Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.638
Filtrar
1.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2100994, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196125

RESUMEN

Macrophage activation determines the fate of biomaterials implantation. Though researches have shown that fibronectin (FN) is highly involved in integrin-induced macrophage activation on biomaterials, the mechanism of how nanosized structure affects macrophage behavior is still unknown. Here, titanium dioxide nanotube structures with different sizes are fabricated to investigate the effects of nanostructure on macrophage activation. Compared with larger sized nanotubes and smooth surface, 30 nm nanotubes exhibit considerable lesser pro-inflammatory properties on macrophage differentiation. Confocal protein observation and molecular dynamics simulation show that FN displays conformation changes on different nanotubes in a feature of "size-confined," which causes the hiding of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) domain on other surfaces. The matching size of nanotube with FN allows the maximum exposure of RGD on 30 nm nanotubes, activating integrin-mediated focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase γ (PI3Kγ) pathway to inhibit nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. In conclusion, this study explains the mechanism of nanostructural-biological signaling transduction in protein and molecular levels, as well as proposes a promising strategy for surface modification to regulate immune responses on bioimplants.

2.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216836

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To review our use of pharmacologic provocative testing (PT) and intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) during endovascular embolization for eloquent arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and better define their clinical utility. METHODS: This is a prospective study between June 1, 2018 and June 1, 2020. Prior to endovascular embolization, superselective PTs with propofol injection were performed. The PT results were assessed by IONM. The impact of different doses of propofol on PT results was compared. RESULTS: Under General anesthesia, 111 PTs and 48 endovascular embolizations were performed in 22 patients. For the initial 48 PTs before planned embolization, 38 PTs with 5 mg propofol were negative and repeat PTs with 7 mg propofol were also negative. For the remaining 10 positive PTs, the microcatheter tip was adjusted to an alternative site until repeat PTs were negative to assure a subsequent safe embolization. In comparison, 5-mg-propofol PT results were consistent with 7-mg-propofol PTs in larger-sized feeders while for smaller-sized vessels, 3-mg-propofol PT results were consistent with 5-mg-propofol PTs. The negative predictive value of PTs was 97.9% (47/48) as only one of the 48 embolizations with negative PTs resulted in postoperative hemorrhage and none of the other 47 embolizations led to a postoperative neurologic deficit. CONCLUSIONS: PTs and IONM are valuable techniques to predict neurological deficits and improve procedure decision making during AVM embolization under general anesthesia. A 5 mg dose of propofol may be sufficient for PTs in larger-sized feeders while a 3 mg dose may be sufficient in smaller-sized feeding branches.

3.
Biochem Genet ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224040

RESUMEN

The callose synthase enzyme genes (Cals) generally plays an important role in resisting to environmental stresses as well as in regulating the microspore development of higher plant. However till now, few researches about ZmCals genes have been reported in maize. In this study, ten ZmCals genes were identified, and they are distributed on four chromosomes in maize. All ZmCals proteins contain Glucan-synthase-domain and Fks1-domain. RNA-seq data from public databases were analyzed and the result suggested that ZmCals involved in the development of various tissues, and a strong expression presented especially in young tissue. qRT-PCR analysis shown that most of ZmCals are highly expressed in root, stem and leaf at jointing stage (V6 stage) with maize inbred line B73. Seven out of 10 ZmCals genes display higher expression during maize anther development especially from stage 6 to stage 8b, the dynamic accumulation process of callose is also observed during these period with aniline blue staining. Above results indicated multiple ZmCals may participate in the deposition of callose in maize anther. Therefore, ZmCals are necessary not only for reproductive organ but also for nutritive organ during maize growth and development. This study lays certain foundation for further investigating the roles of the callose synthase enzymes genes in maize.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312250

RESUMEN

In adult insects, as in vertebrates, the gut epithelium is a highly regenerative tissue that can renew itself rapidly in response to changing inputs from nutrition, the gut microbiota, ingested toxins, and signals from other organs. Because of its cellular and genetic similarities to the mammalian intestine, and its relevance as a target for the control of insect pests and disease vectors, many researchers have used insect intestines to address fundamental questions about stem cell functions during tissue maintenance and regeneration. In Drosophila, where most of the experimental work has been performed, not only are intestinal cell types and behaviors well characterized, but numerous cell signaling interactions have been detailed that mediate gut epithelial regeneration. A prevailing model for regenerative responses in the insect gut invokes stress sensing by damaged enterocytes (ECs) as a principal source for signaling that activates the division of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and the growth and differentiation of their progeny. However, extant data also reveal alternative mechanisms for regeneration that involve ISC-intrinsic functions, active culling of healthy epithelial cells, enhanced EC growth, and even cytoplasmic shedding by infected ECs. This article reviews current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in gut regeneration in several insect models (Drosophila and Aedes of the order Diptera, and several Lepidoptera).

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 126072, 2021 09 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229408

RESUMEN

In this work, a temperature-sensitive block polymer PDEA-b-P(DEA-co-AM) was synthesized and then introduced into the preparation of a smart Ru(Ⅲ) imprinted polymer (Ru-IIP) to selectively adsorption Ru(Ⅲ) first. Then the waste Ru-IIP was converted into a catalyst in-situ for recycle. The structure and morphology of the prepared polymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, Scanning electron microscope, BET surface area and Thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorption properties of the synthesized smart material were investigated in terms of adsorption pH, adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm. Results documented that the optimal adsorption temperature and pH were 35 °C and 1.5 respectively, the maximum adsorption capacity was 0.153 mmol/g, and the adsorption processes of Ru-IIP were more suitable to be expressed by pseudo-first-order kinetic and Langmuir model. The selectivity studied in different binary mixed solutions showed that Ru-IIP has good selectivity, and reusability results showed that Ru-IIP still maintains a good adsorption effect after 8 cycles. In addition, the waste Ru-IIP, a Ru(Ⅲ) remained waste sample was employed as the catalyst for the synthesis of imines, and result showed the mass of adsorbent would reduce after the completion of catalysis, which could not only catalyze the reaction but also reduce pollution.

6.
J Environ Manage ; 296: 113259, 2021 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256295

RESUMEN

Water shortage and quality deterioration are plaguing people all over the world. Providing sustainable and affordable treatment solutions to these problems is a need of the hour. Electrocoagulation (EC) technology is a burgeoning alternative for effective water treatment, which offers the virtues such as compact equipment, easy operation, and low sludge production. Compared to other water purification technologies, EC shows excellent removal efficacy for a wide range of contaminants in water and has great potential for addressing limitations of conventional water purification technologies. This review summarizes the latest development of principle, characteristics, and reactor design of EC. The design of key parameters including reactor shape, power supply type, current density, as well as electrode configuration is further elaborated. In particular, typical water treatment systems powered by renewable energy (solar photovoltaic and wind turbine systems) are proposed. Further, this review provides an overview on expanded application of EC in the removal of some newly concerned pollutants in recent years, including arsenite, perfluorinated compounds, pharmaceuticals, oil, bacteria, and viruses. The removal efficiency and mechanisms of these pollutants are also discussed. Finally, future research trend and focus are further recommended. This review can bridge the large knowledge gap for the EC application that is beneficial for environmental researchers and engineers.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(28)2021 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260400

RESUMEN

Understanding the potential of nanomaterials (NMs) to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), as a function of their physicochemical properties and subsequent behavior, fate, and adverse effect beyond that point, is vital for evaluating the neurological effects arising from their unintentional entry into the brain, which is yet to be fully explored. This is not only due to the complex nature of the brain but also the existing analytical limitations for characterization and quantification of NMs in the complex brain environment. By using a fit-for-purpose analytical workflow and an in vitro BBB model, we show that the physiochemical properties of metallic NMs influence their biotransformation in biological matrices, which in turn modulates the transport form, efficiency, amounts, and pathways of NMs through the BBB and, consequently, their neurotoxicity. The data presented here will support in silico modeling and prediction of the neurotoxicity of NMs and facilitate the tailored design of safe NMs.

8.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-8, 2021 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286657

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Emerging researches has evaluated whether fruit and vegetable consumption reduce the risk of prostate cancer. However, the conclusions of published articles remained confusing. Thus, we conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to confirm the relationship of fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of prostate cancer. METHOD: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) up to September 1, 2020. We finally included 17 cohort studies related to fruit or vegetable intake after rigid quality assessment and checking references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews. Newcastle-Ottawa scale was adopted to assess the quality of studies and random effect model with RR and 95% CI were used to assess the risk. RESULTS: No significant relationship was found between fruit consumption (RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.94-1.05) and vegetable consumption (RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.94-1.02) and the risk of prostate cancer. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was identified. CONCLUSION: Our updated meta-analysis demonstrated that fruit and vegetable consumption can barely reduce the risk of prostate cancer with several limitations. Further clinical and basic researches are eagerly awaited to confirm our results and clarify the potential biological mechanisms.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288877

RESUMEN

Abnormal behaviors in industrial systems may be early warnings on critical events that may cause severe damages to facilities and security. Thus, it is important to detect abnormal behaviors accurately and timely. However, the anomaly detection problem is hard to solve in practice, mainly due to the rareness and the expensive cost to get the labels of the anomalies. Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have achieved state-of-the-art performance in practice for many unsupervised and semisupervised learning tasks. We present a new deep generative model, Latent Enhanced regression/classification Deep Generative Model (LEDGM), for the anomaly detection problem with multidimensional data. Instead of using two-stage decoupled models, we adopt an end-to-end learning paradigm. Instead of conditioning the latent on the class label, LEDGM conditions the label prediction on the learned latent so that the optimization goal is more in favor of better anomaly detection than better reconstruction that the previously proposed deep generative models have been trained for. Experimental results on several synthetic and real-world small- and large-scale datasets demonstrate that LEDGM can achieve improved anomaly detection performance on multidimensional data with very sparse labels. The results also suggest that both labeled anomalies and labeled normal are valuable for semisupervised learning. Generally, our results show that better performance can be achieved with more labeled data. The ablation experiments show that both the original input and the learned latent provide meaningful information for LEDGM to achieve high performance.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291912

RESUMEN

The multifunctional combined nanoplatform has a wide application prospect in the synergistic treatment of cancer. Nevertheless, the traditional treatment of phototherapy is limited by the catalytic nanomaterial itself, so the effect is not satisfactory. Here, the arris of the anisotropic truncated octahedral Au (TOh Au) was coated with noble metal Pt to form a spatial separation structure, which enhanced the local surface plasmonic resonance and thus boosted the photocatalytic effect. In this system, the highly efficient photocatalysis provides a strong guarantee for oncotherapy. On the one hand, the structure of arris deposition adequately improves the efficiency of photothermal conversion, which substantially improves the effectiveness of photothermal therapy. On the other hand, in situ oxygen production of Pt ameliorates tumor hypoxia, and through the O2 self-production and sales mode, the growth and development of tumor were inhibited. Meanwhile, under the enhanced photocatalysis, more O2 were produced, which greatly evolved the treatment effect of photodynamic therapy. In the end, the addition of hyaluronic acid can specifically target osteosarcoma cells while improving the retention time and biocompatibility of the material in the body. Thus, the nanocomposite shows superexcellent synergistic enhancement of photothermal conversion efficiency and photodynamic capability in vitro and in vivo, which provides a potential possibility for osteosarcoma cure.

11.
Steroids ; 174: 108887, 2021 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237315

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Activin A has been reported to play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of activin A on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced foam cell formation and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7. METHODS: The effects of activin A on Dil-labeled ox-LDL uptake were examined by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. The mRNA and protein levels of cholesterol receptors were analyzed by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. To investigate whether activin receptor-like kinase 4 (Alk4) is required for activin A-mediated cellular effects, cells were pre-treated with SB-431542. The involvement of Smad2, Smad3 and Smad4 was confirmed by transfection with specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). RESULTS: Activin A inhibits ox-ldl-induced foam cell formation and class A scavenger receptors (SR-A) expression, while up-regulates ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ABCG1 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Pre-treatment with SB-431542 abolished activin A-mediated anti-atherogenic effect. Knockdown of Smad2 reversed activin A-induced inhibition of ox-LDL uptake and SR-A expression. However, knockdown of Smad3 or Smad4 did not have such effect. Meanwhile, knockdown of either Smad2, Smad3 or Smad4 reversed the activin A-induced up-regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides novel evidence that activin A may exert anti-atherogenic effects through Alk4-Smad signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

12.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 588532, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257537

RESUMEN

Background and Objective: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive malignant tumor of the digestive system worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and aflatoxin exposure are predominant causes of HCC in China, whereas hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and alcohol intake are likely the main risk factors in other countries. It is an unmet need to recognize the underlying molecular mechanisms of HCC in China. Methods: In this study, microarray datasets (GSE84005, GSE84402, GSE101685, and GSE115018) derived from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were analyzed to obtain the common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by R software. Moreover, the gene ontology (GO) functional annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed by using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, and hub genes were identified by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) and Cytoscape, respectively. The hub genes were verified using Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), UALCAN, and Kaplan-Meier Plotter online databases were performed on the TCGA HCC dataset. Moreover, the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database was used to verify candidate genes' protein expression levels. Results: A total of 293 common DEGs were screened, including 103 up-regulated genes and 190 down-regulated genes. Moreover, GO analysis implied that common DEGs were mainly involved in the oxidation-reduction process, cytosol, and protein binding. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis presented that common DEGs were mainly enriched in metabolic pathways, complement and coagulation cascades, cell cycle, p53 signaling pathway, and tryptophan metabolism. In the PPI network, three subnetworks with high scores were detected using the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plugin. The top 10 hub genes identified were CDK1, CCNB1, AURKA, CCNA2, KIF11, BUB1B, TOP2A, TPX2, HMMR and CDC45. The other public databases confirmed that high expression of the aforementioned genes related to poor overall survival among patients with HCC. Conclusion: This study primarily identified candidate genes and pathways involved in the underlying mechanisms of Chinese HCC, which is supposed to provide new targets for the diagnosis and treatment of HCC in China.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204175

RESUMEN

In recent years, problems such as water quality deterioration, saltwater invasion, and low oxygen have appeared in estuaries all over the world. The Minjiang River in Fujian, as a typical tidal estuary area, is facing these thorny problems. In this paper, the effects of topography and hydrologic evolution on the water age and water quality of the lower reaches of the Minjiang River were simulated by building a hydrodynamic and water quality model. The results show that: (1) It was found that the riverbed incision of the lower reaches of the Minjiang River led to the overall decline of river water level, the increase of river volume, and the increase of downstream water age, which eventually led to the decrease of dissolved oxygen (DO) and the deterioration of water quality in the downstream from Shuikou to Baiyantan. However, the decline of topography led to the increase of tidal volume in the estuary, the enhancement of the dilution effect of oxygen-rich water bodies in the open sea, and the increase of DO in the lower reaches of Baiyantan. (2) Under no tidal action, the concentration of pollutants in the water of the North Channel increased, the DO decreased, and the DO decreased from Baiyantan to the offshore water. After the enhancement of tidal action, the dilution of oxygen-enriched water from the offshore water increased, and the DO increased. (3) The hydrological and water quality characteristics of the upper part of the lower reaches of the Minjiang River were mainly controlled by topography, runoff, and pollutant discharge, which were more affected by the tidal current transport operation and pollutant discharge near the open sea. In recent decades, the deterioration of water quality and the aggravation of saltwater intrusion in the Minjiang River were closely related to the serious topographic downcutting. The results provide a scientific basis for revealing the deterioration of estuary water quality and long-term management of the estuary.


Asunto(s)
Estuarios , Calidad del Agua , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ríos , Agua
14.
Phytopathology ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261340

RESUMEN

Mulberry crinkle leaf virus (MCLV) is a novel geminivirus identified from mulberry. The pathogenicity and the natural vector of transmission have remained unknown for MCLV. Here, the infectious clones which consisted of the complete tandem dimeric genome of MCLV in a binary vector were constructed and agro-inoculated into mulberry seedlings. The results showed that the infectious clones of MCLV were systemically infectious to mulberry, but the infected mulberry plants did not show any virus-like symptoms. The natural transmission vectors of MCLV were also identified from possible vector insects occurring on the MCLV-infected mulberry plants. The vector ability of Tautoneura mori Matsumura was identified through inoculation assay. Three of 21 (14.3%) seedlings inoculated with T. mori collected from MCLV-infected mulberry plants grown naturally were detected to be MCLV-positive 50 days post-inoculation. These MCLV-positive mulberry plants did also not show any virus-like symptoms. Collectively, it is suggested that MCLV is infectious to mulberry plants, but MCLV alone does not induce symptoms. The leafhopper T. mori was for the first time determined experimentally to be a transmission vector of MCLV.

15.
J Med Chem ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282902

RESUMEN

Glycosylation and fatty acid modification are promising strategies to improve peptide performance. We previously studied glycosylation and fatty acid modification of the anticancer peptide R-lycosin-I. In this study, we further investigated the co-modification of fatty acids and monosaccharides in R-lycosin-I. A glucose derivative was covalently coupled to the ε-amino group of the Lys residues of the lipopeptide R-C12, which was derived from R-lycosin-I modified with dodecanoic acid, and obtained seven glycolipid peptides. They exhibited different cytotoxicity profiles, which may be related to the changes in physicochemical properties and binding ability to glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Among them, R-C12-4 exhibited the highest cytotoxicity and improved selectivity. A further study demonstrated that R-C12-4 showed significant cytotoxicity and antimetastasis activity in murine melanoma cells, melanoma spheroids, and animal models. Our results indicated that the glucose derivative modification position plays important roles in glucose-lipopeptide conjugates, and R-C12-4 might be a promising lead for developing anticancer drugs.

16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 6919-6926, 2021 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282920

RESUMEN

The present work reports highly efficient flexible and reabsorption-free scintillators based on two zero-dimensional (0D) organic copper halides (TBA)CuX2 (TBA = tetrabutylammonium cation; X = Cl, Br). The (TBA)CuX2 exhibit highly luminescent green and sky-blue emissions peaked at 510 and 498 nm, with large Stokes shifts of 224 and 209 nm and high photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of 92.8% and 80.5% at room temperature for (TBA)CuCl2 and (TBA)CuBr2 single crystals (SCs), respectively. Interestingly, above room temperature, their PLQYs increase with temperature and reach near unity at 320 and 345 K for (TBA)CuCl2 and (TBA)CuBr2, respectively. The excellent properties originate from self-trapped excitons (STEs) in individual [CuX2]- quantum rods, which is demonstrated by the temperature-dependent PL, ultrafast transient absorption (TA) combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The (TBA)CuX2 scintillators show bright radioluminescence (RL), impressive linear response to dose rate in a broad range, and high light yields. Their potential application in X-ray imaging is demonstrated by using (TBA)CuX2 composite scintillation screens. Importantly, flexible scintillators are demonstrated to be superior than flat ones for imaging nonplanar objects by conformally coating, which produce accurate images with negligible distortion.

17.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(8): 253, 2021 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263415

RESUMEN

MicroRNA-21 is an important biomarker of tumor early prediction and metastasis, and its accurate detection is of great significance for tumor diagnosis and treatment. It will be a meaningful work to combine the detection of RNA with chemotherapy and photothermal therapy on the same composite material. Herein, we designed a multifunctional nanocomposite based on gold nanorods (AuNRs), making use of microRNA-triggered drug release and near-infrared photothermal effect, which has been developed for cancer therapy and microRNA-21detection. Firstly, the AuNRs with photothermal effect were synthesized as carriers for drug delivery. Then the surface of gold nanorods was modified by functional DNA chains to provide an efficient site for doxorubicin (DOX) loading. Finally, folic acid was introduced to achieve the targeted treatment of MCF-7 cells. The microRNA competed with the double-stranded DNA, resulting in the release of DOX and the recovery of fluorescence signal located at 595 nm with an excitation of 488 nm effectively. The nano-biosensor could not only achieve dual-function of diagnosis and treatment of cancer cells, but also accomplish the detection of microRNA in tumor cells. It showed a high selectivity for microRNA-21 determination with a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.1 nM from the linear relationship from 1.0 × 10-5 M to 5.0 × 10-7 M. This scheme provides an outstanding strategy for cell imaging, treatment, and detection, which serves as a promising candidate in the field of biomedical research.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148963, 2021 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265616

RESUMEN

The occurrence of environmental persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the environment has attracted a great deal of research attention. Although the major sources of EPFRs in the environment is diesel engine exhaust, the study on the emission characteristics of EPFRs at different working conditions is still very limited. An integrated engine system was adopted to simulate different working conditions of various altitudes and engine speeds, and to examine the emission process of a diesel engine. The results suggested that low engine speed and high altitude are generally associated with high PM10 emission with more stable and ordered structures. Based on the analysis of PAHs on solid and gas phases, PM10 generated from diesel engine at altitude higher than 2000 m may contain substantial amounts of PAHs embedded inside particles, but not adsorbed on the surface. EPFRs signal up to 1.66 × 1020 spins/g were detected in PM10 of the diesel exhaust. Higher engine speed and lower altitude were associated with stronger EPR signals on PM10. However, the accumulated EPR signal intensities after consuming 1 L of diesel were higher at lower engine speed and higher altitude, suggesting higher overall risks. A positive correlation between R value (signal strength ratio of D and G peaks on the Raman spectra) and EPFRs intensity indicated that the EPR signals were associated with the defects of carbon structure. EPFRs intensity in particles showed no significant change in dark, and over 70% of the EPR signals survived under UV light in a one-month aging simulation. The strong persistence of these EPFRs suggested their potential long lasting and widespread risks, which should be investigated extensively.

19.
Adv Biol (Weinh) ; : e2100637, 2021 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288601

RESUMEN

The increasing exploitation of graphene-based materials (GBMs) is driven by their unique properties and structures, which ignite the imagination of scientists and engineers. At the same time, the very properties that make them so useful for applications lead to growing concerns regarding their potential impacts on human health and the environment. Since GBMs are inert to reaction, various attempts of surface functionalization are made to make them reactive. Herein, surface functionalization of GBMs, including those intentionally designed for specific applications, as well as those unintentionally acquired (e.g., protein corona formation) from the environment and biota, are reviewed through the lenses of nanotoxicity and design of safe materials (safe-by-design). Uptake and toxicity of functionalized GBMs and the underlying mechanisms are discussed and linked with the surface functionalization. Computational tools that can predict the interaction of GBMs behavior with their toxicity are discussed. A concise framing of current knowledge and key features of GBMs to be controlled for safe and sustainable applications are provided for the community.

20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 269: 118268, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294300

RESUMEN

Major obstacles in the development of nanoformulations as efficient drug delivery systems are the rapid clearance from blood circulation and lysosomal entrapment. To overcome these problems, a polysaccharide-based core-shell type charge-switchable nanoformulation (CS-LA-DMMA/CMCS/PAMAM@DOX) is constructed to improve antitumor efficacy of DOX. By applying carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) as bridge polymer and negatively charged chitosan-derivative as outer shell, the stability and pH-sensitivity of this nanoformulation is promisingly enhanced. Furthermore, the positively charged PAMAM@DOX could escape from lysosomes via "proton sponge effect" and "cationic-anionic interaction with lysosome membranes". Admirable cellular uptake and high apoptosis/necrosis rate were detected in this study. In vitro assays demonstrate that the CS-LA-DMMA/CMCS/PAMAM@DOX was internalized into HepG2 cells predominantly via the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Excitingly, in vivo studies showed that high accumulation of CS-LA-DMMA/CMCS/PAMAM@DOX in tumor tissue led to enhanced tumor inhibition. Compared with free DOX, the tumor inhibition rate of nanoformulation was improved up to 226%.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...