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1.
Chem Rev ; 121(5): 3031-3060, 2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481581

RESUMEN

Doping mobile carriers into ordinary semiconductors such as Si, GaAs, and ZnO was the enabling step in the electronic and optoelectronic revolutions. The recent emergence of a class of "quantum materials", where uniquely quantum interactions between the components produce specific behaviors such as topological insulation, unusual magnetism, superconductivity, spin-orbit-induced and magnetically induced spin splitting, polaron formation, and transparency of electrical conductors, pointed attention to a range of doping-related phenomena associated with chemical classes that differ from the traditional semiconductors. These include wide-gap oxides, compounds containing open-shell d electrons, and compounds made of heavy elements yet having significant band gaps. The atomistic electronic structure theory of doping that has been developed over the past two decades in the subfield of semiconductor physics has recently been extended and applied to quantum materials. The present review focuses on explaining the main concepts needed for a basic understanding of the doping phenomenology and indeed peculiarities in quantum materials from the perspective of condensed matter theory, with the hope of forging bridges to the chemists that have enabled the synthesis of some of the most interesting compounds in this field.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(10): 106403, 2019 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932675

RESUMEN

Ordinary doping by electrons (holes) generally means that the Fermi level shifts towards the conduction band (valence band) and that the conductivity of free carriers increases. Recently, however, some peculiar doping characteristics were sporadically recorded in different materials without noting the mechanism: electron doping was observed to cause a portion of the lowest unoccupied band to merge into the valance band, leading to a decrease in conductivity. This behavior, that we dub as "antidoping," was seen in rare-earth nickel oxides SmNiO_{3}, cobalt oxides SrCoO_{2.5}, Li-ion battery materials, and even MgO with metal vacancies. We describe the physical origin of antidoping as well as its inverse problem-the "design principles" that would enable an intelligent search of materials. We find that electron antidoping is expected in materials having preexisting trapped holes and is caused by the annihilation of such "hole polarons" via electron doping. This may offer an unconventional way of controlling conductivity.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1658, 2019 04 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971698

RESUMEN

With their broad range of properties, ABO3 transition metal perovskite oxides have long served as a platform for device applications and as a testing bed for different condensed matter theories. Their insulating character and structural distortions are often ascribed to dynamical electronic correlations within a universal, symmetry-conserving paradigm. This view restricts predictive theory to complex computational schemes, going beyond density functional theory (DFT). Here, we show that, if one allows symmetry-breaking energy-lowering crystal symmetry reductions and electronic instabilities within DFT, one successfully and systematically recovers the trends in the observed band gaps, magnetic moments, type of magnetic and crystallographic ground state, bond disproportionation and ligand hole effects, Mott vs. charge transfer insulator behaviors, and the amplitude of structural deformation modes including Jahn-Teller in low temperature spin-ordered and high temperature disordered paramagnetic phases. We then provide a classification of the four mechanisms of gap formation and establish DFT as a reliable base platform to study the ground state properties in complex oxides.

4.
Nature ; 566(7745): 447-449, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814720
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 906, 2019 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796227

RESUMEN

Hidden Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in centrosymmetric crystals with subunits/sectors having non-centrosymmetric symmetries (the R-2 and D-2 effects) have been predicted theoretically and then observed experimentally, but the microscopic mechanism remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the spin splitting in the R-2 effect is enforced by specific symmetries, such as non-symmorphic symmetry in the present example, which ensures that the pertinent spin wavefunctions segregate spatially on just one of the two inversion-partner sectors and thus avoid compensation. We further show that the effective Hamiltonian for the conventional Rashba (R-1) effect is also applicable for the R-2 effect, but applying a symmetry-breaking electric field to a R-2 compound produces a different spin-splitting pattern than applying a field to a trivial, non-R-2, centrosymmetric compound. This finding establishes a common fundamental source for the R-1 effect and the R-2 effect, both originating from local sector symmetries rather than from the global crystal symmetry per se.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(18): 186402, 2018 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444389

RESUMEN

Carrier doping of quantum spin liquids is a long-proposed route to the emergence of high-temperature superconductivity. Electrochemical intercalation in kagome hydroxyl halide materials shows that samples remain insulating across a wide range of electron counts. Here we demonstrate through first-principles density-functional calculations, corrected for self-interaction, the mechanism by which electrons remain localized in various Zn-Cu hydroxyl halides, independent of the chemical identity of the dopant-the formation of polaronic states with attendant lattice displacements and a dramatic narrowing of bandwidth upon electron addition. The same theoretical method applied to electron doping in cuprate Nd_{2}CuO_{4} correctly produces a metallic state when the initially formed polaron dissolves into an extended state. Our general findings explain the insulating behavior in a wide range of "doped" quantum magnets and demonstrate that new quantum spin liquid host materials are needed to realize metallicity borne of a spin liquid.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(42): 13687-13694, 2018 Oct 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255703

RESUMEN

Intriguing physical properties of materials stem from their chemical constituents, whereas the connection between them is often not clear. Here, we uncover a general chemical classification for the two quantum phases in the honeycomb ABX structure-topological insulator (TI) and topological Dirac semimetal (TDSM). First, we find among the 816 (existing as well as hypothetical) calculated compounds, 160 TIs (none were noted before), 96 TDSMs, 282 normal insulators (NIs), and 278 metals. Second, based on this classification, we have distilled a simple chemical regularity based on compound formulas for the selectivity between TI and TDSM: the ABX compounds that are TDSM have B atoms (part of the BX honeycomb layers) that come from the periodic table columns XI (Cu, Ag, Au) or XII (Zn, Cd, Hg), or Mg (group II), whereas the ABX compounds whose B atoms come from columns I (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) or II (Ca, Sr, Ba) are TIs. Third, focusing on the ABX bismide compounds that are thermodynamically stable, we find a structural motif that delivers topological insulation and stability at the same time. This study opens the way to simultaneously design new topological materials based on the compositional rules indicated here.

9.
Nat Mater ; 2017 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28869612
10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(19): 6718-6725, 2017 05 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28430435

RESUMEN

The long-term chemical instability and the presence of toxic Pb in otherwise stellar solar absorber APbX3 made of organic molecules on the A site and halogens for X have hindered their large-scale commercialization. Previously explored ways to achieve Pb-free halide perovskites involved replacing Pb2+ with other similar M2+ cations in ns2 electron configuration, e.g., Sn2+ or by Bi3+ (plus Ag+), but unfortunately this showed either poor stability (M = Sn) or weakly absorbing oversized indirect gaps (M = Bi), prompting concerns that perhaps stability and good optoelectronic properties might be contraindicated. Herein, we exploit the electronic structure underpinning of classic Cu[In,Ga]Se2 (CIGS) chalcopyrite solar absorbers to design Pb-free halide perovskites by transmuting 2Pb to the pair [BIB + CIII] such as [Cu + Ga] or [Ag + In] and combinations thereof. The resulting group of double perovskites with formula A2BCX6 (A = K, Rb, Cs; B = Cu, Ag; C = Ga, In; X = Cl, Br, I) benefits from the ionic, yet narrow-gap character of halide perovskites, and at the same time borrows the advantage of the strong Cu(d)/Se(p) → Ga/In(s/p) valence-to-conduction-band absorption spectra known from CIGS. This constitutes a new group of CuIn-based Halide Perovskite (CIHP). Our first-principles calculations guided by such design principles indicate that the CIHPs class has members with clear thermodynamic stability, showing direct band gaps, and manifesting a wide-range of tunable gap values (from zero to about 2.5 eV) and combination of light electron and heavy-light hole effective masses. Materials screening of candidate CIHPs then identifies the best-of-class Rb2[CuIn]Cl6, Rb2[AgIn]Br6, and Cs2[AgIn]Br6, having direct band gaps of 1.36, 1.46, and 1.50 eV, and theoretical spectroscopic limited maximal efficiency comparable to chalcopyrites and CH3NH3PbI3. Our finding offers a new routine for designing new-type Pb-free halide perovskite solar absorbers.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(12): 126401, 2017 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341631

RESUMEN

The electric field manipulation of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects provides a route to electrically control spins, constituting the foundation of the field of semiconductor spintronics. In general, the strength of the Rashba effects depends linearly on the applied electric field and is significant only for heavy-atom materials with large intrinsic spin-orbit interaction under high electric fields. Here, we illustrate in 1D semiconductor nanowires an anomalous field dependence of the hole (but not electron) Rashba effect (HRE). (i) At low fields, the strength of the HRE exhibits a steep increase with the field so that even low fields can be used for device switching. (ii) At higher fields, the HRE undergoes a rapid transition to saturation with a giant strength even for light-atom materials such as Si (exceeding 100 meV Å). (iii) The nanowire-size dependence of the saturation HRE is rather weak for light-atom Si, so size fluctuations would have a limited effect; this is a key requirement for scalability of Rashba-field-based spintronic devices. These three features offer Si nanowires as a promising platform for the realization of scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible spintronic devices.

12.
Nano Lett ; 16(12): 7937-7941, 2016 12 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960529

RESUMEN

We report two orders of magnitude stronger absorption in silicon nanorods relative to bulk in a wide energy range. The local field enhancement and dipole matrix element contributions were disentangled experimentally by single-dot absorption measurements on differently shaped particles as a function of excitation polarization and photon energy. Both factors substantially contribute to the observed effect as supported by simulations of the light-matter interaction and atomistic calculations of the transition matrix elements. The results indicate strong shape dependence of the quasidirect transitions in silicon nanocrystals, suggesting nanostructure shape engineering as an efficient tool for overcoming limitations of indirect band gap materials in optoelectronic applications, such as solar cells.

13.
Nano Lett ; 16(3): 1583-9, 2016 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26898670

RESUMEN

Comparison of the measured absolute absorption cross section on a per Si atom basis of plasma-synthesized Si nanocrystals (NCs) with the absorption of bulk crystalline Si shows that while near the band edge the NC absorption is weaker than the bulk, yet above ∼ 2.2 eV the NC absorbs up to 5 times more than the bulk. Using atomistic screened pseudopotential calculations we show that this enhancement arises from interface-induced scattering that enhances the quasi-direct, zero-phonon transitions by mixing direct Γ-like wave function character into the indirect X-like conduction band states, as well as from space confinement that broadens the distribution of wave functions in k-space. The absorption enhancement factor increases exponentially with decreasing NC size and is correlated with the exponentially increasing direct Γ-like wave function character mixed into the NC conduction states. This observation and its theoretical understanding could lead to engineering of Si and other indirect band gap NC materials for optical and optoelectronic applications.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 115(17): 176602, 2015 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26551133

RESUMEN

Transparent conductors (TCs) combine the usually contraindicated properties of electrical conductivity with optical transparency and are generally made by starting with a transparent insulator and making it conductive via heavy doping, an approach that generally faces severe "doping bottlenecks." We propose a different idea for TC design-starting with a metallic conductor and designing transparency by control of intrinsic interband transitions and intraband plasmonic frequency. We identify the specific design principles for three such prototypical intrinsic TC classes and then search computationally for materials that satisfy them. Remarkably, one of the intrinsic TC, Ag(3)Al(22)O(34), is predicted also to be a prototype 3D compounds that manifest natural 2D electron gas regions with very high electron density and conductivity.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(35): 11383-90, 2015 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26274577

RESUMEN

A unique possibility for a simple strain tolerant inorganic solid is envisioned whereby a set of isolated, one-dimensional (1D) nano objects are embedded in an elastically soft three-dimensional (3D) atomic matrix thus forming an interdimensional hybrid structure (IDHS). We predict theoretically that the concerted rotation of 1D nano objects could allow such IDHSs to tolerate large strain values with impunity. Searching theoretically among the 1:1:1 ABX compounds of I-I-VI composition, we identified, via first-principles thermodynamic theory, RbCuTe, which is a previously unreported but now predicted-to-be-stable compound in the MgSrSi-type structure, in space group Pnma. The predicted structure of RbCuTe consists of ribbons of copper and telluride atoms placed antipolar to one another throughout the lattice with rubidium atoms acting as a matrix. A novel synthetic adaptation utilizing liquid rubidium and vacuum annealing of the mixed elemental reagents in fused silica tubes as well as in situ (performed at the Advanced Photon Source) and ex situ structure determination confirmed the stability and predicted structure of RbCuTe. First-principles calculations then showed that the application of up to ∼30% uniaxial strain on the ground-state structure result in a buildup of internal stress not exceeding 0.5 GPa. The increase in total energy is 15-fold smaller than what is obtained for the same RbCuTe material but in structures having a contiguous set of 3D chemical bonds spanning the entire crystal. Furthermore, electronic structure calculations revealed that the HOMO is a 1D energy band localized on the CuTe ribbons and that the 1D insulating band structure is also resilient to such large strains. This combined theory and experiment study reveals a new type of strain tolerant inorganic material.

16.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7308, 2015 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26106063

RESUMEN

Transparent conductors combine two generally contradictory physical properties, but there are numerous applications where both functionalities are crucial. Previous searches focused on doping wide-gap metal oxides. Focusing instead on the family of 18 valence electron ternary ABX compounds that consist of elements A, B and X in 1:1:1 stoichiometry, we search theoretically for electronic structures that simultaneously lead to optical transparency while accommodating intrinsic defect structures that produce uncompensated free holes. This leads to the prediction of a stable, never before synthesized TaIrGe compound made of all-metal heavy atom compound. Laboratory synthesis then found it to be stable in the predicted crystal structure and p-type transparent conductor with a strong optical absorption peak at 3.36 eV and remarkably high hole mobility of 2,730 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature. This methodology opens the way to future searches of transparent conductors in unexpected chemical groups.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(8): 087402, 2015 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25768780

RESUMEN

The circular polarization (CP) that the photoluminescence inherits from the excitation source in n monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides (MX_{2})_{n} has been previously explained as a special feature of odd values of n, where the inversion symmetry is absent. This "valley polarization" effect results from the fact that, in the absence of inversion symmetry, charge carriers in different band valleys could be selectively excited by different circular polarized light. Although several experiments observed CP in centrosymmetric MX_{2} systems, e.g., for bilayer MX_{2}, they were dismissed as being due to some extrinsic sample irregularities. Here we show that also for n=even, where inversion symmetry is present and valley polarization physics is strictly absent, such intrinsic selectivity in CP is to be expected on the basis of fundamental spin-orbit physics. First-principles calculations of CP predict significant polarization for n=2 bilayers: from 69% in MoS_{2} to 93% in WS_{2}. This realization could broaden the range of materials to be considered as CP sources.

18.
Nat Chem ; 7(4): 308-16, 2015 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25803469

RESUMEN

Chemists and material scientists have often focused on the properties of previously reported compounds, but neglect numerous unreported but chemically plausible compounds that could have interesting properties. For example, the 18-valence electron ABX family of compounds features examples of topological insulators, thermoelectrics and piezoelectrics, but only 83 out of 483 of these possible compounds have been made. Using first-principles thermodynamics we examined the theoretical stability of the 400 unreported members and predict that 54 should be stable. Of those previously unreported 'missing' materials now predicted to be stable, 15 were grown in this study; X-ray studies agreed with the predicted crystal structure in all 15 cases. Among the predicted and characterized properties of the missing compounds are potential transparent conductors, thermoelectric materials and topological semimetals. This integrated process-prediction of functionality in unreported compounds followed by laboratory synthesis and characterization-could be a route to the systematic discovery of hitherto missing, realizable functional materials.

19.
Nano Lett ; 15(2): 1222-8, 2015 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25607525

RESUMEN

The study of topological insulators has generally involved search of materials that have this property as an innate quality, distinct from normal insulators. Here we focus on the possibility of converting a normal insulator into a topological one by application of an external electric field that shifts different bands by different energies and induces a specific band inversion, which leads to a topological state. Phosphorene is a two-dimensional (2D) material that can be isolated through mechanical exfoliation from layered black phosphorus, but unlike graphene and silicene, single-layer phosphorene has a large band gap (1.5-2.2 eV). Thus, it was unsuspected to exhibit band inversion and the ensuing topological insulator behavior. Using first-principles calculations with applied perpendicular electric field F⊥ on few-layer phosphorene we predict a continuous transition from the normal insulator to a topological insulator and eventually to a metal as a function of F⊥. The tuning of topological behavior with electric field would lead to spin-separated, gapless edge states, that is, quantum spin Hall effect. This finding opens the possibility of converting normal insulating materials into topological ones via electric field and making a multifunctional "field effect topological transistor" that could manipulate simultaneously both spin and charge carrier. We use our results to formulate some design principles for looking for other 2D materials that could have such an electrical-induced topological transition.

20.
Nano Lett ; 15(2): 949-57, 2015 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25562378

RESUMEN

Layered group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides (with the formula of MX2) are known to show a transition from an indirect band gap in the thick n-monolayer stack (MX2)n to a direct band gap at the n = 1 monolayer limit, thus converting the system into an optically active material suitable for a variety of optoelectronic applications. The origin of this transition has been attributed predominantly to quantum confinement effect at reduced n. Our analysis of the evolution of band-edge energies and wave functions as a function of n using ab initio density functional calculations including the long-range dispersion interaction reveals (i) the indirect-to-direct band gap transformation is triggered not only by (kinetic-energy controlled) quantum confinement but also by (potential-energy controlled) band repulsion and localization. On its own, neither of the two effects can explain by itself the energy evolution of the band-edge states relevant to the transformation; (ii) when n decreased, there emerge distinct regimes with characteristic localization prototypes of band-edge states deciding the optical response of the system. They are distinguished by the real-space direct/indirect in combination with momentum-space direct/indirect nature of electron and hole states and give rise to distinct types of charge distribution of the photoexcited carriers that control excitonic behaviors; (iii) the various regimes associated with different localization prototypes are predicted to change with modification of cations and anions in the complete MX2 (M = Cr, Mo, W and X = S, Se, Te) series. These results offer new insight into understanding the excitonic properties (e.g., binding energy, lifetime etc.) of multiple layered MX2 and their heterostructures.

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