety profile. Unfortunately, the inherent instability of RNA and translational efficiency are major limitations of RNA vaccine. Here, we report an injectable hydrogel formed with graphene oxide (GO) and polyethylenimine (PEI), which can generate mRNA (ovalbumin, a model antigen) and adjuvants (R848)-laden nanovaccines for at least 30 days after subcutaneous injection. The released nanovaccines can protect the mRNA from degradation and confer targeted delivering capacity to lymph nodes. The data show that this transformable hydrogel can significantly increase the number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and subsequently inhibit the tumor growth with only one treatment. Meanwhile, this hydrogel can generate an antigen specific antibody in the serum which in turn prevents the occurrence of metastasis. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of the PEI-functionalized GO transformable hydrogel for effective cancer immunotherapy.

17.
Plant J ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595139

RESUMEN

Elucidating the biochemical and molecular basis of premature abscission in fruit crops should help develop strategies to enhance fruit set and yield. Here, we report that LcERF2 contributes to differential abscission rates and responses to ethylene in Litchi chinensis. Reduced LcERF2 expression in litchi was observed to reduce fruit abscission, concurrent with enhanced pedicel growth with increased levels of hexoses, particularly galactose, as well as the pectin abundance in cell wall. Ecoptic expression of LcERF2 in Arabidopsis thaliana caused enhanced petal abscission, together with retarded plant growth and reduced pedicel galactose and pectin contents. Transcriptome analysis indicated that LcERF2 modulates the expression of genes involved in cell wall modification. Yeast one-hybrid, dual-luciferase reporter, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays all demonstrated that a UDP-glucose 4-epimerase gene (LcUGE) was the direct downstream target of LcERF2. This result was further supported by a significant reduction in expression of the A. thaliana homolog, AtUGE2-4, in response to LcERF2 over-expression. Significantly reduced pedicel diameter and enhanced litchi fruit abscission were observed in response to the LcUGE silencing. We conclude that LcERF2 mediates fruit abscission by orchestrating cell wall metabolism and thus pedicel growth, in part by repressing the expression of LcUGE.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562131

RESUMEN

The intelligent prosthesis driven by electromyography (EMG) signal provides a solution for the movement of the disabled. The proper position of EMG sensors can improve the prosthesis's motion recognition ability. To exert the amputee's action-oriented ability and the prosthesis' control ability, the EMG spatial distribution and internal connection of the prosthetic wearer is analyzed in three kinds of movement conditions: appropriate angle, excessive angle, and angle too small. Firstly, the correlation characteristics between the EMG channels are analyzed by mutual information to construct a muscle functional network. Secondly, the network's features of different movement conditions are analyzed by calculating the characteristic of nodes and evaluating the importance of nodes. Finally, the convergent cross-mapping method is applied to construct a directed network, and the critical muscle groups which can reflect the user's movement intention are determined. Experiment shows that this method can accurately determine the EMG location and simplify the distribution of EMG sensors inside the prosthetic socket. The network characteristics of key muscle groups can distinguish different movements effectively and provide a new strategy for decoding the relationship between limb nerve control and body movement.

19.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600260

RESUMEN

Bladder cancer (BC) is a common genitourinary malignancy worldwide. However, the molecular pathogenesis of BC remains unclear. The current study conducted bioinformatic analyses to discover key genes involved in BC progression. A total of 375 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened in the GEO database and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, which were further evaluated by the core level in the protein-protein interaction network. RAC3 (Rac family small GTPase 3), one of the top hub genes, was focused on for its gene expression and prognostic value in BC. Immunohistochemical assays indicated elevated RAC3 levels in BC tissues compared with normal tissues. Overexpression of RAC3 expression was closely associated with poor differentiation (p = 0.035), advanced TNM stage (p = 0.014), lymph metastasis (p = 0.033), and recurrence (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses demonstrated that high RAC3 expression indicated poor survival of BC patients, which could serve as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 3.159, p = 0.023) and disease-free survival (HR = 4.633, p = 0.002). Moreover, bioinformatic analyses indicated that RAC3 might be correlated with malignant phenotypes and immune infiltration of BC. Taken together, RAC3 could be a novel prognostic biomarker for BC.

20.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 48(2): 195-206, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600395

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical outcomes and healthcare utilization in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors with and without diabetes. SAMPLE & SETTING: CRC survivors (N = 3,287) were identified from a statewide electronic health record database using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. Data were extracted on adults aged 21 years or older with an initial diagnosis of stage II or III CRC with diabetes present before CRC diagnosis or no diagnosis of diabetes (control). METHODS & VARIABLES: ICD codes were used to extract diabetes diagnosis and clinical outcome variables. Healthcare utilization was determined by encounter type. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multivariable logistic, and Cox regression. RESULTS: CRC survivors with diabetes were more likely to develop anemia and infection than CRC survivors without diabetes. In addition, CRC survivors with diabetes were more likely to utilize emergency resources sooner than CRC survivors without diabetes. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Oncology nurses can facilitate the early identification of high-risk survivor groups, reducing negative clinical outcomes and unnecessarily high healthcare resource utilization in CRC survivors with diabetes.

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