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Mar Pollut Bull ; 124(1): 94-101, 2017 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28709523


An oil plume model to simulate the behavior of oil from spills located at any given depth below the sea surface is presented, following major modifications to a plume model developed earlier by Malacic (2001) and drawing on ideas in a paper by Yapa and Zheng (1997). The paper presents improvements in those models and numerical testing of the various parameters in the plume model. The plume model described in this paper is one of the numerous modules of the well-established MEDSLIK oil spill model. The deep blowout scenario of the MEDEXPOL 2013 oil spill modelling exercise, organized by REMPEC, has been applied using the improved oil plume module of the MEDSLIK model and inter-comparison with results having the oil spill source at the sea surface are discussed.

Modelos Teóricos , Contaminación por Petróleo , Agua de Mar
Sci Rep ; 6: 36882, 2016 11 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27830742


We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

Environ Pollut ; 206: 390-9, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26253313


Oil spill models are combined with bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data to model a series of oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. A total of 104 oil spill simulations, computed for 11 different locations in the Levantine Basin, show that oil slicks will reach the coast of Cyprus in four (4) to seven (7) days in summer conditions. Oil slick trajectories are controlled by prevailing winds and current eddies. Based on these results, we support the use of chemical dispersants in the very few hours after large accidental oil spills. As a corollary, we show shoreline susceptibility to vary depending on: a) differences in coastline morphology and exposure to wave action, b) the existence of uplifted wave-cut platforms, coastal lagoons and pools, and c) the presence of tourist and protected environmental areas. Mitigation work should take into account the relatively high susceptibility of parts of the Eastern Mediterranean.

Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Contaminación por Petróleo/análisis , Simulación por Computador , Mar Mediterráneo , Estaciones del Año
J Environ Manage ; 159: 158-168, 2015 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26067897


Oil spills are a transnational problem, and establishing a common standard methodology for Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) is thus paramount in order to protect marine environments and coastal communities. In this study we firstly identified the strengths and weaknesses of the OSRAs carried out in various parts of the globe. We then searched for a generic and recognized standard, i.e. ISO 31000, in order to design a method to perform OSRAs in a scientific and standard way. The new framework was tested for the Lebanon oil spill that occurred in 2006 employing ensemble oil spill modeling to quantify the risks and uncertainties due to unknown spill characteristics. The application of the framework generated valuable visual instruments for the transparent communication of the risks, replacing the use of risk tolerance levels, and thus highlighting the priority areas to protect in case of an oil spill.

Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación por Petróleo , Incertidumbre , Ambiente , Humanos , Líbano , Modelos Teóricos , Petróleo/análisis , Medición de Riesgo
Mar Pollut Bull ; 86(1-2): 443-457, 2014 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25113103


This study combines bathymetric, geomorphological, geological data and oil spill predictions to model the impact of oil spills in two accident scenarios from offshore Crete, Eastern Mediterranean. The aim is to present a new three-step method of use by emergency teams and local authorities in the assessment of shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills. The three-step method comprises: (1) real-time analyses of bathymetric, geomorphological, geological and oceanographic data; (2) oil dispersion simulations under known wind and sea current conditions; and (3) the compilation of final hazard maps based on information from (1) and (2) and on shoreline susceptibility data. The results in this paper show that zones of high to very-high susceptibility around the island of Crete are related to: (a) offshore bathymetric features, including the presence of offshore scarps and seamounts; (b) shoreline geology, and (c) the presence near the shore of sedimentary basins filled with unconsolidated deposits of high permeability. Oil spills, under particular weather and oceanographic conditions, may quickly spread and reach the shoreline 5-96 h after the initial accident. As a corollary of this work, we present the South Aegean region around Crete as a valid case-study for confined marine basins, narrow seaways, or interior seas around island groups.

Mapeo Geográfico , Modelos Teóricos , Contaminación por Petróleo/análisis , Contaminación por Petróleo/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Fenómenos Geológicos , Grecia , Oceanografía/métodos , Oceanografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Océanos y Mares , Contaminación por Petróleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo , Movimientos del Agua , Tiempo (Meteorología)
Mar Pollut Bull ; 62(1): 140-53, 2011 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20880556


MOON (Mediterranean Operational Oceanography Network provides near-real-time information on oil-spill detection (ocean color and SAR) and predictions [ocean forecasts (MFS and CYCOFOS) and oil-spill predictions (MEDSLIK)]. We employ this system to study the Lebanese oil-pollution crisis in summer 2006 and thus to assist regional and local decision makers in Europe, regionally and locally. The MEDSLIK oil-spill predictions obtained using CYCOFOS high-resolution ocean fields are compared with those obtained using lower-resolution MFS hydrodynamics, and both are validated against satellite observations. The predicted beached oil distributions along the Lebanese and Syrian coasts are compared with in situ observations. The oil-spill predictions are able to simulate the northward movement of the oil spill, with the CYCOFOS predictions being in better agreement with satellite observations. Among the free MEDSLIK parameters tested in the sensitivity experiments, the drift factor appears to be the most relevant to improve the quality of the results.

Liberación de Peligros Químicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Petróleo/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química , Contaminación Química del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Predicción , Líbano , Mar Mediterráneo , Modelos Químicos , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Movimientos del Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis