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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130577, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293542

RESUMEN

The development of green vegetable processing is still limited by the imperfect green protection now. Chlorophyll (Chl), the main pigment presented in green vegetables, was studied that the effects of NaCl on the stability of it, and the synergy of NaCl and high-pressure on Chl protection. Compared to the control, the retention of Chl was increased by 80.14% and the activation energy was 62.7% higher in 7.8% NaCl solution. When the pressure was 600 MPa with 7.8% NaCl, the synergy of NaCl and high-pressure increased the Chl retention by 100%. The restriction of NaCl to H2O provided Chl with a lower polarity environment and increased the contact between Chl molecules. And the fluorescence quenching confirmed the aggregation of Chls induced by high-pressure. This study explains the mechanism of green protection by NaCl and high-pressure, broadening the horizon for the development of color protection in vegetable processing.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila , Cloruro de Sodio , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130715, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364144

RESUMEN

A novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) with a new functional monomer Triallyl isocyanurate was synthesized successfully to enrich and detect sterigmatocystin (STG) in wheat samples. The differential UV-vis spectra and the reverse prediction method were selected to achieve the optimal synthesis conditions of the MMIPs, which were characterized well. The adsorption experiment showed that MMIPs have high selectivity and sensitivity. A magnetic solid phase extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography (MSPE-HPLC) method based on the MMIPs was successfully established with the optimal extraction condition. The linear range and RSD were 1.8-25 ng·g-1 and 2.6-4.1%, respectively. The recovery of this method was 87.6-96.9% and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.63 ng·g-1. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity of this method were confirmed by experiment of the extraction and detection of STG in wheat extracts. This work extends the use of molecular imprinting in mycotoxins applications.


Asunto(s)
Impresión Molecular , Polímeros Impresos Molecularmente , Adsorción , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Polímeros , Extracción en Fase Sólida , Esterigmatocistina
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130697, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365248

RESUMEN

Metabolomics is an important branch of systems biology, which can detect changes in the body's metabolism before and after the intervention of functional foods, identify effective metabolites, and predict the interventional effects and the mechanism. This review summarizes the latest research outcomes regarding interventional effects of functional foods on metabolic diseases via metabolomics analysis. Since metabolomics approaches are powerful strategies for revealing the changes in bioactive compounds of functional foods during processing and storage, we also discussed the effects of these parameters on functional food metabolites using metabolomics approaches. To date, a number of endogenous metabolites related to the metabolic diseases after functional foods intervention have been discovered. Unfortunately, the mechanisms of metabolic disease-related molecules are still unclear and require further studies. The combination of metabolomics with other omics technologies could further promote its ability to fully understand the precise biological processes of functional food intervention on metabolic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos Funcionales , Enfermedades Metabólicas , Humanos , Metabolómica
4.
Food Chem ; 367: 130727, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371276

RESUMEN

An electrochemical sensor was fabricated by modifying nanoporous gold (NPG)-coated glassy carbon electrode (NPG/GCE) with functionalized graphene oxide /chitosan/ionic liquid nanocomposites (fGO/CS/IL). The introduction of ionic liquid (IL) and chitosan (CS) induced higher dispersibility of functionalized graphene oxide (fGO), and was beneficial for the combination of fGO/CS/IL with NPG/GCE. As a result of the synergistic effect of NPG and fGO/CS/IL, the resulted functionalized graphene oxide/chitosan/ionic liquid nanocomposites/nanoporous gold /glassy carbon electrode (fGO/CS/IL/NPG/GCE) showed the highest redox peak current response signal of Amaranth (E123) due to ultrahigh surface area, electronic conductivity as well as the improvement of the surface structure. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced peak currents represented excellent analytical performance for detection of Amaranth in the concentration range from 8.0 to 1200.0 nM. Meanwhile, the fGO/CS/IL/NPG/GCE presented satisfactory sensitivity and selectivity, excellent reproducibility, and long-time stability. For practical applications, the fGO/CS/IL/NPG/GCE was validated for the determination of Amaranth in three types of drinks with satisfactory results.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Quitosano , Grafito , Líquidos Iónicos , Nanocompuestos , Nanoporos , Técnicas Electroquímicas , Electrodos , Oro , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114593, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480998

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) is a ubiquitous emergency worldwide, whereas the searching for both effective and safe drugs is still a task to be completed. Modified Lvdou Gancao decoction (MLG), a traditional Chinese medicine decoction, has been confirmed to be valid to alcohol-induced symptoms and hepatotoxicity clinically, whereas its protective mechanisms have not been determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AAI mice model was established by alcohol gavage (13.25 mL/kg) and MLG (5, 10, 20 g/kg BW) was administered to mice 2 h before and 30 min after the alcohol exposure. Assay kits for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamine transferase (GGT), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as histopathology were used to explore the effects of MLG on acute alcohol-induced intoxication and hepatotoxicity. Mechanisms of MLG on oxidative stress and inflammatory were evaluated with RT-qPCR and Western Blot. RESULTS: MLG remarkably decreased the drunkenness rate, prolonged the tolerance time and shortened the sober-up time of AAI mice. After acute alcohol exposure, MLG treatment induced significant increment of ADH, ALDH, T-SOD and GSH-Px activities in liver, while serum ALT, AST, GGT and NO levels as well as hepatic MDA activity were reduced, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to the model group, the mRNA expression of TNFα, IL-1ß and NF-κB in the MLG treated groups had a downward trend while the Nrf-2 showed an upward trend simultaneously. Furthermore, the protein levels of p65, p-p65, p-IκBα in the MLG treated groups were considerably diminished, with HO-1 and Nrf2 elevated. To sum up, our results suggested that MLG could efficaciously ameliorate AAI via accelerating the metabolism of alcohol, alleviating acute hepatotoxicity, and weakening the oxidative stress coupled with inflammation response, which might be attributed to the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway and the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our present study verified the protective effect and mechanisms of MLG to AAI mice, and we further conclude that MLG may be a potent and reliable candidate for the prevention and treatment of AAI.

6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114608, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517059

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nelumbo nucifera (N. nucifera), a kind of edible Chinese herbal, has been studied in treating hyperlipidemia. However, the hypolipidemic mechanism of N. nucifera remains unknown. Aims of this review: We aimed to screen the effective constituent of N. nucifera alkaloids and elucidated the potential mechanism for treating hyperlipidemia. A triple combination strategy of UHPLC-MSn, hypolipidemic activity and transcriptome sequencing was built to unveil the hypolipidemic mechanism of Nelumbo nucifera alkaloid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We comprehensively investigated the characterization of N. nucifera alkaloids by using UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MSn. And the hypolipidemic activity of candidate active ingredients were evaluated on sodium oleate-induced HepG2 cell. Finally, O-nornuciferine and N. nucifera alkaloid extraction were analyzed by RNA sequence (RNA-seq) to decipher the underlying hypolipidemic mechanism and were verified by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: 35 compounds were identified from N. nucifera alkaloid extraction by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MSn. Among them, O-nornuciferine and N. nucifera alkaloid extraction which showed significant hypolipidemic activity were analyzed by transcriptome sequencing. After the intervention of O-nornuciferine and N. nucifera alkaloid extraction, 1 and 158 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, severally. The enrichment analysis indicated that the hypolipidemic effect was adjusted by the expression of numerous key DEGs involved in bile secretion, glycerolipid and sphingolipid metabolism, PPAR signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: O-nornuciferine and N. nucifera alkaloids had exibited significant effects in hyperlipidemia. The candidate genes were LDLR, LPL and ANGPTL4, etc. It was most likely that they adjusted lipid metabolism by modulating expression levels of various key factors which were involved in bile secretion, glycerolipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism and PPAR signaling pathway, and so on. This study clarified the hypolipidemic mechanism of the alkaloids in N. nucifera, and laid a foundation for the subsequent development of clinical application and better quality of N. nucifera.

7.
Int J Oncol ; 59(5)2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664682

RESUMEN

The Nectin cell adhesion molecule (Nectin) family members are Ca2+­independent immunoglobulin­like cellular adhesion molecules (including Nectins 1­4), involved in cell adhesion via homophilic/heterophilic interplay. In addition, the Nectin family plays a significant role in enhancing cellular viability and movement ability. In contrast to enrichment of Nectins 1­3 in normal tissues, Nectin­4 is particularly overexpressed in a number of tumor types, including breast, lung, urothelial, colorectal, pancreatic and ovarian cancer. Moreover, the upregulation of Nectin­4 is an independent biomarker for overall survival in numerous cancer types. A large number of studies have revealed that high expression of Nectin­4 is closely related to tumor occurrence and development in various cancer types, but the manner in which Nectin­4 protein contributes to the onset and development of these malignancies is yet unknown. The present review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and functions of Nectin­4 protein in the biological processes and current advances with regard to its expression and regulation in various cancer types.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19475, 2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593950

RESUMEN

The illusion device developed from the scattering cancellation employs very simple homogeneous and isotropic materials, but this device is only valid for electrically small objects. In this paper, we prove that the illusion device optimized by genetic algorithm can be applied to large-scale occasions. For an electrically small target, an optimized core-shell illusion device can achieve better illusion effect than the analytical design based on the scattering cancellation. With the increase of the device size, the ability of the single-layered shell to manipulate the scattering is very limited. For a moderate-size target, two optimized multi-layered examples are presented: one is to make a dielectric cylinder appear as another dielectric target, and the other is to make a conducting cylinder behave like a double-negative-material target. The full-wave simulations are carried out to visualize the similar field distributions of the target and the optimized multi-layered design. This optimized design greatly widens the size application range of the illusion device and can also improve the illusion performance with simple material parameters.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599099

RESUMEN

Alternative splicing of G protein-coupled receptors has been observed, but their functions are largely unknown. Here, we report that a splice variant (SV1) of the human growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) is capable of transducing biased signal. Differing only at the receptor N terminus, GHRHR predominantly activates Gs while SV1 selectively couples to ß-arrestins. Based on the cryogenic electron microscopy structures of SV1 in the apo state or GHRH-bound state in complex with the Gs protein, molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the N termini of GHRHR and SV1 differentiate the downstream signaling pathways, Gs versus ß-arrestins. As suggested by mutagenesis and functional studies, it appears that GHRH-elicited signal bias toward ß-arrestin recruitment is constitutively mediated by SV1. The level of SV1 expression in prostate cancer cells is also positively correlated with ERK1/2 phosphorylation but negatively correlated with cAMP response. Our findings imply that constitutive signal bias may be a mechanism that ensures cancer cell proliferation.

10.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110648, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600650

RESUMEN

Mounting evidence suggests a critical role of gut microbiota in human colon health. Early life is a key developmental growth period, especially for building up gut microbiota and strengthening the colonic barrier. The connection between host colon and gut microbiota especially during early life is an area of increasing interest to researchers, also polyphenols improve host health through modulating this complex relationship. Postweaning (three-week-old) and adult (six-week-old) mice kept under specific pathogen-free conditions were used to investigate how early-life grape polyphenols supplementation influence the association between host colon and gut microbiota. Before grape polyphenols supplementation, postweaning mice had a higher original absolute abundance of Lactobacillus compared to adult mice. A 2-week grape polyphenols supplementation significantly boosted the abundance of Akkermansia and Lactobacillus and increased Lactobacillus-secreted lactate in postweaning mice. Early-life grape polyphenols supplementation also promoted the bloom of goblet cells and mucin 2, which benefitted both Akkermansia growth and colonic barrier. Moreover, the grape polyphenols-modulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Notch and Wnt3 pathways triggered the bloom of goblet cells in GPs-administrated postweaning mice, and the increase in lactate could modulate those pathways. Meanwhile, adult mice were not affected by grape polyphenols supplementation. These results suggested that early-life polyphenol supplementation promoted Akkermansia growth and colonic barrier, which was in association with the sufficient abundance of Lactobacillus during early life. This study also indicated that Lactobacillus interact with Akkermansia through changing the physiology of host colonic goblet cells.

11.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592905

RESUMEN

AbstractsAlzheimer's disease (AD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disease in the aged population. Tripterygium glycoside (TG) has been reported to protect the nervous system. However, the effect of TG on AD is still unknown. We aimed to explore the effect and mechanism of TG on AD. Thirty-two C57BL/6J mice were randomly selected and assigned to the normal control, AD model, AD+donepezil, and AD+TG groups. PC12 cells were assigned to the normal control, AD cell model, and AD+TG groups. The alterations in spatial memory and learning abilities of mice were measured by Morris water maze. Neuronal damage in mice was detected using Nissl staining. The expression levels of Aß25-35, p-Tau, and CD11b in brain tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, NO, p-P38, P38, p-IκBα, Caspase1, COX2, and iNOS were measured using ELISAs, qRT-PCR, and western blotting.TG significantly improved the spatial memory and learning abilities of AD mice. Compared to AD model group, significantly lower expression levels of Aß25-35, p-Tau, and CD11b were observed in AD+TG group (p < 0.05). The neuron density significantly increased in AD+TG group (p < 0.05). Significantly lower expression levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, NO, caspase-1, COX2, iNOS, p-IκBα and p-P38 MAPK were detected in AD+TG group (p < 0.05). In summary, TG may exert a neuroprotective effect by suppressing the release of inflammatory factors and microglial activity and inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα and p38 MAPK. These findings may improve our understanding of the mechanism of TG intervention in AD.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596215

RESUMEN

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance has been long considered as an obstacle to the efficacy of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we demonstrated the role of miR-20b-5p-regulated syndecan-2 (SDC2) in 5-FU resistance of CRC cells. 5-FU-resistant SW480 CRC cells were established by treatment of SW480 cells with stepwise increase of 5-FU concentration. The results showed that SDC2 was expressed significantly higher in SW480/5-FU cells than in SW480/WT cells as revealed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. MTT assay and BrdU assay showed that SDC2 overexpression led to increased cell survival rate, while SDC2 knockdown reversed the drug resistance of SW480/5-FU cells. Wound healing and transwell invasion assays revealed that knockdown of SDC2 inhibited the migratory and invasive ability of SW480/5-FU cells. Moreover, animal experiments indicated that si-SDC2 plays a suppressive role in tumor growth in vivo. We also confirmed that miR-20b-5p interacted with SDC2, which reversed the effect of SDC2 in SW480/5-FU cells via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling pathway. These findings showed that JNK/ERK signaling pathway is involved in miR-20b-5p/SDC2 axis-mediated 5-FU resistance in SW480/5-FU cells, indicating that the miR-20b-5p/SDC2 axis is a potential target for reversing 5-FU resistance in CRC.

13.
Nat Genet ; 53(10): 1493-1503, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594040

RESUMEN

How two subgenomes in allo-tetraploids adapt to coexistence and coordinate through structure and expression evolution requires extensive studies. In the present study, we report an improved genome assembly of allo-tetraploid common carp, an updated genome annotation of allo-tetraploid goldfish and the chromosome-scale assemblies of a progenitor-like diploid Puntius tetrazona and an outgroup diploid Paracanthobrama guichenoti. Parallel subgenome structure evolution in the allo-tetraploids was featured with equivalent chromosome components, higher protein identities, similar transposon divergence and contents, homoeologous exchanges, better synteny level, strong sequence compensation and symmetric purifying selection. Furthermore, we observed subgenome expression divergence processes in the allo-tetraploids, including inter-/intrasubgenome trans-splicing events, expression dominance, decreased expression levels, dosage compensation, stronger expression correlation, dynamic functionalization and balancing of differential expression. The potential disorders introduced by different progenitors in the allo-tetraploids were hypothesized to be alleviated by increasing structural homogeneity and performing versatile expression processes. Resequencing three common carp strains revealed two major ecotypes and uncovered candidate genes relevant to growth and survival rate.

14.
Food Chem ; 372: 131171, 2021 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601416

RESUMEN

The genus Pleurotus, namely oyster mushroom, is widely cultivated and consumed worldwide. Cap color is an important commercial trait for oyster mushroom. Diverse color is determined by various pigment constituents. However, the pigments of oyster mushrooms are still ambiguous. In this study, we extracted and identified pigments of oyster mushroom species with black, yellow and pink cap color. The extracted pigments appearing the three color types correspondingly to the cap color, which were all identified as melanin using a panel of spectroscopic and physical/imaging techniques. Nevertheless, HPLC and elemental analysis indicated that the melanin in oyster mushrooms was actually a mixture of eumelanin and phaeomelanin. Differences in the quantities and relative proportions of eumelanin and phaeomelanin resulted in the color variation in oyster mushroom caps. Electron microscopy studies showed that the melanin units are likely located in the cell wall, as reported in other fungi. The pigments in oyster mushrooms with three different cap color were extracted and identified for the first time in this study, which provided fundamental knowledge for future studies on the mechanism of color formation in mushrooms.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 189-197, 2021 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607060

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The symptoms that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience are the dominant contributing factors to its heavy disease burden. This study sought to identify key symptoms leading to disability in patients with MDD. METHODS: Subjects consisted of patients who had a 12-month MDD diagnosis based on the China Mental Health Survey (CMHS). World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) was used to assess the degree of disability. The associations between depressive symptoms and disability were analyzed using a linear regression and logistic regression with a complex sampling design. RESULTS: Of the 32,552 community residents, 655 patients were diagnosed with 12-month MDD. The disability rate due to MDD was 1.06% (95% CI: 0.85%-1.28%) among adults in Chinese community and 50.7% (95% CI: 44.3%-57.1%) among MDD patients. Depression was associated with all functional losses measured by the WHODAS. Feelings of worthlessness in life or inappropriate guilt, and psychomotor agitation or retardation were the key symptoms related to disability. Economic status, co-morbidity of physical diseases or anxiety disorders were correlates of disability scores. LIMITATIONS: The disability rate might be underestimated due to the exclusion of MDD patients living in hospitals. The effect of treatments on disability was excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological symptoms, not somatic symptoms, contribute to disability in MDD patients. Disability worsens when physical diseases or anxiety disorders are present. More attention could be paid to psychological symptoms, physical diseases, and anxiety disorders in MDD patients with disabilities.

16.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 134: 105432, 2021 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607174

RESUMEN

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has been associated not only with an increased vulnerability for stress-related psychiatric disorders but also with distinct alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and the immune system. The aim of this study is to examine differences in the HPA axis between major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with and without ACEs, and to explore differences in efficacy and HPA changes after long term antidepressant treatment between these two groups. A cohort of 803 patients with MDD were recruited. After the determination of cortisol (COR) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), 403 subjects were recruited for the following treatment study. Finally 330 MDD patients finished the monotherapy treatments of four antidepressants (Fluoxetine, Sertraline, Venlafaxine-extended release (XR), Duloxetine hydrochloride) for 12 weeks. Of 403 patients, 226 (56%) patients reported ACEs. Total score of HAMD in MDD with ACEs were higher than those in MDD without ACEs. There were significant differences for both ACTH and COR between MDD patients with and without ACEs that MDD patients with any types of maltreatment had higher level. Both COR and ACTH was positively and significantly correlated with the total scores of CTQ, HAMD, HAMA. After 12 weeks treatment of antidepressants monotherapy, the mean (SD) changes in HAMD and HAMA total scores was greater in MDD without ACEs than those in MDD with ACEs. At the 12-week end point, response was achieved by 37.2% in the MDD with ACEs group, 59.0% in the MDD without ACEs group respectively, with significant difference. Remission was achieved by 15.2% in the MDD with ACEs group and 32.2% in the MDD without ACEs group, with significant difference. The change in ACTH level in MDD without ACEs was also greater than that in MDD with ACEs, which was positively and significantly correlated with the HAMD total score only in MDD patient without ACEs. Logistic regression analysis showed that the total scores of CTQ, level of COR and ACTH at baseline were significantly associated with the response and remission. These findings indicated that exposure to ACEs for MDD could influence the HPA function and severity of symptoms. ACEs, ACTH and COR could be used as predictors of long term antidepressant treatment, suggested that are poor prognostic signs for antidepressants monotherapy in MDD with ACEs.

17.
Food Chem ; 372: 131224, 2021 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624787

RESUMEN

Triterpenoids are hypoglycemic substances and flavor components of Momordica charantia L., whether their bitterness correlated with hypoglycemic potential remain unknown. Thus, triterpenoids in M. charantia were isolated by phytochemical methods and identified by spectroscopic analysis. The bitterness levels and hypoglycaemic activity of isolated triterpenoids were evaluated by electronic tongue and hepatic gluconeogenesis assay. Eighteen triterpenoids including two new ones, Momordicoside Y and Z, were identified. Among the six identified bitter triterpenoids, karaviloside III, goyaglycoside C, and momordicoside F2 were bitterer than caffeine (P < 0.05), with caffeine equivalent (CE) values of 289.19, 4.32, and 41.24 mg CE/mg, respectively. Momordicoside Y, charantoside C, momordicoside F1, and momordicoside G could inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis by 23.9%, 36.2%, 33.4%, 34.4% at 40 µM, respectively. These four compounds could interact with active site of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in molecular docking simulation. No correlation was observed between hepatic gluconeogenesis inhibitory activity and bitterness of triterpenoids.

18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626439

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Whether and how symptom clusters are associated with care utilization remains understudied. This study aims to investigate the economic impact of symptom clusters. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional analyses of data collected from 3255 older adults aged 60 years and over in Hong Kong using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Client Service Receipt Inventory to measure depressive symptoms and service utilization to calculate 1-year care expenditure. Based on Research Domain Criteria framework, we categorized depressive symptoms into four clusters: Negative Valance Systems and Externalizing (NVSE; anhedonia and depression), Negative Valance Systems and Internalizing (guilt and self-harm), Arousal and Regulatory Systems (sleep, fatigue, and appetite), and Cognitive and Sensorimotor Systems (CSS; concentration and psychomotor). Two-part models were used with four symptom clusters to estimate economic impacts on care utilization. RESULTS: Core affective symptoms had the largest economic impact on non-psychiatric care expenditure; a one-point increase in NVSE was associated with USD$ 571 additional non-psychiatric care expenditure. The economic impacts of CSS on non-psychiatric care expenditure was attenuated when the severity level of NVSE was higher. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of understanding economic impacts on care utilization based on symptom profiles with a particular emphasis on symptom combinations. Policymakers should optimize care allocation based on older adults' depressive symptom profiles rather than simply considering their depression sum-score or the severity defined by cut-off points.

19.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103609, 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628353

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe psychiatric disorder that affects approximately 0.75% of the global population. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to development of SCZ. SCZ tends to run in family while both genetic and environmental factor contribute to its etiology. Much evidence suggested that alterations in DNA methylations occurred in SCZ patients. METHODS: To investigate potential inheritable pattern of DNA methylation in SCZ family, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of peripheral blood samples from 106 Chinese SCZ family trios. Genome-wide DNA methylations were quantified by Agilent 1 × 244 k Human Methylation Microarray. FINDINGS: In this study, we proposed a loci inheritance frequency model that allows characterization of differential methylated regions as SCZ biomarkers. Based on this model, 112 hypermethylated and 125 hypomethylated regions were identified. Additionally, 121 hypermethylated and 139 hypomethylated genes were annotated. The results of functional enrichment analysis indicated that multiple differentially methylated genes (DMGs) involved in Notch/HH/Wnt signaling, MAPK signaling, GPCR signaling, immune response signaling. Notably, a number of hypomethylated genes were significantly enriched in cerebral cortex and functionally enriched in nervous system development. INTERPRETATION: Our findings not only validated previously discovered risk genes of SCZ but also identified novel candidate DMGs in SCZ. These results may further the understanding of altered DNA methylations in SCZ.

20.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596946

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is the most severe pest attacking rice crops using sucking mouthparts. It causes significant damages to rice growth and food production worldwide. With the long-term and wide use of insecticides, field populations of BPH have developed resistance to many insecticides. RESULTS: Here, we showed that upregulation of an ATP-binding cassette transporter gene NlMdr49-like contributes to imidacloprid resistance in field populations of BPH. A comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression in two field populations (JXSG18 and YNTC18). Compared with a susceptible strain (Sus), 202 upregulated genes and 170 downregulated genes were identified in both field populations. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are mainly linked to metabolic process and transmembrane transport. Among the candidate DEGs, NlMdr49-like was significantly upregulated in both field populations. Based on the genome and transcriptome of BPH, the full-length complementary DNA of NlMdr49-like was sequenced and its molecular characteristics were analyzed. Expression pattern analysis of various tissues showed that NlMdr49-like was predominantly expressed in midgut and Malpighian tubules which are important excretion organs. Knocking down NlMdr49-like reduced BPH resistance to imidacloprid, but did not affect its resistance to the other nine insecticides (chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, nitenpyram, dinotefuran, sulfoxaflor, triflumezopyrim, ethiprole, buprofezin and pymetrozine). Furthermore, a transgenic strain of Drosophila melanogaster overexpressing NlMdr49-like was less susceptible to imidacloprid. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that upregulation of NlMdr49-like is another mechanism contributing to imidacloprid resistance in N. lugens. This result is helpful to further understand the resistance mechanism of N. lugens to imidacloprid.

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