*Nanotechnology ; 34(5)2022 Nov 18.*

##### RESUMEN

Experimental realizations of two-dimensional materials are hardly free of structural defects such as e.g. vacancies, which, in turn, modify drastically its pristine physical defect-free properties. In this work, we explore effects due to point defect clustering on the electronic and transport properties of bilayer graphene nanoribbons, for AA and AB stacking and zigzag and armchair boundaries, by means of the tight-binding approach and scattering matrix formalism. Evident vacancy concentration signatures exhibiting a maximum amplitude and an universality regardless of the system size, stacking and boundary types, in the density of states around the zero-energy level are observed. Our results are explained via the coalescence analysis of the strong sizeable vacancy clustering effect in the system and the breaking of the inversion symmetry at high vacancy densities, demonstrating a similar density of states for two equivalent degrees of concentration disorder, below and above the maximum value.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(12)2022 Jan 06.*

##### RESUMEN

We investigate the effect of long-range impurity potentials on the persistent current of graphene quantum rings in the presence of an uniform perpendicular magnetic field. The impurity potentials are modeled as finite regions of the ring with a definite length. We show that, due to the relativistic and massless character of the charge carriers in graphene, the effect of such non-uniform potentials on the energy spectrum and on the persistent current of the rings can be reliably modeled by assuming a non-perturbed ring and including an additional phase due to the interaction of the charge carriers with the potential. In addition, the results show the presence of localized states in the impurity regions. Moreover, we show that for the case of a potential created by a p-n-p junction, the persistent current can be modulated by controlling the voltage at the junction.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 33(37)2021 Jul 15.*

##### RESUMEN

In this work we investigate the ballistic transport of electrons through three-terminal graphene-based devices. The system consists of a Y-shaped junction formed by three armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons with a rectangular gate potential applied to one of the output branches, whereby current control can be established by the controlling of the refractive index in graphene p-n junctions. Transport properties are obtained by using the Landauer-Büttiker formalism and the tight-binding model within the nearest-neighbor approximation, which allows the calculation of the conductance as function of the Fermi energy, the applied potential, and the system size, as well as the current density. The results demonstrate that the applied electric field can tune the current transmission between the input and two output leads and, consequently, the proposed system acts as a current switch.

*Bull Entomol Res ; 111(5): 568-578, 2021 Oct.*

##### RESUMEN

The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the main pests of fruit, worldwide, and the use of population suppression method with low environmental impact is an increasingly strong requirement of the consumer market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral and natural films on the physical-chemical properties of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), cultivar Itália, and oviposition behaviour of C. capitata. Fruits were immersed in suspensions (100 and 200 g L-1) of mineral (kaolin Surround®WP, kaolin 607, kaolin 608, kaolin 611 and talc) and natural films (chitosan, cassava starch, potato starch and guar gum 5.0 g L-1) and distilled water (control). After drying, fruits were exposed to C. capitata pairs of males and females for 24 h in choice and non-choice tests; the number of punctures with and without eggs, eggs per fruit and behavioural response of fly to treated and untreated fruits were recorded. Results obtained in this study are promising, given the scientific evidence that films of mineral particles such as kaolin (Surround®, 607, 608 and 611) changed the firmness, luminosity, chroma and hue angle of grapes and reduced the oviposition of C. capitata. In addition, our results also showed that natural polymers do not deter C. capitata females, but rather seem to stimulate oviposition.

##### Asunto(s)

Ceratitis capitata/fisiología , Películas Cinematográficas , Oviposición , Vitis , Animales , Femenino , Frutas , Caolín , Masculino , Polímeros , Talco*J Phys Condens Matter ; 33(6): 065503, 2021 Feb 10.*

##### RESUMEN

The effects of shear strain and applied in plane electric field on the electronic properties of monolayer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are theoretically investigated. Band structures and the probability densities are calculated within the tight-binding model and the mechanical stresses submitted to the GNRs are taken into account by using the theory of linear elasticity with joint modifications in the elongation of the nearest-neighbor vectors and the modification of the hopping parameters. The energy gaps for specific widths of (semiconducting) armchair nanoribbons are verified also in the presence of either strain or field, whereas zigzag nanoribbons are metallic for any value of strain and exhibit a small gap for any value of field. However, our results demonstrate that when both strain and electric field are combined, a significant energy gap is always observed in the band structure, for any width or edge type of the ribbon. Moreover, the obtained total wave function is asymmetric along the ribbon width due to the applied electric field that pushes the electrons to one side of the ribbon and, under shear strain, a peak at the center of the ribbon in the spatial distribution is also observed owing to the preferable localization around the almost undeformed carbon bonds at ribbon center.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(10): 106801, 2021 Sep 03.*

##### RESUMEN

The moiré pattern observed in stacked noncommensurate crystal lattices, such as heterobilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides, produces a periodic modulation of their band gap. Excitons subjected to this potential landscape exhibit a band structure that gives rise to a quasiparticle dubbed the moiré exciton. In the case of MoS_{2}/WSe_{2} heterobilayers, the moiré trapping potential has honeycomb symmetry and, consequently, the moiré exciton band structure is the same as that of a Dirac-Weyl fermion, whose mass can be further tuned down to zero with a perpendicularly applied field. Here we show that, analogously to other Dirac-like particles, the moiré exciton exhibits a trembling motion, also known as Zitterbewegung, whose long timescales are compatible with current experimental techniques for exciton dynamics. This promotes the study of the dynamics of moiré excitons in van der Waals heterostructures as an advantageous solid-state platform to probe Zitterbewegung, broadly tunable by gating and interlayer twist angle.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 33(9): 095503, 2021 Mar 03.*

##### RESUMEN

The time evolution of a low-energy two-dimensional Gaussian wave packet in ABC-stacked n-layer graphene (ABC-NLG) is investigated. Expectation values of the position (x, y) of center-of-mass and the total probability densities of the wave packet are calculated analytically using the Green's function method. These results are confirmed using an alternative numerical method based on the split-operator technique within the Dirac approach for ABC-NLG, which additionally allows to include external fields and potentials. The main features of the zitterbewegung (trembling motion) of wave packets in graphene are demonstrated and are found to depend not only on the wave packet width and initial pseudospin polarization, but also on the number of layers. Moreover, the analytical and numerical methods proposed here allow to investigate wave packet dynamics in graphene systems with an arbitrary number of layers and arbitrary potential landscapes.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(42): 425501, 2020 Jun 15.*

##### RESUMEN

In this work we describe a proposal for a graphene-based nanostructure that modulates electric current even in the absence of a gap in the band structure. The device consists of a graphene p-n junction that acts as a Veselago lens that focuses ballistic electrons on the output lead. Applying external (electric and magnetic) fields changes the position of the output focus, reducing the transmission. Such device can be applied to low power field effect transistors, which can benefit from graphene's high electronic mobility.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(15): 155501, 2020 Apr 10.*

##### RESUMEN

The energy spectrum and local current patterns in graphene quantum dots (QD) are investigated for different geometries in the presence of an external perpendicular magnetic field. Our results demonstrate that, for specific geometries and edge configurations, the QD exhibits vortex and anti-vortex patterns in the local current density, in close analogy to the vortex patterns observed in the probability density current of semiconductor QD, as well as in the order parameter of mesoscopic superconductors.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(21): 215502, 2017 Jun 01.*

##### RESUMEN

The interaction of monolayer graphene with specific substrates may break its sublattice symmetry and results in unidirectional chiral states with opposite group velocities in the different Dirac cones (Zarenia et al 2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 085451). Taking advantage of this feature, we propose a valley filter based on a transversal mass kink for low energy electrons in graphene, which is obtained by assuming a defect region in the substrate that provides a change in the sign of the substrate-induced mass and thus creates a non-biased channel, perpendicular to the kink, for electron motion. By solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the tight-binding Hamiltonian, we investigate the time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet propagating through such a system and obtain the transport properties of this graphene-based substrate-induced quantum point contact. Our results demonstrate that efficient valley filtering can be obtained, provided: (i) the electron energy is sufficiently low, i.e. with electrons belonging mostly to the lowest sub-band of the channel, and (ii) the channel length (width) is sufficiently long (narrow). Moreover, even though the transmission probabilities for each valley are significantly affected by impurities and defects in the channel region, the valley polarization in this system is shown to be robust against their presence.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(16): 165501, 2017 Apr 26.*

##### RESUMEN

We present a theoretical study of the one-electron states of a semiconductor-made quantum ring (QR) containing a series of piecewise-constant wells and barriers distributed along the ring circumference. The single quantum well and the superlattice cases are considered in detail. We also investigate how such confining potentials affect the Aharonov-Bohm like oscillations of the energy spectrum and current in the presence of a magnetic field. The model is simple enough so as to allow obtaining various analytical or quasi-analytical results. We show that the well-in-a-ring structure presents enhanced localization features, as well as specific geometrical resonances in its above-barrier spectrum. We stress that the superlattice-in-a-ring structure allows giving a physical meaning to the often used but usually artificial Born-von-Karman periodic conditions, and discuss in detail the formation of energy minibands and minigaps for the circumferential motion, as well as several properties of the superlattice eigenstates in the presence of the magnetic field. We obtain that the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of below-barrier miniband states are reinforced, owing to the important tunnel coupling between neighbour wells of the superlattice, which permits the electron to move in the ring. Additionally, we analysis a superlattice-like structure made of a regular distribution of ionized impurities placed around the QR, a system that may implement the superlattice in a ring idea. Finally, we consider several random disorder models, in order to study roughness disorder and to tackle the robustness of some results against deviations from the ideally nanostructured ring system.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(50): 505501, 2016 12 21.*

##### RESUMEN

We investigate localized states of a quantum ring confinement in monolayer graphene defined by a circular mass-related potential, which can be induced e.g. by interaction with a substrate that breaks the sublattice symmetry, where a circular line defect provides a change in the sign of the induced mass term along the radial direction. Electronic properties are calculated analytically within the Dirac-Weyl approximation in the presence of an external magnetic field. Analytical results are also compared with those obtained by the tight-binding approach. Regardless of its sign, a mass term [Formula: see text] is expected to open a gap for low-energy electrons in Dirac cones in graphene. Both approaches confirm the existence of confined states with energies inside the gap, even when the width of the kink modelling the mass sign transition is infinitely thin. We observe that such energy levels are inversely proportional to the defect line ring radius and independent on the mass kink height. An external magnetic field is demonstrated to lift the valley degeneracy in this system and easily tune the valley index of the ground state in this system, which can be polarized on either K or [Formula: see text] valleys of the Brillouin zone, depending on the magnetic field intensity. Geometrical changes in the defect line shape are considered by assuming an elliptic line with different eccentricities. Our results suggest that any defect line that is closed in a loop, with any geometry, would produce the same qualitative results as the circular ones, as a manifestation of the topologically protected nature of the ring-like states investigated here.