Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 111
Filtrar
1.
Environ Pollut ; 273: 116467, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453699

RESUMEN

As zoned areas of industries, industrial parks have great impacts on the environment. Several studies have demonstrated that chemical compounds and heavy metals released from industrial parks can contaminate soil, water, and air. However, as an emerging pollutant, antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in industrial parks have not yet been investigated. Here, we collected soil samples from 35 sites in an industrial park in China and applied a metagenomics strategy to profile the ARGs and virulence factors (VFs). We further compared the relative abundance of ARGs between the sites (TZ_31-35) located in a beta-lactam antimicrobial-producing factory and other sites (TZ_1-30) in this industrial park. Metagenomic sequencing and assembly generated 14, 383, 065 contigs and 17, 631, 051 open reading frames (ORFs). Taxonomy annotation revealed Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria as the most abundant phylum and class, respectively. The 32 pathogenic bacterial genera listed in the virulence factor database (VFDB) were all identified from the soil metagenomes in this industrial park. In total, 685,354 ARGs (3.89% of the ORFs) and 272,694 virulence factors (VFs) (1.55% of the ORFs) were annotated. These ARGs exhibited resistance to several critically important antimicrobials, such as rifampins, fluroquinolones, and beta-lactams. In addition, no significant difference in the relative abundance of ARGs was observed between sites TZ_31-35 and TZ_1-30, indicating that ARGs have already disseminated widely in this industrial park. The present study gave us a better understanding of the whole picture of the resistome and virulome in the soil of the industrial park and suggested that we should treat the industrial park as a whole in the surveillance and maintenance of ARGs.

2.
Virulence ; 12(1): 377-388, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356821

RESUMEN

Co-occurrence of hypervirulence and KPC-2 carbapenem resistant phenotypes in a highly-transmissible ST11 clone ofKlebsiella pneumoniae has elicited deep concerns from public health stand point. To address this puzzle, we conducted a large-scale epidemiological, clinical and genomic study of K. pneumonia ST11 clones with both hypervirulence and carbapenem resistance in two tertiary hospitals in Zhejiang province. Most of the patients (15/23) were diagnosed with exclusively carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) infections. Ten death cases were reported, some of which are due to the failure of antibiotic therapies. As a result, we identified one new rare sequence types (ST449) to KPC-2-producing CRKP, in addition to the dominant ST11. These clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae are multi-drug resistant and possess a number of virulence factors. Experimental infections of wax moth larvae revealed the presence of hypervirulence at varied level, suggesting the complexity in bacterial virulence factors. However, plasmid curing assays further suggested that the rmpA2-virulence plasmid is associated with, but not sufficient for neither phenotypic hypermucoviscosity nor virulence of K. pneumoniae. Intriguingly, all the rmpA2 genes were found to be inactive due to genetic deletion. In total, we reported 21 complete plasmid sequences comprising 13 rmpA2-positive virulence plasmids and 8 bla KPC-2-harboring resistance plasmids. In addition to the prevalent pLVKP-like virulence plasmid variants (~178kb), we found an unexpected diversity among KPC-2-producing plasmids whose dominant form is IncFII-IncR type (~120kb), rather than the previously anticipated version of ~170kb. These findings provide an updated snapshot of convergence of hypervirulence and carbapenem resistance in ST11 K. pneumoniae.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 596942, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193280

RESUMEN

Previous studies on vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) have mainly focused on drug resistance, the evolution of differences in virulence between VISA and vancomycin-sensitive S. aureus (VSSA) requires further investigation. To address this issue, in this study, we compared the virulence and toxin profiles of pair groups of VISA and VSSA strains, including a series of vancomycin-resistant induced S. aureus strains-SA0534, SA0534-V8, and SA0534-V16. We established a mouse skin infection model to evaluate the invasive capacity of VISA strains, and found that although mice infected with VISA had smaller-sized abscesses than those infected with VSSA, the abscesses persisted for a longer period (up to 9 days). Infection with VISA strains was associated with a lower mortality rate in Galleria mellonella larvae compared to infection with VSSA strains (≥ 40% vs. ≤ 3% survival at 28 h). Additionally, VISA were more effective in colonizing the nasal passage of mice than VSSA, and in vitro experiments showed that while VISA strains were less virulent they showed enhanced intracellular survival compared to VSSA strains. RNA sequencing of VISA strains revealed significant differences in the expression levels of the agr, hla, cap, spa, clfB, and sbi genes and suggested that platelet activation is only weakly induced by VISA. Collectively, our findings indicate that VISA is less virulent than VSSA but has a greater capacity to colonize human hosts and evade destruction by the host innate immune system, resulting in persistent and chronic S. aureus infection.

4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2526-2535, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174510

RESUMEN

Previous studies have shown that livestock (LA)-MRSA ST398 evolved from a human-adapted methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) clone. However, detailed information regarding ST9 is still unclear. Here, we characterized a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) ST9-SCCmec XII isolate that has not been previously reported to cause serious disease in China. We obtained whole-genome sequences of one ST9-t899-XII isolate-ZY462471-from a patient with bloodstream infection without livestock contact. The antibiotic susceptibilities of ZY462471 were determined and the clinical information was extracted from medical notes and compared with twenty-seven previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed to investigate the probable host evolutionary origins of ZY462471, and the difference in resistome and virulence factors were investigated. Virulence assay was performed to evaluate the high virulence potential of ZY462471 and compare the virulence between the closest ST9 MSSA neighbours. Clinical data suggested that ZY462471 is a CA-MRSA. Phylogenetic analysis showed a much closer relationship of ZY462471 with human-associated MSSA ST9 isolates than other LA-MRSA ST9 isolates, suggesting that ZY462471 probably evolved from ST9 MSSA predecessors by acquiring an SCCmec cassette. Importantly, virulence assays indicated that ZY462471 was highly virulent and compared with the MSSA ST9 predecessors, ZY462471 did not show attenuated virulence. Finally, we found that ZY462471 harboured an immune evasion cluster (IEC)-carrying ßC-Φ, which is typically found in human clinical S. aureus rather than LA-MRSA isolates, suggesting that ZY4762471 obtained the IEC-carrying ßC-Φs from human clinical S. aureus strains. Considering its high virulence potential, this strain should be monitored to prevent more widespread dissemination.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1321, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733395

RESUMEN

To assess the genomic profiles of tigecycline (Tgc)-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, including antibiotic resistance (AR) genes and virulence factors (VF), whole-genome shotgun sequencing was performed on 19 Tgc-resistant (TgcR) A. baumannii strains collected in a tertiary hospital during the early phase of the clinical introduction of Tgc in China from late 2012 to mid-2014. The major sample types containing TgcR strains were sputum and drain fluid. Data from an average of 624 Mbp of sequence was generated on each bacterial genome, with Q30 quality of 90%, and an average coverage of 96.6%. TCDC-AB0715 was used as a reference genome. The genome sequences were annotated for functional elements including AR genes, VFs, genome islands, and inserted sequences before they were comparatively analyzed. The antibiotic susceptibility phenotypes of the strains were examined by a broth microdilution method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of strains against major clinical antibiotics. The AR genes (ARGs) were annotated using the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD). Thirty-three ARGs were shared by all 19 TgcR strains, and 24 ARGs were distributed differently among strains. A total of 391 VFs were found to be diversely distributed in all TgcR strains. Based on ARG number distribution, the 19 TgcR strains were divided into several groups. Highly differentiated genes included gpi, mphG, armA, msrE, adec, catB8, aadA, sul1, bla OXA- 435, aph3i, and bla TEM- 1, which may represent gene markers for TgcR A. baumannii sub-types. In addition, when compared with Tgc-sensitive (TgcS) strains collected during the same period, TgcR strains featured enrichment of ARGs including aph6id, aph3ib, and teta. Compared with 26 other whole-genome sequences of A. baumannii deposited in GeneBank, TgcR strains in this study commonly lacked the EF-Tu mutation for elfamycin resistance. Previous investigation of three A. baumannii strains isolated from one patient indicated genomic exchange and a homologous recombination event associated with generation of tigecycline resistance. This study further analyzed additional TgcR strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close evolutionary relationship between 19 TgcR strains and to isolates in East and Northeast China. In short, the comprehensive functional and comparative genomic analysis of 19 clinical TgcR A. baumannii strains isolated in the early stage of Tgc usage in China revealed their close phylogenetic relationship yet variable genetic background involving multiple resistance mechanisms. Using a simple ARG or VF gene number diversity method and marker genes, TgcR strain sub-types can be identified. The distinct characteristics of TgcR A. baumannii strains with versatile genomic resistance and regulation patterns raise concern regarding prediction and control of Tgc resistance in the clinic.

6.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 2017-2026, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636655

RESUMEN

Background: Bacteria undergo adaptive mutation in the host. However, the specific effect of antimicrobial use on bacterial evolution and genome mutations related to bacterial survival within a patient is unclear. Materials and Methods: Three S. capitis strains were sequentially isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of a clinical inpatient. Antimicrobial susceptibility, growth rate, biofilm formation and whole blood survival of these strains were measured. Relative fitness was calculated. The virulence was examined in the Galleria mellonella model. Whole-genome sequencing and in silico analysis were performed to explore the genetic mechanisms of the changes in antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Hypothetical proteins are cloned, expressed and characterized by detection the susceptibility to gentamycin. Results: The first isolate was susceptible to rifampin (MIC=0.25 µg/mL), resistant to gentamicin (MIC=16 µg/mL), while the later two isolates were resistant to rifampin (MIC >64 µg/mL), susceptible to gentamicin (MIC=4 µg/mL). For the latter two strains, compared to the first, frameshift mutation in a hypothetical protein encoding gene and base substitutions (in genes saeR, moaA and rpoB) were discovered. The mutation of rpoB gene caused rifampicin resistance. Mutations in saeR, moaA and hypothetical gene are associated with changes in other biological traits. Amino acid sequence-based structure and function identification of the hypothetical protein indicated that a mutation in the encoding gene might be associated with altered aminoglycoside susceptibility. Growth curve showed that the later two isolates grew faster than the first isolate with a positive fitness advantage of 13.5%, and 14.8%, accordingly. Biofilm form ability and whole blood survival of the derivative mutants were also enhanced. No significant differences of virulence in the G. mellonella model were observed. Conclusion: We report here for the first time that short-term clinical antibiotic use was associated with resistance mutations, collateral sensitivity, and positive in vivo fitness advantages to S. capitis during infection.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497191

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging serious global health problem. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in stool specimens. However, the relationship between the gut microbiome and disease remains to be established. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 30 COVID-19 patients, 24 influenza A (H1N1) patients, and 30 matched healthy controls (HC) to identify differences in the gut microbiota by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V3-V4 region sequencing. RESULTS: Compared with HC, COVID-19 patients had significantly reduced bacterial diversity, a significantly higher relative abundance of opportunistic pathogens, such as Streptococcus, Rothia, Veillonella and Actinomyces, and a lower relative abundance of beneficial symbionts. Five biomarkers showed high accuracy for distinguishing COVID-19 patients from HC with an area under the curve (AUC) up to 0.89. Patients with H1N1 displayed lower diversity and different overall microbial composition compared with COVID-19 patients. Seven biomarkers were selected to distinguish the two cohorts with an AUC of 0.94. CONCLUSION: The gut microbial signature of patients with COVID-19 was different from that of H1N1 patients and HC. Our study suggests the potential value of the gut microbiota as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for COVID-19, but further validation is needed.

8.
mSystems ; 5(3)2020 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576652

RESUMEN

The emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 11 (ST11-CR-HvKP) in China are a great concern in the public health community. However, the underlying mechanism that enables its wide dissemination in China remains unclear. Here, we investigated the prevalence of carriage of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) among inpatients with diarrhea in a teaching hospital over 1 year to identify ST11-CR-HvKP reservoirs and to understand the genetic background and plasmid profiles of these pathogens. As assessed by stool analysis, the CPE colonization rate (12.4%) among the inpatients with diarrhea was high (12.4%). Antibiotic exposure, surgical history, and CPE positivity were correlated. Genomic investigation of 65 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates indicated a shared bacterial population in various wards. According to maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree analysis, these isolates were partitioned into three major clades. Analysis of the wzi locus revealed three different K types (KL105, KL47, and K64) among the ST11 isolates, indicating the genetic diversity of these isolates. Genetic and sequence mapping revealed the complexity of virulence and resistance plasmid sets harbored by the isolates. These observations indicate that the dissemination of resistant bacteria is more complex than initially anticipated and possibly involves multiple K. pneumoniae ST11 lineages and a variety of virulence plasmids. Collectively, we show for the first time that stool may be a source of ST11-CR-HvKP isolates. Furthermore, the findings reveal the silent dissemination of ST11-CR-HvKP bacteria in Zhejiang Province, China. Future investigations are warranted to determine the association between rectal colonization by ST11-CR-HvKP and clinical infections.IMPORTANCE China has been experiencing a rapid increase in the number of nosocomial infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 (ST11-CRKP) for decades. The emergence of hypervirulent ST11-CRKP (ST11-CR-HvKP) strains is expected to become a serious public health issue in China, considering that carbapenem resistance and virulence have converged in an epidemic clone. K. pneumoniae strains that colonize the human intestinal tract may become a reservoir of virulence and carbapenemase-encoding genes. Here, we first characterized the genotypes and antimicrobial phenotypes of ST11-CR-HvKP strains isolated from diarrheal stool samples of inpatients in Zhejiang Province, China. Active surveillance approaches based on the findings of the present study should be implemented, particularly in intensive care units, to combat the spread of ST11-CR-HvKP and to improve treatment.

9.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 1179-1184, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425557

RESUMEN

Introduction: There are few investigations describing the pregnancy-associated listeriosis in China, and the molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes causing such infections remain largely unknown. We aim to investigate the phenotypic and genomic profiles of pregnancy-associated L. monocytogenes isolates and their association with isolates recovered from human and non-human in China. Materials and Methods: In this study, we conducted a 3-year surveillance of listeriosis in a women's hospital in Zhejiang province, using whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics tools. Results: From 2016 to 2018, we identified 13 clinical L. monocytogenes isolates. Among these pregnancy-associated isolates, we found seven sequence types (STs), with the prevalent STs of ST87 and ST7. Serotyping divided the strains into four serotypes, including serotype 1/2a, 1/2b, 3a, and 4b. Antimicrobial resistance testing showed that all the isolates were susceptible to 10 antibiotics. Comparative genomics analysis clearly classified our genome collection into four distinct evolutionary lineages with most isolates grouping into lineages I and II. Interestingly, we found three pairs of isolates with high identity, although no evident epidemiological association was observed. Conclusion: This study reports for the first time the surveillance of pregnancy-associated listeriosis in Zhejiang province, China, which indicates that the infection rate is low in this region. Our findings provide insight into the evolution and genetic diversity of pregnancy-associated L. monocytogenes from Zhejiang province. Additional investigations involving more human and non-human isolates with a "one health" strategy are needed for prediction of the listeriosis risk associated with a typical prevalent clone in Zhejiang province, such as ST87.

10.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 1057-1065, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341658

RESUMEN

Background: Citrobacter freundii is the most common class of pathogens in the genus Citrobacter and is an important pathogen associated with certain underlying diseases or immune dysfunction. The aim of this study was to elucidate the resistance mechanism of clinically derived carbapenem-resistant C. freundii isolate and to characterize the genetic environment and delivery pattern of the IncN1 plasmid carrying the bla IMP-4 gene from C. freundii isolate. Materials and Methods: We identified a clinical isolate of C. freundii L91 carrying bla IMP-4 and performed phylogenetic analysis by whole-genome sequencing. The complete genomic sequence of L91 was obtained using the Illumina HiSeq 4000-PE150 and PacBio RS II platforms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by the VITEK 2 system. Plasmid characteristics were presented by S1-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Southern blotting and conjugation experiments. Results: S1-PFGE, Southern blot and conjugation assay confirmed the presence of bla IMP-4 genes on a conjugative plasmid in this isolate. C. freundii L91 and transconjugant L91-E. coli 600 strains both showed resistance to carbapenems. In silico analysis further showed that pIMP-4-L91 is an IncN1 plasmid with a length of 51,042 bp. Furthermore, bla IMP-4 gene was found encoded in the bla IMP-4-qacG2-aacA4-catB3 cassette array within a class 1 integron. A conserved structure sequence (ΔISKpn27-bla IMP-4-ΔISSen2-hp-hp-IS6100) was found in the upstream and downstream of the bla IMP-4. Conclusion: We performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of carbapenemase-resistant C. freundii and elucidated the resistance mechanism of clinically derived C. freundii L91. Not only that, we also found that the bla IMP-4 gene is located on the IncN1 plasmid and has a horizontal transfer function and a certain ability to spread. To lower the risk of the dissemination of such C. freundii isolates in clinical settings, more surveillance is needed in the future.

11.
J Infect Dis ; 221(Supplement_2): S148-S155, 2020 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176788

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An antimicrobial stewardship campaign was launched in 2011 by the Ministry of Health. This study aimed to assess the achievements and trends in the clinical use of antibiotics in secondary and tertiary hospitals following this campaign in China. METHODS: This observational study analyzed nationwide hospital antibiotic procurement and consumption data and antibiotic-resistance surveillance data based on claims filed in 2010-2016. RESULTS: After a 6-year national campaign, the proportion of outpatients and surgical patients who received antibiotic treatment decreased from 19.5% to 8.5% and from 97.9% to 38.3%, respectively. The intensity of antibiotic use among inpatients decreased from 85.3±29.8 defined daily dosage (DDD) per 100 patient days to 48.5±8.0 DDD per 100 patient days. Moreover, the antibiotic procurement expenditure among hospitals declined from 22.3% of total drug procurement costs in 2010 to 12.1% in 2016, although total drug procurement costs doubled during that time. The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates also dropped (from 54.4% in 2010 to 34.4% in 2016), as did the proportion of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (from 30.8% to 22.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The 6-year campaign successfully reduced antibiotic consumption and irrational drug use in Chinese hospitals which was associated with declines in the prevalence of common antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

12.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 114041, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006889

RESUMEN

Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a growing concern worldwide. Raoultella ornithinolytica is a species in the Enterobacteriaceae family which can cause hospital-acquired infections and is sporadically reported as carbapenem-resistant from human and environmental sources. In this study, we firstly report on an NDM-1-producing R. ornithinolytica, Rao166, isolated from drinking water in an animal cultivation area in China. In addition to carbapenem-resistance, Rao166 was resistant to several other antibiotics including gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracycline and fosfomycin. Rao166 carried a novel IncFIC-type megaplasmid, 382,325 bp in length (pRAO166a). A multidrug resistance region, 60,600 bp in length, was identified in the plasmid containing an aac(3)-IId-like gene, aac(6')-Ib-cr, blaDHA-1, blaTEM-1B, blaCTX-M-3, blaOXA-1, blaNDM-1, qnrB4, catB3, arr-3, sul1, and tet(D). Results from virulence assays implied that Rao166 has considerable pathogenic potential. Although pRAO166a was found to be non-transmissible, dissemination of the NDM-1 producing strain may occur from well water to humans or animals through cross-contamination during food preparation or directly via drinking water, and potentially lead to difficult-to-treat infections. Thus, contamination of well water by this carbapenem-resistant and presumptively virulent strain of R. ornithinolytica should be considered a potential public health risk.


Asunto(s)
Carbapenémicos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , beta-Lactamasas/metabolismo , Animales , Antibacterianos , China , Enterobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Plásmidos , Virulencia/genética , Agua
13.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 597-605, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110070

RESUMEN

Purpose: To investigate the occurrence and genetic characteristics of the bla IMP-26-positive plasmid from a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate, Enterobacter hormaechei L51. Methods: Species identification was determined by MALDI-TOF MS and Sanger sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the agar dilution and broth microdilution. Whole-genome sequencing was conducted using Illumina HiSeq 4000-PE150 and PacBio Sequel platforms, and the genome was annotated by the RAST annotation server. The ANI analysis of genomes was performed using OAT. Phylogenetic reconstruction and analyses were performed using the Harvest suite based on the core-genome SNPs of 61 publicly available E. hormaechei genomes. Results: The E. hormaechei L51 genome consists of a 5,018,729 bp circular chromosome and a 343,918 bp conjugative IncHI2/2A plasmid pEHZJ1 encoding bla IMP-26 which surrounding genetic context was intI1-bla IMP-26-ltrA-qacE∆1-sul1. A new sequence type (ST1103) was assigned for the isolate L51 which was resistant to cephalosporins, carbapenems, but sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, tigecycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and colistin. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that E. hormaechei L51 belonged to the same subspecies as the reference strain E. hormaechei SCEH020042, however 18,248 divergent SNP were identified. Resistance genes in pEHZJ1 including aac(3)-IIc, aac(6') -IIc, bla SHV-178, bla DHA-1, bla TEM-1, bla IMP-26, ereA2, catII, fosA5, qnrB4, tet(D), sul1 and dfrA19. Conclusion: In our study, we identified a conjugative IncHI2/2A plasmid carrying bla IMP-26 and bla SHV-178 in E. hormaechei ST1103, a novel multidrug-resistant strain isolated from China, and describe the underlying resistance mechanisms of the strain and detailed genetic context of mega plasmid pEHZJ1.

14.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(1): 92-95, 2020 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580437

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Children are vulnerable to Salmonella infection due to their immature immune system. Cases of infection with mcr-1-harbouring Salmonella in child inpatients have not been reported in China before. METHODS: Salmonella isolates from gastroenteritis and bacteraemia were screened using primers targeting mcr-1. Complete genome sequences of mcr-1-harbouring isolates were determined using the PacBio RS II platform. The transferability of mcr-1-harbouring plasmids was verified by conjugation. RESULTS: We investigated two mcr-1-carrying polymyxin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST34 isolates, S61394 and S44712, from bloodstream and intestinal Salmonella infection of two child inpatients, respectively. Both isolates were non-susceptible to commonly used antibiotics for children that compromised the success of clinical treatment and infection control. The mcr-1-harbouring plasmids pLS61394-MCR and pLS44712-MCR (from S61394 and S44712, respectively) were both conjugative pHNSHP45-2-like IncHI2-type epidemic plasmids carrying multiple resistance genes. Compared with pHNSHP45-2, a ∼33 kb insertion region encoding Tn7 transposition protein and heavy metal resistance proteins was identified in pLS61394-MCR, which might enhance adaptation of bacteria carrying this plasmid to various ecological niches. The phylogenetic tree of worldwide mcr-harbouring Salmonella indicated a host preference of mcr and a worldwide and cross-sectoral prevalence of the mcr-positive Salmonella ST34 clone. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, for the first time we report completed whole genomes of mcr-1-positive MDR Salmonella Typhimurium ST34 isolated from infected children in China, suggesting that improved surveillance is imperative for tackling the dissemination of mcr-harbouring MDR Salmonella Typhimurium ST34.

16.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2678, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824461

RESUMEN

Raoultella ornithinolytica is an opportunistic pathogen of the Enterobacteriaceae family and has been implicated in nosocomial infections in recent years. The aim of this study was to characterize a carbapenemase-producing R. ornithinolytica isolate and three extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing R. ornithinolytica isolates from stool samples of adults in a rural area of Shandong Province, China. The species were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that all four isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). The whole genome sequence (WGS) of these isolates was determined using an Illumina HiSeq platform, which revealed MDR-related genes. The S1 nuclease-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) was used to characterize the plasmids carried by the R. ornithinolytica isolates. The bla NDM-1 and bla CTX-M-3 genes were probed using Southern blotting, which confirmed the location of both genes on the same plasmid with molecular weight of 336.5-398.4 kb. The transferability of bla NDM-1 and bla CTX-M was also confirmed by conjugation assays. Finally, BLAST analysis of both genes showed that mobile genetic elements were associated with the spread of drug resistance genes. Taken together, we report the presence of conjugative bla NDM-1 and bla CTX-M plasmids in R. ornithinolytica isolates from healthy humans, which indicate the possibility of inter-species transfer of drug resistance genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to isolate and characterize carbapenemase-producing R. ornithinolytica and ESBL-producing R. ornithinolytica isolates from healthy human hosts.

17.
mSphere ; 4(6)2019 11 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748247

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and genomic characteristics of extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) in fennec fox imported from Sudan to China. We screened 88 fecal samples from fennec fox for ESBL-EC, using cefotaxime- and meropenem-supplemented selective medium. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the agar dilution method except for colistin and tigecycline; for colistin and tigecycline, testing was conducted by the broth microdilution method. ESBL-EC bacteria were sequenced, and their genomes were characterized. Plasmid conjugation, S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and Southern blotting were performed for a MCR-1-producing isolate. The genetic environment of mcr-1 and ESBL genes was also investigated. A total of 29 ESBL-EC bacteria were isolated from 88 fennec fox (32.9%), while no carbapenemase producers were found. The most prevalent genotypes were the bla CTX-M-55 and bla CTX-M-14 genes, followed by bla CTX-M-15 and bla CTX-M-64 We detected nine sequence types among 29 ESBL-EC. Furthermore, the mcr-1 gene was detected in isolate EcFF273. Conjugation analysis confirmed that the mcr-1 gene was transferable. S1 PFGE, Southern blotting, and whole-genome sequencing revealed that mcr-1 and bla CTX-M-64 were both located on a 65-kb IncI2 plasmid. This study reports for the first time the occurrence of ESBL-EC in fennec fox. The high prevalence of ESBL producers and the occurrence of MCR-1 producer in fennec fox imported into China from Sudan are unexpected. In addition, it clearly demonstrated that commensal E. coli strains can be reservoirs of bla CTX-M and mcr-1, potentially contributing to the dissemination and transfer of such genes to pathogenic bacteria among fennec fox. Our results support the implication of fennec fox as a biological vector for ESBL-producing members of the Enterobacteriaceae family.IMPORTANCE The extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are a global concern for both animal and human health. There is some information indicating a high prevalence of ESBL producers in food animals. Moreover, there have been an increasing number of reports on ESBL-producing strains resistant to the last-resort antibiotic colistin with the global dissemination of the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene, which is believed to have originated in animal breeding. However, little is known regarding the burden of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae on wild animals. No data were available on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among wild animals imported into China. This is the first study to investigate the microbiological and genomics surveillance investigation of ESBL colonization among fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) imported from Sudan to China, and we uncovered a high prevalence of ESBL-EC. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism of colistin resistance in an isolate that harbored mcr-1 was also investigated. Results of characterization and analysis of 29 ESBL-producing E. coli may have important implications on our understanding of the transmission dynamics of these bacteria. We emphasize the importance of improved multisectoral surveillance for colistin-resistant E. coli in this region.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/enzimología , Escherichia coli/genética , Zorros/microbiología , Genómica , beta-Lactamasas/genética , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , China , Enfermedades Transmisibles Importadas/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Importadas/veterinaria , Conjugación Genética , Medios de Cultivo/química , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Heces/microbiología , Transferencia de Gen Horizontal , Genotipo , Plásmidos/análisis , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Sudán
18.
mSphere ; 4(6)2019 11 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694897

RESUMEN

The spread of colistin resistance gene mcr-1 at the animal-human interface remains largely unknown. This work aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics of two extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains with mcr-1, i.e., strains H8 and H9, isolated from the same mink farmer. In this study, five mcr-positive E. coli strains were isolated from the mink farm. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified two genetically unrelated MCR-1 producers (H8 and H9) from the same farmer and two clonally related MCR-1-positive isolates (M5 and M6) from two different mink samples. Additionally, a mcr-1 variant, designated mcr-1.12, was identified in isolate M4. MIC determination revealed that all of the MCR-producing strains exhibited multiresistant phenotypes but showed susceptibility to imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, and tigecycline. Replicon typing showed that mcr-1 was associated with IncHI2 plasmids in 4 cases, while the gene was located on an IncI2 plasmid in 1 case. PacBio sequencing and plasmid analysis confirmed that the mcr-1 gene was located on an ∼204-kb IncHI2 plasmid in H8 and was carried by an ∼61-kb IncI2 plasmid in H9. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of the occurrence of MCR-producing isolates from mink. Moreover, our report also describes the coexistence of two different MCR-1 producers in the same farmer. It highlights that fur farms can be reservoirs of mcr-1 genes. The identification of mcr-carrying plasmids on a fur farm is of potential public health importance, as it suggests that mcr is widespread in the animal husbandry industry.IMPORTANCE Colistin resistance is a real threat for both human and animal health. The mobile colistin resistance gene mcr has contributed to the persistence and transmission of colistin resistance at the interfaces of animals, humans, and ecosystems. Although mcr genes have usually been recovered from food animals, patients, and healthy humans, transmission of mcr genes at the animal-human interface remains largely unknown. This was the first study to isolate and characterize MCR-producing isolates from mink, as well as to report the coexistence of two different MCR-1 producers in the same farmer. The characterization and analysis of two MCR-1-producing E. coli isolates may have important implications for comprehension of the transmission dynamics of these bacteria. We emphasize the importance of improved multisectorial surveillance of colistin-resistant E. coli in this region.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Genotipo , Exposición Profesional , Animales , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Electroforesis en Gel de Campo Pulsado , Escherichia coli/clasificación , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Agricultores , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Visón , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Plásmidos/análisis , Plásmidos/clasificación
19.
Infect Drug Resist ; 12: 2775-2779, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564927

RESUMEN

A multidrug-resistant Citrobacter freundii strain R17 was isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in China. Whole-genome sequencing of strain R17 revealed a new sequence type (ST412) chromosome (length 5,124,258 bp) and an Inc FII (Yp) group plasmid pCFR17_1 (length 206,820 bp). A total of 13 antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) that confer resistance to eight different antibiotic groups were encoded by strain R17 and 12 of them were carried by plasmid pCFR17_1. These data and analysis suggest that the environment-derived C. freundii strains may serve as potential sources of ARGs and highlight the need of further surveillance of this bacteria in the future.

20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570399

RESUMEN

We report the characterization of six carbapenem-resistant Raoultella spp.(CRRS) in our hospital and a genomic analysis of 58 publicly available isolates. CRRS isolates are sporadically identified around the world and different transposons carrying carbapenemases were the resistant mechanisms. Mobile genetic elements play an important role in acquiring antibiotic resistant genes from the hospital. An improved understanding of these transposon and targeted control measures will be very valuable to prevent the CRRS dissemination.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA