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1.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 25(4): e12738, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090150

RESUMEN

AIM: To examine the influence of body mass index, bioimpedance, and skin folds on the distribution of body interface pressure in regions with the potential to develop pressure ulcers in contact with support surfaces. DESIGN: This was a descriptive and analytical study. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteer adults were investigated in April 2017. Body mass index, skin folds, waist circumference, bioimpedance, and interface pressure on bony prominences were investigated. Descriptive statistics and correlations were analysed. RESULTS: Peak pressures in the subscapular region presented moderate and significant correlations with body mass index, waist circumference, total and extracellular body water, fat-free mass, and lean mass per body segment. The peak pressure on the right heel showed a moderate correlation with total and extracellular body water, fat-free mass, and lean mass per segment. CONCLUSION: The need for multicenter research was evident, focusing on bioimpedance assessment as a risk factor for the development of pressure ulcers.


Asunto(s)
Impedancia Eléctrica , Úlcera por Presión/fisiopatología , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Circunferencia de la Cintura
2.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 23(4)2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643855

RESUMEN

AIM: To assess the scientific evidence about the types of support surfaces used in intraoperative surgical practice in the prevention of pressure ulcers due to surgical positioning. METHOD: This is an integrative literature review. The electronic databases Cochrane, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs, and CINAHL were used. The descriptors surgical patients, support surfaces, perioperative care, patient positioning, and pressure ulcer were used in the search strategy. Articles that addressed the use of support surfaces intraoperatively, published between 1990 and 2016, were selected. The PRISMA guidelines were used to structure the review. RESULTS: Of 18 evaluated studies, most were in English, followed by Portuguese and Spanish; most were performed by nurses. The most commonly cited support surfaces were viscoelastic polymer, micropulse mattresses, gel based mattresses, and foam devices. CONCLUSION: There are gaps in knowledge regarding the most efficient support surfaces and the specifications of the products used to prevent pressure ulcers due to surgical positioning.


Asunto(s)
Úlcera por Presión/prevención & control , Lechos , Humanos , Posicionamiento del Paciente , Atención Perioperativa
3.
J Oral Implantol ; 43(4): 254-260, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628390

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the removal torque of prefabricated implant screws after cyclic loading. Four groups with two crowns supported by two implants (n = 5) were obtained according to splinted and nonsplinted prosthesis, using titanium or DLC screws (splinted crowns with titanium screw [STi], splinted crowns with DLC screw [SC], nonsplinted crowns and titanium screw [NSTi], and nonsplinted crowns and DLC screw [NSC]). The prosthetic screws were tightened at 32 Ncm and retightened, and the specimens were submitted to 106 mechanical cycles (4 Hz/98 N). After cyclic loading, loosening torque was evaluated, and the final measurements were performed. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = .005). There was statistically significance in the interaction of screw × splinting (P = .003). For the group that used titanium screws, NSTi showed smaller removal torque compared with STi. It was concluded that the use of the DLC coating screws in nonsplinted prosthesis maintain the torque after cyclic loading.


Asunto(s)
Retención de Prótesis Dentales , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Dentadura Parcial Fija , Coronas , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Humanos , Titanio , Torque
4.
Implant Dent ; 25(4): 510-4, 2016 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27280738

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the maximum load on the elastic limit of internal conical (IC) implants with regular external hexagon (REH) and narrow external hexagon (NEH) implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty cylindrical implants were divided in 3 groups (n = 10): REH (3.75 mm); NEH (3.3 mm); IC (3.5 mm). The implants were evaluated by means of cantilever bending loads using a mechanical testing machine. A strain qualitative analysis and the corresponding angles were analyzed. Using single factor analysis of variance with Tukey Test and Friedman Test (P < 0.05) the statistical analysis for data were performed. RESULTS: REH (294.37 N) and IC (294.37 N) groups presented statistically greater Fle than NEH (189.16 N). Regarding to the strain, there were no significant differences among groups. However, there were a greater number of fissures and more fractures present on NEH group. CONCLUSION: The IC implant with smaller diameter did not result in reduction of elastic limit when compared with the REH implants. Nevertheless, the reduction of 0.45 mm of the hexagonal connection implant's diameter has significantly diminished the elastic limit.


Asunto(s)
Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar/efectos adversos , Implantación Dental Endoósea/efectos adversos , Pilares Dentales/efectos adversos , Implantación Dental Endoósea/métodos , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Análisis del Estrés Dental/métodos , Elasticidad , Humanos , Soporte de Peso
5.
J Med Eng Technol ; 40(2): 35-42, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26783652

RESUMEN

Photoelastic analysis was used to evaluate the biomechanical behaviour of implant-supported, double-screwed crowns with different connection systems and cantilever lengths. Three models were made in PL-2 photoelastic resin and divided into six groups, on the basis of the implant connection system (external hexagon [EH] or Morse taper [MT]), type of abutment (Mini Pilar [Neodent, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil] or "UCLA") and number of crowns in the cantilever (one or two). The implant-prosthesis unit was placed in a circular polariscope. Occlusal surfaces of the crowns were subjected to 100-N loads in the axial and oblique (45°) directions in a universal testing machine (EMIC). Generated stresses were recorded and analysed qualitatively in a graphics program (Adobe Photoshop). Under axial loading, all of the groups had similar numbers of fringes, which were increased when the crowns were subjected to oblique loading. The highest number of fringes was found during oblique loading in the EH + Mini Pilar group. In conclusion, although the type of implant connection system did not have a direct influence on the stress distribution for axial loading, the cantilever length did have a direct influence on stress distribution. Models with two crowns in the cantilever showed more stress, with a greater concentration of force on the cervical part of the implant.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Ensayo de Materiales , Fotograbar , Estrés Mecánico
6.
J Oral Implantol ; 41(1): 3-9, 2015 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23397888

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the separation of prosthetic crowns from fixed partial dentures by means of stress gradient evaluation. Three photoelastic models were created to examine contiguous implants with varying contact between the crowns (contact point [CP], contact surface [CS], splinted [SP]). The SP group presented the best results, followed by the CS group, indicating that the use of splinted prosthetic crowns and crowns with broad surface contacts is viable when considering the stress values.


Asunto(s)
Coronas , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Diseño de Dentadura , Dentadura Parcial Fija , Algoritmos , Proceso Alveolar/fisiopatología , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Fuerza de la Mordida , Arco Dental/fisiopatología , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Análisis del Estrés Dental/instrumentación , Humanos , Mandíbula/fisiopatología , Estrés Mecánico , Propiedades de Superficie
7.
Acta Ortop Bras ; 22(1): 17-20, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24644414

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare, using photoelasticity, internal stress produced by USS II type screw with 5.2 and 6.2 mm external diameters, when submitted to three different pullout strengths. METHODS: Two photoelastic models were especially made. The simulation was performed using loads of 1.8, 2.4 e 3.3 kgf.The fringe orders were evaluated around the screws. In all the models analyzed the shear stress were calculated. RESULTS: Independently of the applied load, the smaller screw showed higher values of shear stress. CONCLUSION: According to the analysis performed, we observed that the place of highest stress was in the first thread of the lead, close to the head of the screws. Experimental study.

8.
Braz Dent J ; 24(2): 147-51, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23780359

RESUMEN

Lack of passivity has been associated with biomechanical problems in implant-supported prosthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the passivity of three techniques to fabricate an implant framework from a Co-Cr alloy by photoelasticity. The model was obtained from a steel die simulating an edentulous mandible with 4 external hexagon analog implants with a standard platform. On this model, five frameworks were fabricated for each group: a monoblock framework (control), laser and TIG welding frameworks. The photoelastic model was made from a flexible epoxy resin. On the photoelastic analysis, the frameworks were bolted onto the model for the verification of maximum shear stress at 34 selected points around the implants and 5 points in the middle of the model. The stresses were compared all over the photoelastic model, between the right, left, and center regions and between the cervical and apical regions. The values were subjected to two-way ANOVA, and Tukey's test (α=0.05). There was no significant difference among the groups and studied areas (p>0.05). It was concluded that the stresses generated around the implants were similar for all techniques.


Asunto(s)
Aleaciones de Cromo/química , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Soldadura Dental/métodos , Rayos Láser , Gases em Plasma , Técnica de Colado Dental , Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar , Implantes Dentales , Modelos Dentales , Soldadura Dental/instrumentación , Resinas Epoxi/química , Humanos , Arcada Edéntula/rehabilitación , Mandíbula/patología , Ensayo de Materiales , Estrés Mecánico , Propiedades de Superficie , Soldadura/instrumentación , Soldadura/métodos
9.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 28(2): e98-e105, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23527374

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To verify the effectiveness of a countertorque device in dental implants in redistributing stress to the bone-implant interface during tightening of the abutment screw. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two prismatic photoelastic samples containing implants were made, one with a 3.75-mm-diameter implant and the other with a 5.0-mm-diameter implant (both implants had an external-hexagon interface) and the respective abutments were attached (CeraOne). The samples were placed in a support and submitted to torques of 10, 20, 32, and 45 Ncm with an electronic torque meter. The torque application was repeated 10 times on each sample (n = 10) with and without a countertorque device. Photoelastic patterns were detected; thus, a photographic register of each test was selected. The fringe patterns were analyzed at discrete points near the implants' external arch. RESULTS: In both implants analyzed, a stress gradient reduction was observed through the implant with the countertorque device. CONCLUSIONS: The countertorque device used in this study proved to be effective in reducing the stresses generated in the peri-implant bone tissue during torque application.


Asunto(s)
Pilares Dentales , Implantes Dentales , Instrumentos Dentales , Análisis del Estrés Dental/métodos , Torque , Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Elasticidad , Estrés Mecánico
10.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 28(1): e39-44, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23377080

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: There is a variety of implant/abutment (I/A) junctions for the connection of implant-supported prostheses. The aim of this work was to compare the shear stress distribution in three types of I/A interfaces after application of oblique loading on the abutments, simulating loading on an anterior tooth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Similar wide unthreaded and cylindric implants (13.0 mm in length and 5.0 mm in diameter) and abutments were fabricated and embedded in photoelastic acrylic resin. The I/A assemblies featured three different I/A interfaces: external hex, internal hex, and internal taper. The samples were submitted to a compressive load of 0.6 kgf, which was applied to the abutment at an angle of 135 degrees. The maximum shear stresses were determined and observed at 21 points around the implants in the photoelastic models (n = 4). Graphics describing the maximum shear stress (y-axis) and the analyzed points (x-axis) were created, and the curve areas were calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to analyze the results (P < .05). RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups (P = .058). CONCLUSION: All of the wide-diameter I/A junctions presented similar behavior under oblique loading and appeared to be suitable to support prostheses that could receive this type of loading.


Asunto(s)
Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Análisis del Estrés Dental/métodos , Estrés Mecánico , Fuerza Compresiva , Pilares Dentales , Implantes Dentales , Módulo de Elasticidad , Humanos , Resistencia al Corte , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Diente
11.
Braz Dent J ; 23(6): 686-91, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23338261

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different plasma arc welding parameters on the flexural strength of titanium alloy beams (Ti-6Al-4V). Forty Ti-6Al-4V and 10 NiCr alloy beam specimens (40 mm long and 3.18 mm diameter) were prepared and divided into 5 groups (n=10). The titanium alloy beams for the control group were not sectioned or subjected to welding. Groups PL10, PL12, and PL14 contained titanium beams sectioned and welded at current 3 A for 10, 12 or 14 ms, respectively. Group NCB consisted of NiCr alloy beams welded using conventional torch brazing. After, the beams were subjected to a three-point bending test and the values obtained were analyzed to assess the flexural strength (MPa). Statistical analysis was carried out by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test at 0.05 confidence level. Significant difference was verified among the evaluated groups (p<0.001), with higher flexural strength for the control group (p<0.05). No significant differences was observed among the plasma welded groups (p>0.05). The NCB group showed the lowest flexural strength, although it was statistically similar to the PL 14 group (p>0.05). The weld depth penetration was not significantly different among the plasma welded groups (p=0.05). Three representative specimens were randomly selected to be evaluated under scanning electron microcopy. The composition of the welded regions was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This study provides an initial set of parameters supporting the use of plasma welding during fabrication of titanium alloy dental frameworks.


Asunto(s)
Aleaciones Dentales/química , Soldadura Dental/métodos , Gases em Plasma/química , Titanio/química , Argón/química , Aleaciones de Cromo/química , Soldadura Dental/instrumentación , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Docilidad , Espectrometría por Rayos X , Estrés Mecánico , Propiedades de Superficie , Soldadura/instrumentación , Soldadura/métodos
12.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 24(5): 781-9, 2009.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19865617

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the peri-implant stress fields generated from four different implant-abutment interfaces under axial loading applied at the center of the implant and several millimeters away from the implant center via photoelastic analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Similar unthreaded and cylindric implants and abutments were fabricated and embedded in photoelastic resin with four different implant-abutment interfaces: external hex, internal hex, internal taper (11.5 degrees), and solid connection to the abutment (one piece). The samples were submitted to vertical compressive loads; one was applied at the implant center (1.5 kg; centered load), and the other was applied 6.5 mm away from the center, 4.4 mm from the outside of the outer aspect of the implant (0.75 kg; off-centered load). The maximum shear stresses were determined and observed at 46 points around the implants under the centered load and at 61 points under the off-center load in the photoelastic models. Graphics describing the maximum shear stress (y-axis) and the analyzed points (x-axis) were obtained, and areas under the curves were calculated. RESULTS: The centered loading (all points) resulted in small differences. The lowest amounts of stress were observed for the internal-taper implants, and values were minimally greater (0.4% to 3.3%) for the other implants. No statistically significant differences were found between groups for the centered load in any area. Under an off-center load, the internal-hex implants presented the least stress (all points). For off-center loading, the internal-hexagon implants differed significantly from the external-hex and one-piece implants and displayed the lowest stress levels. CONCLUSION: Under an off-center load, the internal-hex interfaces presented the lowest stress concentrations, internal-taper interfaces presented intermediate results, and one-piece and external-hex implants resulted in high stress levels. Centralized axial loads produced similar results.


Asunto(s)
Pilares Dentales , Implantes Dentales , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Resinas Acrílicas , Área Bajo la Curva , Materiales Dentales/química , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Elasticidad , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Modelos Anatómicos , Estrés Mecánico , Propiedades de Superficie , Titanio/química
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