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1.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792187

RESUMEN

Facing considerable challenges associated with aging and dementia, China urgently needs an evidence-based health-care system for prevention and management of dementia. The Beijing Aging Brain Rejuvenation Initiative (BABRI) is a community-based cohort study initiated in 2008 that focuses on asymptomatic stages of dementia, aims to develop community-based prevention strategies for cognitive impairment, and provides a platform for scientific research and clinical trials. Thus far, BABRI has recruited 10,255 participants (aged 50 and over, 60.3% female), 2021 of whom have been followed up at least once at a 2- or 3-year interval. This article presents aims and study design of BABRI; summarizes preliminary behavioral and neuroimaging findings on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and results of clinical trials on MCI; and discusses issues concerning early prevention in community, MCI diagnosis methods, and applications of database of aging and dementia. BABRI is proposed to build a systematic framework on brain health in old age.

2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 640993, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791242

RESUMEN

Background: Increases in global travel and trade are changing arbovirus distributions worldwide. Arboviruses can be introduced by travelers, migratory birds, or vectors transported via international trade. Arbovirus surveillance in field-collected mosquitoes may provide early evidence for mosquito-borne disease transmission. Methods: During the seasons of high mosquito activity of 2018, 29,285 mosquitoes were sampled from seven sentinel sites in various insect regions. The mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR for alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and orthobunyaviruses. Results: We detected three strains of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), five strains of Getah virus (GETV), and 45 strains of insect-specific flaviviruses including Aedes flavivirus (AeFV, 1), Chaoyang virus (CHAOV, 1), Culex flavivirus (CxFV, 17), Hanko virus (HANKV, 2), QuangBinh virus (QBV, 22), and Yunnan Culex flavivirus (YNCxFV, 2). Whole genomes of one strain each of GETV, CxFV, CHAOV, and AeFV were successfully amplified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the new JEV strains detected in the Shanghai and Hubei Provinces belong to the GI-b strain and are phylogenetically close to the NX1889 strain (MT134112) isolated from a patient during a JE outbreak in Ningxia in 2018. GETVs were found in Inner Mongolia, Hubei, and Hainan and belonged to Group III. They were closely related to strains isolated from swine. HANKV was recorded for the first time in China and other ISFVs were newly detected at several sentinel sites. The bias-corrected maximum likelihood estimation value for JEV in Jinshan, Shanghai was 4.52/1,000 (range 0.80-14.64). Hence, there is a potential risk of a JEV epidemic in that region. Conclusion: GI-b is the dominant circulating JEV genotype in nature and poses a health risk to animals and humans. The potential threat of widespread GETV distribution as a zoonosis is gradually increasing. The present study also disclosed the dispersion and host range of ISFVs. These findings highlight the importance of tracing the movements of the vectors and hosts of mosquito-borne pathogens in order to prevent and control arbovirus outbreaks in China.

3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 634909, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791270

RESUMEN

Background: Cyberbullying is well-recognized as a severe public health issue which affects both adolescents and children. Most extant studies have focused on national and regional effects of cyberbullying, with few examining the global perspective of cyberbullying. This systematic review comprehensively examines the global situation, risk factors, and preventive measures taken worldwide to fight cyberbullying among adolescents and children. Methods: A systematic review of available literature was completed following PRISMA guidelines using the search themes "cyberbullying" and "adolescent or children"; the time frame was from January 1st, 2015 to December 31st, 2019. Eight academic databases pertaining to public health, and communication and psychology were consulted, namely: Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, ProQuest, Communication & Mass Media Complete, CINAHL, and PsycArticles. Additional records identified through other sources included the references of reviews and two websites, Cyberbullying Research Center and United Nations Children's Fund. A total of 63 studies out of 2070 were included in our final review focusing on cyberbullying prevalence and risk factors. Results: The prevalence rates of cyberbullying preparation ranged from 6.0 to 46.3%, while the rates of cyberbullying victimization ranged from 13.99 to 57.5%, based on 63 references. Verbal violence was the most common type of cyberbullying. Fourteen risk factors and three protective factors were revealed in this study. At the personal level, variables associated with cyberbullying including age, gender, online behavior, race, health condition, past experience of victimization, and impulsiveness were reviewed as risk factors. Likewise, at the situational level, parent-child relationship, interpersonal relationships, and geographical location were also reviewed in relation to cyberbullying. As for protective factors, empathy and emotional intelligence, parent-child relationship, and school climate were frequently mentioned. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of cyberbullying has increased significantly in the observed 5-year period, and it is imperative that researchers from low and middle income countries focus sufficient attention on cyberbullying of children and adolescents. Despite a lack of scientific intervention research on cyberbullying, the review also identified several promising strategies for its prevention from the perspectives of youths, parents and schools. More research on cyberbullying is needed, especially on the issue of cross-national cyberbullying. International cooperation, multi-pronged and systematic approaches are highly encouraged to deal with cyberbullying.

4.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793234

RESUMEN

Fischdiabietane A (1), a novel asymmetric diterpenoid dimer with a unique nonacyclic 6/6/6/5/7/6/6/6/6 ring system possessing unprecedented 2-oxaspiro[4.5]decane-1-one and 2-oxabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane frameworks in D/E/F rings, was isolated from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic techniques, electronic circular dichroism calculations, and X-ray diffraction experiments. Notably, 1 is the first abietane-type [4 + 2] Diels-Alder dimer identified from nature. The IC50 of 1 against T47D cells was about sixfold higher than that of cisplatin (the positive control). Furthermore, 1 induced apoptosis in T47D cells through the activation of caspase-3 and the degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.

5.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 347, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795650

RESUMEN

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is one of the most common kinds of endocrine-related cancer and has a heterogeneous prognosis. Metabolic reprogramming is one of the hallmarks of cancers. Aberrant glucose metabolism is associated with malignant biological behavior. However, the functions and mechanisms of glucose metabolism genes in PTC are not fully understood. Thus, data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database were analyzed, and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) was determined to be a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for PTCs. The research objective was to investigate the expression of LDHA in PTCs and to explore the main functions and relative mechanisms of LDHA in PTCs. Higher expression levels of LDHA were found in PTC tissues than in normal thyroid tissues at both the mRNA and protein levels. Higher expression levels of LDHA were correlated with aggressive clinicopathological features and poor prognosis. Moreover, we found that LDHA not only promoted PTC migration and invasion but also enhanced tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we revealed that the metabolic products of LDHA catalyzed induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process by increasing the relative gene H3K27 acetylation. Moreover, LDHA knockdown activated the AMPK pathway and induced protective autophagy. An autophagy inhibitor significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of FX11. These results suggested that LDHA enhanced the cell metastasis and proliferation of PTCs and may therefore become a potential therapeutic target for PTCs.

6.
Langmuir ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797243

RESUMEN

Hydrophobically modified polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (XPOSS) are linked to one end of water-soluble poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to synthesize giant amphiphiles (XPOSS-PEO). XPOSS-PEO exhibit an interesting surface activation capacity owing to the synergy of the soft PEO segment and hydrophobic XPOSS when they are spread on the water surface and compressed by the barrier. The monolayers of XPOSS-PEO at the air-water interface are transferred onto the silicon substrate at different surface pressures using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film deposition protocol. The modification of the POSS head significantly changes the crystallinity of the PEO tail, which affects the LB film morphologies of the giant amphiphiles. When the POSS are modified with fluorinated agents, the assembled LB films show a fractal growth pattern, but when the POSS are decorated with a pure alkane chain, the fractal growth pattern does not present in the resulting LB film.

7.
J Microsc ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797758

RESUMEN

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) integrated with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) are scientifically used to characterize the morphology, chemical composition and elemental distribution of powder samples. Upon an accessible analytical instrument, the specimen preparation method directly affects the quality and accuracy of the observation and analysis. In this paper, three preparation methods were utilized to characterize the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based materials, and their strengths as well as the limitations are discussed. Thus, a characterization strategy was established by comparing the obtained three measurement together with the derived sample information. To the end, we proposed to acquire the backscattered electron (BSE) images of nanoscale heavier nanoclusters grafted CNTs, typically for wide functional applications such as energy conversion and storage. Our proposed optimum method works particularly on the clarification of powder samples with small particle sizes and low atomic numbers, which underscores the involved contribution of SEM backscattered electron images. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 639735, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796105

RESUMEN

Background: The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) combined with interleukin (IL)-6 on admission day and the 28-day mortality of septic patients. Material and Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective study. Patients with presumed sepsis were included. We observed the correlation of studied biomarkers (NLR, IL-6, PCT, and CRP) and the severity scores (APACHE II and SOFA scores) by plotting scatter plots. The relationships of the studied biomarkers and 28-day mortality were evaluated by using Cox regression model, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and reclassification analysis. Results: A total of 264 patients diagnosed with sepsis were enrolled. It was revealed that IL-6 had the strongest correlation with both APACHE II and SOFA scores, followed by the NLR and PCT, and there was no obvious correlation between CRP and the illness severity. NLR and IL-6 were independent predictors of the 28-day mortality in septic patients in the Cox regression model [NLR, odds ratio 1.281 (95% CI 1.159-1.414), P < 0.001; IL-6, odds ratio 1.017 (95% CI 1.005-1.028), P=0.004]. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of NLR, IL-6 and NLR plus IL-6 (NLR_IL-6) was 0.776, 0.849, and 0.904, respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed that the levels of NLR and IL-6 were significantly higher in the deceased patients with sepsis. NLR and IL-6 appeared to be independent predictors of 28-day mortality in septic patients. Moreover, NLR combined with IL-6 could dramatically enhance the prediction value of 28-day mortality.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146730, 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798882

RESUMEN

Previous studies demonstrated that microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) disrupted testosterone (T) synthesis, but the underlying mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. This study aims to explore the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated GCN2/eIF2α activation on MC-LR-induced disruption of testicular T synthesis. Male mice were intraperitoneally injected with MC-LR (0 or 20 µg/kg) daily for 5 weeks. Serum T was decreased in MC-LR-exposed mice (0.626 ± 0.122 vs 24.565 ± 8.486 ng/ml, P < 0.01), so did testicular T (0.667 ± 0.15 vs 8.317 ± 1.387 ng/mg protein, P < 0.01). Steroidogenic proteins including StAR, CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 were downregulated in MC-LR-exposed mouse testes and TM3 cells. Mechanistically, p-GCN2 and p-eIF2α were elevated in MC-LR-exposed TM3 cells. GCN2iB attenuated MC-LR-induced GCN2 and eIF2α phosphorylation in TM3 cells. Moreover, GCN2iB attenuated MC-LR-induced downregulation of steroidogenic proteins in TM3 cells. Further analysis found that cellular ROS were elevated and HO-1 was upregulated in MC-LR-exposed TM3 cells. PBN rescued MC-LR-induced activation of GCN2/eIF2α signaling in TM3 cells. Additionally, pretreatment with PBN attenuated MC-LR induced downregulation of steroidogenic proteins and synthases in TM3 cells. These results suggest that ROS-mediated GCN2/eIF2α activation contributes partially to MC-LR-caused downregulation of steroidogenic proteins and synthases. The present study provides a new clue for understanding the mechanism of MC-LR-induced endocrine disruption.

10.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800478

RESUMEN

The capillary action between two solid surfaces has drawn significant attention in micro-objects manipulation. The axisymmetric capillary bridges and capillary forces between a spherical concave gripper and a spherical particle are investigated in the present study. A numerical procedure based on a shooting method, which consists of double iterative loops, was employed to obtain the capillary bridge profile and bring the capillary force subject to a constant volume condition. Capillary bridge rupture was characterized using the parameters of the neck radius, pressure difference, half-filling angle, and capillary force. The effects of various parameters, such as the contact angle of the spherical concave gripper, the radius ratio, and the liquid bridge volume on the dimensionless capillary force, are discussed. The results show that the radius ratio has a significant influence on the dimensionless capillary force for the dimensionless liquid bridge volumes of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 when the radius ratio value is smaller than 10. The effectiveness of the theorical approach was verified using simulation model and experiments.

11.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800645

RESUMEN

Phenolic foams (PFs) are lightweight (<200 kg/m3), high-quality, and inexpensive thermal insulation materials whose heat and fire resistance are much better than those of foam plastics such as polyurethane and polystyrene. They are especially suitable for use as insulation in chemical, petroleum, construction, and other fields that are prone to fires. However, PFs have poor mechanical properties, poor abrasion resistance, and easy pulverization. In this paper, a polyurethane prepolymer was treated with an isocyanate, and then the isocyanate-terminated polyurethane prepolymer and poplar powder were used to prepare modified lignin-based phenolic foams (PUPFs), which improved the abrasion resistance and decreased the pulverization of the foam. The foam composites were comprehensively evaluated by characterizing their chemical structures, surface morphologies, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, and flame-retardant properties. The pulverization ratio was reduced by 43.5%, and the thermal insulation performance and flame-retardancy (LOI) were improved. Compared with other methods to obtain lignin-based phenolic foam composites with anti-pulverization and flame-retardant properties, the hybrid reinforcement of foam composites with an isocyanate-terminated polyurethane prepolymer and poplar powder offers a novel strategy for an environmentally friendly alternative to the use of woody fibers.

12.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803036

RESUMEN

This paper fabricates a carbon nanotube (CNT ) film-reinforced mesophase pitch-based carbon (CNTF/MPC) nanocomposite by using a hot-pressing carbonization method. During the carbonization, the stacked aromatic layers tended to rearrange into amorphous carbon, and subsequently generated crystalline carbon in the matrix. The continuous entangled CNT networks were efficiently densified by the carbon matrix though optimized external pressure to obtain the high-performance nanocomposites. The CNTF/MPC@1300 displayed a stable electrical conductivity up to 841 S/cm at RT-150 °C. Its thermal conductivity in the thickness direction was 1.89 W/m∙K, an order of magnitude higher than that of CNT film. Moreover, CNTF/MPC@1300 showed a mass retention of 99.3% at 1000 °C. Its tensile strength was 2.6 times the CNT film and the tensile modulus was two orders of magnitude higher. Though the CNTF/MPC nanocomposites exhibited brittle tensile failure mode, they resisted cyclic bending without damage. The results demonstrate that the CNTF/MPC nanocomposite has potential application in multi-functional temperature resistance aerospace structures.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801345

RESUMEN

Previous research indicates that cybervictimization can lead to adolescent Internet addiction; however, there is a gap in the knowledge about the mediating and moderating variables facilitating this relationship. This study examines the role of rejection sensitivity as a mediator in this relationship and the role of parent-adolescent communication as a moderator for this mediation effect among Chinese adolescents. Participants were 1006 adolescents (M = 13.16 years, SD = 0.67), who completed the questionnaires anonymously. The questionnaires assessed the four variables of interest. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling were used for data analysis. The results show that the positive association between cybervictimization and adolescent Internet addiction is mediated by rejection sensitivity. Moreover, this indirect effect is stronger for adolescents with low parent-adolescent communication than for those with high parent-adolescent communication.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806816

RESUMEN

Cell wall biosynthesis is a complex biological process in plants. In the rapidly growing cells or in the plants that encounter a variety of environmental stresses, the compositions and the structure of cell wall can be dynamically changed. To constantly monitor cell wall status, plants have evolved cell wall integrity (CWI) maintenance system, which allows rapid cell growth and improved adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions without the perturbation of cell wall organization. Salt stress is one of the abiotic stresses that can severely disrupt CWI, and studies have shown that the ability of plants to sense and maintain CWI is important for salt tolerance. In this review, we highlight the roles of CWI in salt tolerance and the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of CWI under salt stress. The unsolved questions regarding the association between the CWI and salt tolerance are discussed.

15.
Clin Nucl Med ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826568

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: A 59-year-old woman with newly diagnosed pulmonary nodules underwent both 18F-FDG and 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT. Both studies showed similarly increased uptake in pneumonia. However, only 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT showed increased uptake in splenic hemangioma, whereas FDG uptake in the splenic lesion is low. Our case illustrates that splenic hemangioma can also reveal increased FAPI activity.

16.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; : 105832, 2021 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826934

RESUMEN

The potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications of oligonucleotides have attracted great attention. However, natural antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs) are susceptible to degradation by intracellular and extracellular nucleases. In this study, we developed a new class of prodrug-type ASONs, which typically bear the hairpin-end conformation with a responsive disulphide switch. The hairpin-end conformation provides protection against nuclease degradation, and, upon stimulation, the molecule converts into the native antisense structure upon entering a tumour microenvironment due to the high concentration of glutathione. The structure-stability relationship analysis indicated that the location, size and composition of the hairpin structure affect the anti-degradation capability. One optimal prodrug-type ASON, O2, exhibited a higher stability against nucleases in serum-containing medium as well as an increased anti-tumour activity both in vitro and in vivo, compared to the linear control. This work presents a new strategy for the design of ASON drugs with novel structures and offers insight on the stability and biological efficacy of general nucleic acid-based therapeutics.

17.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(3): 343-7, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798323

RESUMEN

The defensive function of defensive qi in Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor 's Inner Classic) includes the effect of immune system of human body against the pathogen invasion. According to the basic research, it is believed that the circulation of defensive qi in meridian is interpreted as the flow of interstitial fluid in the low hydraulic resistance channel that is overlapped with lymphatic vessels, transporting the antigen information from interstitium to lymph nodes and generating adaptive immune response. Enhancing meridian circulation and promoting the flow of interstitial fluid may improve the immunity, which demonstrating the thought of traditional Chinese meridian as "pathogens failing to invade the body when the anti-pathogenic qi is strong enough inside".


Asunto(s)
Meridianos , Qi , Humanos , Medicina China Tradicional
18.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(2): 591-595, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812436

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To test the anticoagulation functions, perform the genetic diagnosis and analyze the clinical characteristics in a family with combined heterozygous genetic variants of PROC and PROS1. METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from all the family members. Hematological phenotypes and activity of anticoagulant factors were analyzed. Target genes were amplified by PCR from DNA isolated from peripheral blood, and then were analyzed by Sanger DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Many members in the family displayed the combined genetic variants in protein C and protein S, and six family members accompanied by deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The influences of genetic and secondary factors on the incidence of venous thrombosis in the family members were analyzed. The results showed that in this family, carriers of combined protein C and protein S gene defects had a higher incidence of VTE, but acquired factors still played a key role in the eventual thrombotic symptoms. CONCLUSION: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disease, the combined genetic heterozygous mutations of protein C and S is an important genetic factor, and the clinical phenotype show a high heterogenicity, the secondary factors contribute to the VTE incidence.


Asunto(s)
Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombosis de la Vena , Heterocigoto , Humanos , Mutación , Proteína C/genética , Proteína S/genética , Factores de Riesgo , Trombosis de la Vena/genética
19.
Contemp Clin Trials ; : 106378, 2021 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823296

RESUMEN

Efficient identification of the optimal dose and dosing scheme is one of the most critical and challenging tasks in early-phase oncology trials. The results are far-reaching because advancing a sub-optimal dose to late-stage development may not only jeopardize patients' safety or fail to deliver desired efficacy, but also be costly to sponsors as refined doses must be evaluated further before seeking regulatory approval. A good dose-escalation design is anticipated to yield high accuracy of selecting the correct dose while using fewer patients and keeping the trial duration short. Recently, treating a single patient at each lower dose level until certain events are triggered to switch to larger cohorts has gained much popularity. We name this approach "Single Patient Acceleration" (SPA), which is essentially a variant of the Accelerated Titration Design (ATD) by Simon et al. [25]. Although literature on novel dose-escalation methods is abundant in the past decade, there is a surprisingly lack of research on evaluating the ATD/SPA framework. In this article, we conduct comprehensive simulations to evaluate the performance of dose-escalation designs with or without SPA, and show that SPA improves design efficiency with similar or better accuracy to those without the "single patient" component under certain circumstances (e.g., slow initial enrollment, or the true maximum tolerated dose is at higher candidate dose levels). Potential safety concerns as a cost of efficiency improvement are also investigated in a quantitative manner to illustrate a comprehensive benefit-risk profile of SPA. Practical considerations and recommendations in using SPA are also discussed.

20.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824459

RESUMEN

Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1)/PD-1 checkpoint extensively serves as a central mediator of immunosuppression. A tumor-promoting role for abundant PD-L1 in several cancers is revealed. However, the importance of PD-L1 and how the PD-L1 expression is controlled in breast cancer remains obscure. Here, the mechanisms of controlling PD-L1 at the transcription and protein acetylation levels in promoting breast cancer growth are presented. Overexpressed PD-L1 accelerates breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. RNA-seq uncovers that PD-L1 can induce some target genes affecting many cellular processes, especially cancer development. In clinical breast cancer tissues and cells, PD-L1 and HBXIP are both increased, and their expressions are positively correlated. Mechanistic exploration identifies that HBXIP stimulates the transcription of PD-L1 through co-activating ETS2. Specifically, HBXIP induces PD-L1 acetylation at K270 site through interacting with acetyltransferase p300, leading to the stability of PD-L1 protein. Functionally, depletion of HBXIP attenuates PD-L1-accelerated breast tumor growth. Aspirin alleviates breast cancer via targeting PD-L1 and HBXIP. Collectively, the findings display new light into the mechanisms of controlling tumor PD-L1 and broaden the utility for PD-L1 as a target in breast cancer therapy.

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