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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(6): 101124, 2021 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951593

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to characterize the bacterial diversity of cecal microbiota in broilers related to breast phenotype, diet, and genetic strain. Broilers from 2 genetic strains (120 birds/strain) were fed a control diet (15 birds/pen) and an amino acid reduced diet (15 birds/pen, digestible lysine, total sulfur amino acids, and threonine reduced by 20% compared to the control diet). At 8 wk of age, 4 male broilers with normal breast (NB, 1 chick per pen) and 4 male broilers with woody breast (WB, 1 chick per pen) were selected for each treatment (strain × diet). The DNA of cecal samples was extracted and the 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and analyzed. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the alpha diversity of gut microbiota between 2 phenotypes (NB vs. WB), 2 strains, or 2 diets (control vs. reduced). However, principal coordinate analysis plots (beta diversity) revealed that there were composition differences in samples between the 2 phenotypes (P = 0.001) and the 2 diets (P = 0.024). The most abundant phyla in all samples were Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. There were differences (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.05) in bacterial relative abundance between phenotypes and between diet treatments, but not (FDR > 0.05) between the 2 genetic strains. Selenomonas bovis (12.6%) and Bacteroides plebeius (12.3%) were the top 2 predominant bacteria in the ceca of WB birds; however, the relative abundances of these 2 bacteria were only 5.1% and 1.2% in NB birds, respectively. Function analysis predicted that the metabolic activities differed (q < 0.05) only between phenotypes. The microbiota of WB birds was characterized as reduced glycolysis and urea cycle but increased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles, sugar degradation, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides biosynthesis. Further studies are needed to investigate if WB incidence could be reduced by regulating gut microbiota and the potential mechanism that leads to decreased WB incidence.

3.
Microb Genom ; 7(5)2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952389

RESUMEN

The virulence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus is variable depending on its virulence determinants. A V. parahaemolyticus strain, in which the virulence is governed by the pirA and pirB genes, can cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimps. Some V. parahaemolyticus that are non-AHPND strains also cause shrimp diseases and result in huge economic losses, while their pathogenicity and pathogenesis remain unclear. In this study, a non-AHPND V. parahaemolyticus, TJA114, was isolated from diseased Penaeus vannamei associated with a high mortality. To understand its virulence and adaptation to the external environment, whole-genome sequencing of this isolate was conducted, and its phenotypic profiles including pathogenicity, growth characteristics and nutritional requirements were investigated. Shrimps following artificial infection with this isolate presented similar clinical symptoms to the naturally diseased ones and generated obvious pathological lesions. The growth characteristics indicated that the isolate TJA114 could grow well under different salinity (10-55 p.p.t.), temperature (23-37 °C) and pH (6-10) conditions. Phenotype MicroArray results showed that this isolate could utilize a variety of carbon sources, amino acids and a range of substrates to help itself adapt to the high hyperosmotic and alkaline environments. Antimicrobial-susceptibility test showed that it was a multidrug-resistant bacterium. The whole-genomic analysis showed that this V. parahaemolyticus possessed many important functional genes associated with multidrug resistance, stress response, adhesions, haemolysis, putative secreted proteases, dedicated protein secretion systems and a variety of nutritional metabolic mechanisms. These annotated functional genes were confirmed by the phenotypic profiles. The results in this study indicated that this V. parahaemolyticus isolate possesses a high pathogenicity and strong environmental adaptability.

4.
Plant Cell ; 33(3): 603-622, 2021 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955492

RESUMEN

In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), breeding efforts have focused intensively on improving grain yield and quality. For quality, the content and composition of seed storage proteins (SSPs) determine the elasticity of wheat dough and flour processing quality. Moreover, starch levels in seeds are associated with yield. However, little is known about the mechanisms that coordinate SSP and starch accumulation in wheat. In this study, we explored the role of the endosperm-specific NAC transcription factor TaNAC019 in coordinating SSP and starch accumulation. TaNAC019 binds to the promoters of TaGlu-1 loci, encoding high molecular weight glutenin (HMW-GS), and of starch metabolism genes. Triple knock-out mutants of all three TaNAC019 homoeologs exhibited reduced transcript levels for all SSP types and genes involved in starch metabolism, leading to lower gluten and starch contents, and in flour processing quality parameters. TaNAC019 directly activated the expression of HMW-GS genes by binding to a specific motif in their promoters and interacting with the TaGlu-1 regulator TaGAMyb. TaNAC019 also indirectly regulated the expression of TaSPA, an ortholog of maize Opaque2 that activates SSP accumulation. Therefore, TaNAC019 regulation of starch- and SSP-related genes has key roles in wheat grain quality. Finally, we identified an elite allele (TaNAC019-BI) associated with flour processing quality, providing a candidate gene for breeding wheat with improved quality.

5.
Environ Res ; : 111291, 2021 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965391

RESUMEN

Substituted diphenylamine antioxidants (SDPAs) are additives used in various commodities and are commonly found in environmental samples. However, limited information was available on their fate and removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper reports the results on the occurrence and removal efficiency of ten selected SDPAs in six WWTPs equipped with different treatment processes in Northeast China. Quite similar distributions of different SDPA congeners were shown in the studied WWTPs, with ditertoctyl-diphenylamine (C8/C8-DPA), tertbutyl-tertoctyl-diphenylamine (C4/C8-DPA), and tertoctyl-diphenylamine (C8-DPA) being always dominant in the influent, effluent, and sludge (total > 80%). A cyclic activated sludge system combined with a V-shape filter achieved the highest removal efficiencies of SDPAs among various treatment processes. Styrenated-diphenylamine1 (S-DPA1) (96 ± 10%), C8-DPA (95 ± 5.5 %), and distyrenated-diphenylamine1 (DS-DPA1) (94 ± 9.3%) showed high and stable removal efficiencies, whereas C4/C8-DPA (85 ± 31%) and C8/C8-DPA (84 ± 62%) showed considerably varied removal efficiencies. Per-day discharges of SDPAs to the receiving environment through effluent and sludge were estimated as 828 ± 350 and 5578 ± 5196 mg, respectively. A median of 85% of the initial mass loadings of SDPAs was found in the sludge samples, suggesting that the observed removal of SDPAs in the WWTPs was caused by their sorption to the sludge, rather than biodegradation/transformation. This work provides an overall description of the occurrence, fate, and mass balance of SDPAs in WWTPs in Northeast China and highlights a new emission route to the environment via WWTPs.

6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 658922, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968062

RESUMEN

Substantial studies indicate that autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens (TAAbs) arise in early stage of lung cancer (LC). However, since single TAAbs as non-invasive biomarkers reveal low diagnostic performances, a panel approach is needed to provide more clues for early detection of LC. In the present research, potential TAAbs were screened in 150 serum samples by focused protein array based on 154 proteins encoded by cancer driver genes. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to verify and validate TAAbs in two independent datasets with 1,054 participants (310 in verification cohort, 744 in validation cohort). In both verification and validation cohorts, eight TAAbs were higher in serum of LC patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, diagnostic models were built and evaluated in the training set and the test set of validation cohort by six data mining methods. In contrast to the other five models, the decision tree (DT) model containing seven TAAbs (TP53, NPM1, FGFR2, PIK3CA, GNA11, HIST1H3B, and TSC1), built in the training set, yielded the highest diagnostic value with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.897, the sensitivity of 94.4% and the specificity of 84.9%. The model was further assessed in the test set and exhibited an AUC of 0.838 with the sensitivity of 89.4% and the specificity of 78.2%. Interestingly, the accuracies of this model in both early and advanced stage were close to 90%, much more effective than that of single TAAbs. Protein array based on cancer driver genes is effective in screening and discovering potential TAAbs of LC. The TAAbs panel with TP53, NPM1, FGFR2, PIK3CA, GNA11, HIST1H3B, and TSC1 is excellent in early detection of LC, and they might be new target in LC immunotherapy.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9491, 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947884

RESUMEN

Obesity increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and other metabolic diseases. We intended to compare three different anthropometric indicators of obesity, in predicting the incidence of cardiovascular events in Chinese type 2 diabetes. Beijing Community Diabetes Study was a prospective multi-center study conducted in Beijing community health centers. Type 2 diabetes patients from fourteen community health centers were enrolled at baseline. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular events. The upper quartile of neck circumference (NC) was set as greater NC. A total of 3299 diabetes patients were enrolled. In which, 941 (28.52%) had cardiovascular disease at baseline. Logistic analysis showed that central obesity (waist circumference (WC) above 90 cm in men and 85 cm in women) and greater NC were all related to baseline cardiovascular disease (adjusted OR = 1.49, and 1.55). After 10-year follow-up, 340 (10.31%) had cardiovascular events. Compared with patients without cardiovascular events, those having cardiovascular events had higher BMI, larger WC and NC. Cox regression analysis showed that greater WC and NC were all associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events (adjusted HR = 1.41, and 1.38). A higher NC and WC might increase the risk of cardiovascular events by about 40% in type 2 diabetes patients in Beijing communities.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963991

RESUMEN

The high levels of parabens (including methyl-, ethyl- and propyl congeners), triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) used every year in China might be a problem to the typical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This study addresses measurements of parabens, TCC and TCS Northern China WWTP and a modelling assessment on the occurrence, fate and removal pathways in WWTP. Per-capita emissions of the three parabens, TCC and TCS to the WWTP were estimated as 0.41, 0.11 and 0.07 mg/d. After the wastewater treatment processes, 94, 92 and 87% of parabens, TCC and TCS were removed. The major removal pathway of parabens was biodegradation while that of TCC and TCS were sorption to sludge. Computer simulations on the fate processes of parabens, TCC and TCS in the WWTP using the SimpleTreat 4.0 model suggested the model could generally reproduce the measurements with root mean squared errors (RMSEs) of less than 10 ng/L. However, the model underestimated the removal of TCC and TCS from water to sludge in the primary tank. These discrepancies were attributed to the uncertainty of the predicted organic carbon-water partition coefficients (Koc) to which the modelling results are highly sensitive. The model predictions using updated Koc became more accurate and RMSEs of TCC and TCS were reduced by 40 and 80%, respectively. The modelling assessment suggests that the SimpleTreat, as a generic model to simulate chemical fate processes in WWTPs, has the potential to be applied to other similar WWTPs in China for estimating environmental releases of parabens, TCC and TCS at a larger spatial scale.

9.
J Vis Exp ; (170)2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970148

RESUMEN

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common Gram-negative bacteria causing neonatal meningitis. The occurrence of bacteremia and bacterial penetration through the blood-brain barrier are indispensable steps for the development of E. coli meningitis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) represent the major bactericidal mechanisms of neutrophils to destroy the invaded pathogens. In this protocol, the time-dependent intracellular ROS production in neutrophils infected with meningitic E. coli was quantified using fluorescent ROS probes detected by a real-time fluorescence microplate reader. This method may also be applied to the assessment of ROS production in mammalian cells during pathogen-host interactions.

10.
Nat Plants ; 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972713

RESUMEN

Maintaining microbiome structure is critical for the health of both plants and animals. By re-screening a collection of Arabidopsis mutants affecting root immunity and hormone crosstalk, we identified a FERONIA (FER) receptor kinase mutant (fer-8) with a rhizosphere microbiome enriched in Pseudomonas fluorescens without phylum-level dysbiosis. Using microbiome transplant experiments, we found that the fer-8 microbiome was beneficial. The effect of FER on rhizosphere pseudomonads was largely independent of its immune scaffold function, role in development and jasmonic acid autoimmunity. We found that the fer-8 mutant has reduced basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in roots and that mutants deficient in NADPH oxidase showed elevated rhizosphere pseudomonads. The addition of RALF23 peptides, a FER ligand, was sufficient to enrich P. fluorescens. This work shows that FER-mediated ROS production regulates levels of beneficial pseudomonads in the rhizosphere microbiome.

11.
J Immunol ; 206(10): 2453-2467, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941659

RESUMEN

The detection of intracellular nucleic acids is a fundamental mechanism of host defense against infections. The dysregulated nucleic acid sensing, however, is a major cause for a number of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we report that GTPase-activating protein SH3 domain-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) is critical for both intracellular DNA- and RNA-induced immune responses. We found that in both human and mouse cells, the deletion of G3BP1 led to the dampened cGAS activation by DNA and the insufficient binding of RNA by RIG-I. We further found that resveratrol (RSVL), a natural compound found in grape skin, suppressed both intracellular DNA- and RNA-induced type I IFN production through inhibiting G3BP1. Importantly, using experimental mouse models for Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, an autoimmune disorder found in humans, we demonstrated that RSVL effectively alleviated intracellular nucleic acid-stimulated autoimmune responses. Thus, our study demonstrated a broader role of G3BP1 in sensing different kinds of intracellular nucleic acids and presented RSVL as a potential treatment for autoimmune conditions caused by dysregulated nucleic acid sensing.

12.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 2021 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934328

RESUMEN

During continuous very-high-gravity (VHG) ethanol fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the process exhibits sustained oscillation in residual glucose, ethanol and biomass, raising a question: how do yeast cells respond to this phenomenon? In this work, the oscillatory behavior of yeast cells was characterized through transcriptome and metabolome analysis for one complete oscillatory period. By analyzing the accumulation of 26 intracellular metabolites and the expression of 90 genes related to central carbon metabolism and stress response, we confirmed that the process oscillation was attributed to intracellular metabolic oscillation with phase difference, and the expression of HXK1, HXT1,2,4 and PFK1 was significantly different from other genes in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, indicating that glucose transport and phosphorylation could be key nodes for regulating the intracellular metabolism under oscillatory conditions. Moreover, the expression of stress response genes was triggered and affected predominately by ethanol inhibition in yeast cells. This progress not only contributes to the understanding of mechanisms underlying the process oscillation observed for continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, but also provides insights for understanding unsteady state that might develop in other continuous fermentation processes operated under VHG conditions to increase product titers for robust production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Anal Chem ; 93(16): 6437-6445, 2021 04 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844518

RESUMEN

Exosomes are expected to be used as cancer biomarkers because they carry a variety of cancer-related proteins inherited from parental cells. However, it is still challenging to develop a sensitive, robust, and high-throughput technique for simultaneous detection of exosomal proteins. Herein, three aptamers specific to cancer-associated proteins (CD63, EpCAM, and HER2) are selected to connect gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as core with three different elements (Y, Eu, and Tb) doped up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as satellites, thereby forming three nanosatellite assemblies. The presence of exosomes causes specific aptamers to recognize surface proteins and release the corresponding UCNPs, which can be simultaneously detected by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It is worth noting that rare earth elements are scarcely present in living systems, which minimize the background for ICP-MS detection and exclude potential interferences from the coexisting species. Using this method, we are able to simultaneously detect three exosomal proteins within 40 min, and the limit of detection for exosome is 4.7 × 103 particles/mL. The exosomes from seven different cell lines (L-02, HepG2, GES-1, MGC803, AGS, HeLa, and MCF-7) can be distinguished with 100% accuracy by linear discriminant analysis. In addition, this analytical strategy is successfully used to detect exosomes in clinical samples to distinguish stomach cancer patients from healthy individuals. These results suggest that this sensitive and high-throughput analytical strategy based on ICP-MS has the potential to play an important role in the detection of multiple exosomal proteins and the identification of early cancer.

14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(8): 12067-12085, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793420

RESUMEN

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to drive the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) via the regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). We studied the miRNA expression profile of primary CSCs isolated from patients with CRC (pCRCSCs). Compared to pCRCSC-derived differentiated cells, 98 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in pCRCSCs. Target genes encoding pCRCSC-related miRNAs were identified using a combination of miRNA target databases and miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks from the same patient. The pCRCSC-related miRNA target genes were associated with pathways contributing to malignant phenotypes, including I-kappa B kinase/NF-kappa B signaling, signal transduction by p53 class mediator, Ras signaling, and cGMP-PKG signaling. The pCRCSC-related miRNA expression signature was independently associated with poor overall survival in both the training and validation cohorts. We have thus identified several pCRCSC-related miRNAs with oncogenic potential that could serve as prognostic biomarkers for CRC.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926193

RESUMEN

Aluminum is an important component for luminescence. However, the fluorescent aluminum complex with unambiguous structural information is still limited. Herein, we report a series of fluorescence aluminum oxo clusters (AlOCs). By introducing an additional coordination site to the aromatic conjugation ligand, cluster nuclearity increment and fluorescence variation are observed. Al8(OH)2(µ4-O)2(1-NA)2(OEt)16 (AlOC-41, 1-NA = 1-naphthoic acid, OEt = ethanol) is made up of two tetrahedral subunits. By introducing an additional coordination site to the aromatic conjugation ligand, we isolate a high nuclearity compound Al10(µ3-O)2(3-HNA)2(OEt)22 (AlOC-47, 3-HNA = 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid). Correspondingly, their luminescence performance is different (blue fluorescence in AlOC-41 and green in AlOC-47). Present herein is a platform to illustrate the relationship between synthesis, structure, and fluorescence properties.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25421, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847641

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the accuracy of ultrasonic grading in determining brain injury in very premature infants and analyze the affecting factors of these neonatal morbidity and mortality, and to investigate the relationship between serial cranial ultrasound (cUS) classification and Mental Developmental Index (MDI)/Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) in premature infants. METHODS: A total of 129 very preterm infants (Gestational Age ≤ 28 weeks) were subjected to serial cUS until 6 months or older and classified into 3 degrees in accordance with classification standards. The MDI and PDI (Bayley test) of the infants were measured until the infants reached the age of 24 months or older. The consistency between Term Equivalent Age (TEA)-cUS and TEA- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was calculated. Ordinal regression was performed to analyze the relationship among severe disease, early cUS classifications, psychomotor and mental development, and death. Operating characteristic curve were used to analyze the relationship between serial cUS grades and MDI/PDI scores. RESULTS: The mortality and survival rates of 129 very preterm infants were 32.8% and 67.3%, respectively. Among the 86 surviving infants, 20.9% developed mild cerebral palsy (CP) and 5.8% to 6.9% developed severe CP. The consistency between TEA-cUS and TEA-MRI was 88%. Grades 2 and 3 at first ultrasound were associated with adverse mental (OR = 3.2, OR = 3.78) and motor (OR = 2.25, OR = 2.59) development. cUS classification demonstrated high sensitivity (79%-96%). Among all cUS classifications, the specificity of the first cUS was the lowest and that of TEA-cUS was the highest (57% for PDI and 48% for MDI). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate and severe brain injury at first ultrasound is the most important factor affecting the survival rate and brain development of very premature infants. The cUS classification had high sensitivity and high specificity for the prediction of CP, especially in TEA-cUS.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Encefálicas/epidemiología , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/epidemiología , Recien Nacido Extremadamente Prematuro/crecimiento & desarrollo , Trastornos Psicomotores/epidemiología , Lesiones Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagen , Lesiones Encefálicas/mortalidad , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Ultrasonografía
17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803570

RESUMEN

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is prevalent and known to cause 5% of all cancers worldwide. The rare, cancer prone Fanconi anemia (FA) population is characterized by a predisposition to both head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and gynecological cancers, but the role of HPV in these cancers remains unclear. Prompted by a patient-family advocacy organization, oral HPV and HPV serological studies were simultaneously undertaken. Oral DNA samples from 201 individuals with FA, 303 unaffected family members, and 107 unrelated controls were tested for 37 HPV types. Serum samples from 115 individuals with FA and 55 unrelated controls were tested for antibodies against 9 HPV types. Oral HPV prevalence was higher for individuals with FA (20%) versus their parents (13%; p = 0.07), siblings (8%, p = 0.01), and unrelated controls (6%, p ≤ 0.001). A FA diagnosis increased HPV positivity 4.84-fold (95% CI: 1.96-11.93) in adjusted models compared to unrelated controls. Common risk factors associated with HPV in the general population did not predict oral positivity in FA, unlike unrelated controls. Seropositivity and anti-HPV titers did not significantly differ in FA versus unrelated controls regardless of HPV vaccination status. We conclude that individuals with FA are uniquely susceptible to oral HPV independent of conventional risk factors.

18.
Insect Sci ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811731

RESUMEN

The gut bacteria of honey bee recognized as a mutualistic partner with the insect host might have originated from a free-living or parasitic lifestyle. However, little is known about the genomic features underlying this lifestyle transition. Here we compared the genomes of bee gut bacteria Apibacter with their close relatives living in different lifestyles. We found that despite general reduction in the Apibacter genome, genes involved in amino acid synthesis and monosaccharide detoxification were retained, which is putatively beneficial to the host. Interestingly, the microaerobic Apibacter species specifically acquired genes encoding for the nitrate respiration (NAR). These together with nitrate transporter and enzymatic cofactor synthesis genes were found clustered in the genomes. The NAR system is also conserved in the cohabitating bee gut microbe Snodgrassella, although with a different structure. This convergence suggests a key role of respiratory nitrate reduction for microaerophilic microbiomes to colonize bee gut epithelium. Genes involved in lipid, histidine degradation were found partially or completely lost in Apibacter. Particularly, genes encoding for the conversion to the toxic intermediates in phenylacetate degradation, as well as other potential virulence factors, are specifically lost in Apibacter group. Antibiotic resistance genes are only sporadically distributed among Apibacter species, but are prevalent in their relatives, which may be related to the remotely living feature and less exposure to antibiotics of their bee hosts. Collectively, this study advanced our knowledge of genomic features specialized to bee gut symbionts.

19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 44, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789759

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is characterized by an excessive systemic inflammatory response and organ failure and has high mortality. Bacterial infections (BIs) worsen the clinical course of ACLF and carry a poor prognosis in ACLF patients. The efficacy of third-generation cephalosporins has been challenged in recent years. The aim of this study was to characterize the difference between ACLF patients with and without BIs and to provide a reference for medical intervention. METHODS: A total of 140 patients with hepatitis B virus-related ACLF (HBV-ACLF) hospitalized at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (Shanghai, China) between May 2013 and January 2020 were enrolled. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the baseline characteristics of HBV-ACLF patients with and without BIs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to find predictors of BIs. The characteristics of BIs and the role of prophylactic antibiotics were profiled. RESULTS: A total of 97 episodes of BIs occurred in patients during the course of HBV-ACLF. Patients with and without BIs differed in clinical characteristics. The incidence of BIs showed a positive correlation with the ACLF grade (P = 0.003) and the clinical course (P = 0.003). The 90-day transplant-free survival of patients with BIs was lower than those without BIs (P < 0.0001). Patients administered prophylactic antibiotics showed a lower incidence of BIs and had a higher transplant-free survival probability than those who did not (P = 0.046). No statistical differences in antibiotic efficacy between third-generation and other antibiotics were observed (P = 0.108). CONCLUSIONS: BIs affected the clinical course and prognosis of patients with HBV-ACLF. Prophylactic antibiotics were of potential clinical importance in the prevention of BIs and improving the clinical course and prognosis in HBV-ACLF patients. Third-generation cephalosporins were qualified for use in antibiotic prophylaxis.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802618

RESUMEN

Determination and comparisons of complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are important to understand the origin and evolution of mitochondria. Mitogenomes of unicellular protists are particularly informative in this regard because they are gene-rich and display high structural diversity. Ciliates are a highly diverse assemblage of protists and their mitogenomes (linear structure with high A+T content in general) were amongst the first from protists to be characterized and have provided important insights into mitogenome evolution. Here, we report novel mitogenome sequences from three representatives (Strombidium sp., Strombidium cf. sulcatum, and Halteria grandinella) in two dominant ciliate lineages. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses of newly sequenced and previously published ciliate mitogenomes were performed and revealed a number of important insights. We found that the mitogenomes of these three species are linear molecules capped with telomeric repeats that differ greatly among known species. The genomes studied here are highly syntenic, but larger in size and more gene-rich than those of other groups. They also all share an AT-rich tandem repeat region which may serve as the replication origin and modulate initiation of bidirectional transcription. More generally we identified a split version of ccmf, a cytochrome c maturation-related gene that might be a derived character uniting taxa in the subclasses Hypotrichia and Euplotia. Finally, our mitogenome comparisons and phylogenetic analyses support to reclassify Halteria grandinella from the subclass Oligotrichia to the subclass Hypotrichia. These results add to the growing literature on the unique features of ciliate mitogenomes, shedding light on the diversity and evolution of their linear molecular architecture.


Asunto(s)
Eucariontes/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Células Cultivadas , Células Eucariotas/fisiología , Evolución Molecular , Mitógenos/genética , Filogenia , Plancton/genética , Origen de Réplica/genética
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