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1.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 95 Suppl 1: S190-6, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25841343

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The success of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing (MtbB) lineage in different geographical regions has been attributed to high transmission, increased virulence, drug resistance and rapid adaptation to the host. In some countries of secondary MtbB dispersion like South Africa and Peru, rising prevalence of the Beijing strains is registered. However, in neighboring countries to affected regions such as Mozambique and Brazil, respectively, the prevalence of these strains is still low and this could be due to biological particularities of the circulating MtbB strains and/or differentiated host susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To characterize genetically and phenotypically MtbB strains isolated in Brazil (n = 8) and Mozambique (n = 17). METHODS: This is a descriptive study of genotypes of the MtbB isolates, determined by spoligotyping, MIRU-VNTR typing, analysis of the IS6110 copy number in the NTF region and screening for mutations in mutT2, mutT4, rpoB, katG and pks 15/1 genes. Virulence-associated properties of the studied isolates were verified in the in vitro model of infection of human THP-1 cells. RESULTS: The genotypes defined by the 24VNTRs were distinct for all isolates included in this study and presented an HGDI of 0.997. The VNTR patterns with seven copies of MIRU26 and seven copies of QUB26, representative for the previously described MtbB genotype B0, dominant in Russia, were detected in 38.5% of the studied isolates. In addition, all isolates presented RD105 deletion and a 7 bp insertion in pks15/1 gene. Almost all tested strains belonged to the RD181 sublineage, with the exception of two strains from Mozambique of RD150 sublineage. Combined analysis of the NTF region integrity and mutations in mutT genes showed that 62.5% and 47% of isolates obtained in Brazil and Mozambique, respectively, were of the ancestral genotype. The virulence index of the ancient isolates, evaluated in the THP-1 cells, was significantly lower than that of the modern genotype group. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate genotype particularities of the Beijing strains isolated in Brazil and Mozambique, two countries of low prevalence of the MtbB lineage in local Mtb populations. In contrast to the neighboring countries with high prevalence of the MtbB strains of modern sublineage, significant proportions of the isolates obtained in Brazil and Mozambique were presented by the strains of the ancient sublineage. Our data suggest that lower virulence of the ancient strains, compared with the modern strains, could be involved in the slow spread of the MtbB strains in some regions.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculosis/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Beijing , Brasil/epidemiología , Células Cultivadas , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Mozambique/epidemiología , Mutación/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidad , Necrosis/microbiología , Tuberculosis/epidemiología
2.
J Clin Microbiol ; 50(6): 1912-7, 2012 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22495562

RESUMEN

Skin biopsy samples from 145 relapse leprosy cases and from five different regions in Brazil were submitted for sequence analysis of part of the genes associated with Mycobacterium leprae drug resistance. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes were observed in M. leprae from 4 out of 92 cases with positive amplification (4.3%) and included a case with a mutation in rpoB only, another sample with SNPs in both folP1 and rpoB, and two cases showing mutations in folP1, rpoB, and gyrA, suggesting the existence of multidrug resistance (MDR). The nature of the mutations was as reported in earlier studies, being CCC to CGC in codon 55 in folP (Pro to Arg), while in the case of rpoB, all mutations occurred at codon 531, with two being a transition of TCG to ATG (Ser to Met), one TCG to TTC (Ser to Phe), and one TCG to TTG (Ser to Leu). The two cases with mutations in gyrA changed from GCA to GTA (Ala to Val) in codon 91. The median time from cure to relapse diagnosis was 9.45 years but was significantly shorter in patients with mutations (3.26 years; P = 0.0038). More than 70% of the relapses were multibacillary, including three of the mutation-carrying cases; one MDR relapse patient was paucibacillary.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Lepra/epidemiología , Lepra/microbiología , Mycobacterium leprae/efectos de los fármacos , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biopsia , Brasil/epidemiología , ADN Bacteriano/química , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Femenino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación Missense , Mutación Puntual , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Recurrencia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Piel/microbiología , Adulto Joven
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 60(Pt 10): 1441-6, 2011 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21596907

RESUMEN

We performed genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae present in skin biopsy samples that were collected during the first and the second disease occurrences from eight leprosy patients, seven of whom were diagnosed as suffering from disease relapse. Sequence analysis of part of the M. leprae rpoB, folP1, gyrB and gyrA genes did not show genetic change that supported the presence of drug-resistant bacilli. However, we observed a synonymous nucleotide change at position 297 of gyrA among five of these patients, one presenting C to T (CgyrAT) and four presenting T to C (TgyrAC) at this position. Additional genotyping by analysis of the four short tandem repeats GAA, GTA9, AT17 and TA18 showed that the gyrA single nucleotide polymorphism change was accompanied by a change in short tandem repeat genotype. Our data suggest that leprosy relapse in these patients, living in an area endemic for leprosy, could be caused by M. leprae with a genotype different from the one that caused initial disease.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/epidemiología , Lepra/microbiología , Tipificación Molecular , Mycobacterium leprae/clasificación , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Biopsia , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Recurrencia , Secuencias Repetitivas de Ácidos Nucleicos , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Piel/microbiología
4.
Microbiol Immunol ; 49(7): 571-8, 2005.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16034199

RESUMEN

The development of fast, inexpensive, and reliable tests to identify nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is needed. Studies have indicated that the conventional identification procedures, including biochemical assays, are imprecise. This study evaluated a proposed alternative identification method in which 83 NTM isolates, previously identified by conventional biochemical testing and in-house M. avium IS1245-PCR amplification, were submitted to the following tests: thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of mycolic acids and PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65(PRA). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of mycolic acids and Southern blot analysis for M. avium IS1245 were performed on the strains that evidenced discrepancies on either of the above tests. Sixty-eight out of 83 (82%) isolates were concordantly identified by the presence of IS1245 and PRA and by TLC mycolic acid analysis. Discrepant results were found between the phenotypic and molecular tests in 12/83 (14.4%) isolates. Most of these strains were isolated from non-sterile body sites and were most probably colonizing in the host tissue. While TLC patterns suggested the presence of polymycobacterial infection in 3/83 (3.6%) cultures, this was the case in only one HPLC-tested culture and in none of those tested by PRA. The results of this study indicated that, as a phenotypic identification procedure, TLC mycolic acid determination could be considered a relatively simple and cost-effective method for routine screening of NTM isolates in mycobacteriology laboratory practice with a potential for use in developing countries. Further positive evidence was that this method demonstrated general agreement on MAC and M. simiae identification, including in the mixed cultures that predominated in the isolates of the disseminated infections in the AIDS patients under study. In view of the fact that the same treatment regimen is recommended for infections caused by these two species, TLC mycolic acid analysis may be a useful identification tool wherever molecular methods are unaffordable.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Cromatografía en Capa Delgada/métodos , Mycobacterium/aislamiento & purificación , Ácidos Micólicos/análisis , ADN Bacteriano/análisis , Mycobacterium/química , Mycobacterium/clasificación
5.
J Microbiol Methods ; 53(3): 335-42, 2003 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12689711

RESUMEN

The main objective of this study was to evaluate INNO-LiPA Rif.TB and to determine the frequency of mutations in rpoB in rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates of Brazilian tuberculosis patients. We used the reverse hybridization assay on 113 resistant and 15 sensitive clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and on reference strains belonging to 37 different species. All MTB complex strains and none of the other strains reacted with the MTB complex-specific probe, meaning that the assay is 100% specific and 100% sensitive for detection of strains of the MTB complex. In 80 resistant strains, mutations causing S531L (n=55), H526Y (n=9), H526D (n=12) or D516V (n=9) were detected while in 30 strains, mutations were present but their exact nature was not determined by the assay (DeltaS patterns). All sensitive strains had the sensitive genotype while among resistant isolates, a sensitive genotype was obtained in three due to the absence of mutations in the hot spot region, demonstrating an assay accuracy of 97.6% for detection of drug susceptibility. In 10 resistant cultures, two or more mutations were detected and in five, mixed sensitive and resistant genotypes were observed. The sensitivity of the assay for detection of resistant organisms in a mixture with sensitive ones were 2% and 70%, respectively, considering the appearance and disappearance of the R2 and S2 bands. The sensitivity to detect heteroresistance is similar to that of the proportion method when a specific probe for the mutation is present but the performance of the assay in the patient population will depend on the frequency of mutation distribution.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efectos de los fármacos , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Rifampin/farmacología , Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Antibióticos Antituberculosos/farmacología , Brasil , Genotipo , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/aislamiento & purificación , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Factores de Tiempo , Tuberculosis/microbiología
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