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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 9129-9139, 2021 07 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161066

RESUMEN

We present an updated fuel-based oil and gas (FOG) inventory with estimates of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from oil and natural gas production in the contiguous US (CONUS). We compare the FOG inventory with aircraft-derived ("top-down") emissions for NOx over footprints that account for ∼25% of US oil and natural gas production. Across CONUS, we find that the bottom-up FOG inventory combined with other anthropogenic emissions is on average within ∼10% of top-down aircraft-derived NOx emissions. We also find good agreement in the trends of NOx from drilling- and production-phase activities, as inferred by satellites and in the bottom-up inventory. Leveraging tracer-tracer relationships derived from aircraft observations, methane (CH4) and non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions have been added to the inventory. Our total CONUS emission estimates for 2015 of oil and natural gas are 0.45 ± 0.14 Tg NOx/yr, 15.2 ± 3.0 Tg CH4/yr, and 5.7 ± 1.7 Tg NMVOC/yr. Compared to the US National Emissions Inventory and Greenhouse Gas Inventory, FOG NOx emissions are ∼40% lower, while inferred CH4 and NMVOC emissions are up to a factor of ∼2 higher. This suggests that NMVOC/NOx emissions from oil and gas basins are ∼3 times higher than current estimates and will likely affect how air quality models represent ozone formation downwind of oil and gas fields.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Ozono , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Metano/análisis , Gas Natural/análisis , Yacimiento de Petróleo y Gas , Ozono/análisis
2.
Indoor Air ; 31(5): 1323-1339, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337567

RESUMEN

Humans spend approximately 90% of their time indoors, impacting their own air quality through occupancy and activities. Human VOC emissions indoors from exercise are still relatively uncertain, and questions remain about emissions from chlorine-based cleaners. To investigate these and other issues, the ATHLETic center study of Indoor Chemistry (ATHLETIC) campaign was conducted in the weight room of the Dal Ward Athletic Center at the University of Colorado Boulder. Using a Vocus Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (Vocus PTR-TOF), an Aerodyne Gas Chromatograph (GC), an Iodide-Chemical Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (I-CIMS), and Picarro cavity ringdown spectrometers, we alternated measurements between the weight room and supply air, allowing for determination of VOC, NH3 , H2 O, and CO2 emission rates per person (emission factors). Human-derived emission factors were higher than previous studies of measuring indoor air quality in rooms with individuals at rest and correlated with increased CO2 emission factors. Emission factors from personal care products (PCPs) were consistent with previous studies and typically decreased throughout the day. In addition, N-chloraldimines were observed in the gas phase after the exercise equipment was cleaned with a dichlor solution. The chloraldimines likely originated from reactions of free amino acids with HOCl on gym surfaces.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Detergentes , Ejercicio Físico , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior/estadística & datos numéricos , Cloro , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masas , Deportes , Universidades
3.
Nature ; 585(7824): 225-233, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908268

RESUMEN

Isoprene is the dominant non-methane organic compound emitted to the atmosphere1-3. It drives ozone and aerosol production, modulates atmospheric oxidation and interacts with the global nitrogen cycle4-8. Isoprene emissions are highly uncertain1,9, as is the nonlinear chemistry coupling isoprene and the hydroxyl radical, OH-its primary sink10-13. Here we present global isoprene measurements taken from space using the Cross-track Infrared Sounder. Together with observations of formaldehyde, an isoprene oxidation product, these measurements provide constraints on isoprene emissions and atmospheric oxidation. We find that the isoprene-formaldehyde relationships measured from space are broadly consistent with the current understanding of isoprene-OH chemistry, with no indication of missing OH recycling at low nitrogen oxide concentrations. We analyse these datasets over four global isoprene hotspots in relation to model predictions, and present a quantification of isoprene emissions based directly on satellite measurements of isoprene itself. A major discrepancy emerges over Amazonia, where current underestimates of natural nitrogen oxide emissions bias modelled OH and hence isoprene. Over southern Africa, we find that a prominent isoprene hotspot is missing from bottom-up predictions. A multi-year analysis sheds light on interannual isoprene variability, and suggests the influence of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation.


Asunto(s)
Atmósfera/química , Butadienos/análisis , Butadienos/química , Mapeo Geográfico , Hemiterpenos/análisis , Hemiterpenos/química , Imágenes Satelitales , África , Australia , Brasil , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , El Niño Oscilación del Sur , Formaldehído/química , Radical Hidroxilo/análisis , Radical Hidroxilo/química , Ciclo del Nitrógeno , Óxidos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Óxidos de Nitrógeno/química , Oxidación-Reducción , Estaciones del Año , Sudeste de Estados Unidos
4.
Indoor Air ; 30(4): 745-756, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077147

RESUMEN

Partitioning to surfaces is an important sink for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indoors, but the mechanisms are not well understood or quantified. Here, a mass spectrometer was coupled to a portable surface reactor and a flow tube to measure partitioning of VOCs into paint films coated onto glass or wallboard, and their subsequent diffusion. A model was developed to extract values of the effective absorbing organic mass concentration of the film, Cw , which is a measure of absorption capacity, and VOC diffusion coefficients, Df , from VOC time profiles measured during film passivation and depassivation. Values of Cw agreed well with the value estimated from the paint film mass and flow tube air volume, and Df values (also measured using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) correlated well with VOC vapor saturation concentrations, C*, estimated using a group contribution method. The value of these relationships for estimating key parameters that control VOC partitioning into paint and the fate of VOCs indoors was demonstrated using a house model, which indicated that >50% of VOCs with C* ≤108  µg/m3 (C* of octane, hexanone, and propanol) that contacted a paint film of typical thickness fully permeated the film regardless of emission duration.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Modelos Químicos , Pintura , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/estadística & datos numéricos
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1379, 2020 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992727

RESUMEN

Production of oil and natural gas in North America is at an all-time high due to the development and use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Methane emissions associated with this industrial activity are a concern because of the contribution to climate radiative forcing. We present new measurements from the space-based TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) launched in 2017 that show methane enhancements over production regions in the United States. In the Uintah Basin in Utah, TROPOMI methane columns correlated with in-situ measurements, and the highest columns were observed over the deepest parts of the basin, consistent with the accumulation of emissions underneath inversions. In the Permian Basin in Texas and New Mexico, methane columns showed maxima over regions with the highest natural gas production and were correlated with nitrogen-dioxide columns at a ratio that is consistent with results from in-situ airborne measurements. The improved detail provided by TROPOMI will likely enable the timely monitoring from space of methane emissions associated with oil and natural gas production.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(22): 13053-13063, 2019 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652057

RESUMEN

The chemical composition of indoor air at the University of Colorado, Boulder art museum was measured by a suite of gas- and particle-phase instruments. Over 80% of the total observed organic carbon (TOOC) mass (100 µg m-3) consisted of reduced compounds (carbon oxidation state, OSC < -0.5) with high volatility (log10 C* > 7) and low carbon number (nC < 6). The museum TOOC was compared to other indoor and outdoor locations, which increased according to the following trend: remote < rural ≤ urban < indoor ≤ megacity. The museum TOOC was comparable to a university classroom and 3× less than residential environments. Trends in the total reactive flux were remote < indoor < rural < urban < megacity. High volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations compensated low oxidant concentrations indoors to result in an appreciable reactive flux. Total hydroxyl radical (OH), ozone (O3), nitrate radical (NO3), and chlorine atom (Cl) reactivities for each location followed a similar trend to TOOC. High human occupancy events increased all oxidant reactivities in the museum by 65-125%. The lifetimes of O3, NO3, OH, and Cl reactivities were 13 h, 15 h, 23 days, and 189 days, respectively, corresponding to over 88% of indoor VOC oxidant reactivity being consumed outdoors after ventilation.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Carbono , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Ventilación
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(14): 6641-6646, 2019 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886090

RESUMEN

Atmospheric oxidation of natural and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) leads to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which constitutes a major and often dominant component of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Recent work demonstrates that rapid autoxidation of organic peroxy radicals (RO2) formed during VOC oxidation results in highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM) that efficiently form SOA. As NOx emissions decrease, the chemical regime of the atmosphere changes to one in which RO2 autoxidation becomes increasingly important, potentially increasing PM2.5, while oxidant availability driving RO2 formation rates simultaneously declines, possibly slowing regional PM2.5 formation. Using a suite of in situ aircraft observations and laboratory studies of HOM, together with a detailed molecular mechanism, we show that although autoxidation in an archetypal biogenic VOC system becomes more competitive as NOx decreases, absolute HOM production rates decrease due to oxidant reductions, leading to an overall positive coupling between anthropogenic NOx and localized biogenic SOA from autoxidation. This effect is observed in the Atlanta, Georgia, urban plume where HOM is enhanced in the presence of elevated NO, and predictions for Guangzhou, China, where increasing HOM-RO2 production coincides with increases in NO from 1990 to 2010. These results suggest added benefits to PM2.5 abatement strategies come with NOx emission reductions and have implications for aerosol-climate interactions due to changes in global SOA resulting from NOx interactions since the preindustrial era.

8.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 19(14): 9097-9123, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688334

RESUMEN

We apply a high-resolution chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM) with updated treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and a comprehensive suite of airborne datasets over North America to (i) characterize the VOC budget and (ii) test the ability of current models to capture the distribution and reactivity of atmospheric VOCs over this region. Biogenic emissions dominate the North American VOC budget in the model, accounting for 70 % and 95 % of annually emitted VOC carbon and reactivity, respectively. Based on current inventories anthropogenic emissions have declined to the point where biogenic emissions are the dominant summertime source of VOC reactivity even in most major North American cities. Methane oxidation is a 2x larger source of nonmethane VOCs (via production of formaldehyde and methyl hydroperoxide) over North America in the model than are anthropogenic emissions. However, anthropogenic VOCs account for over half of the ambient VOC loading over the majority of the region owing to their longer aggregate lifetime. Fires can be a significant VOC source episodically but are small on average. In the planetary boundary layer (PBL), the model exhibits skill in capturing observed variability in total VOC abundance (R 2 = 0:36) and reactivity (R 2 = 0:54). The same is not true in the free troposphere (FT), where skill is low and there is a persistent low model bias (~ 60 %), with most (27 of 34) model VOCs underestimated by more than a factor of 2. A comparison of PBL: FT concentration ratios over the southeastern US points to a misrepresentation of PBL ventilation as a contributor to these model FT biases. We also find that a relatively small number of VOCs (acetone, methanol, ethane, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, isoprene C oxidation products, methyl hydroperoxide) drive a large fraction of total ambient VOC reactivity and associated model biases; research to improve understanding of their budgets is thus warranted. A source tracer analysis suggests a current overestimate of biogenic sources for hydroxyacetone, methyl ethyl ketone and glyoxal, an underestimate of biogenic formic acid sources, and an underestimate of peroxyacetic acid production across biogenic and anthropogenic precursors. Future work to improve model representations of vertical transport and to address the VOC biases discussed are needed to advance predictions of ozone and SOA formation.

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(17): 10175-10185, 2018 09 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071716

RESUMEN

In this study, we develop an alternative Fuel-based Oil and Gas inventory (FOG) of nitrogen oxides (NO x) from oil and gas production using publicly available fuel use records and emission factors reported in the literature. FOG is compared with the Environmental Protection Agency's 2014 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and with new top-down estimates of NO x emissions derived from aircraft and ground-based field measurement campaigns. Compared to our top-down estimates derived in four oil and gas basins (Uinta, UT, Haynesville, TX/LA, Marcellus, PA, and Fayetteville, AR), the NEI overestimates NO x by over a factor of 2 in three out of four basins, while FOG is generally consistent with atmospheric observations. Challenges in estimating oil and gas engine activity, rather than uncertainties in NO x emission factors, may explain gaps between the NEI and top-down emission estimates. Lastly, we find a consistent relationship between reactive odd nitrogen species (NO y) and ambient methane (CH4) across basins with different geological characteristics and in different stages of production. Future work could leverage this relationship as an additional constraint on CH4 emissions from oil and gas basins.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Aceites Combustibles , Metano , Gas Natural , Óxidos de Nitrógeno , Yacimiento de Petróleo y Gas
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(13): 7360-7370, 2018 07 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870662

RESUMEN

Recent studies suggest overestimates in current U.S. emission inventories of nitrogen oxides (NO x = NO + NO2). Here, we expand a previously developed fuel-based inventory of motor-vehicle emissions (FIVE) to the continental U.S. for the year 2013, and evaluate our estimates of mobile source emissions with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI) interpolated to 2013. We find that mobile source emissions of NO x and carbon monoxide (CO) in the NEI are higher than FIVE by 28% and 90%, respectively. Using a chemical transport model, we model mobile source emissions from FIVE, and find consistent levels of urban NO x and CO as measured during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) Study in 2013. Lastly, we assess the sensitivity of ozone (O3) over the Eastern U.S. to uncertainties in mobile source NO x emissions and biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The ground-level O3 is sensitive to reductions in mobile source NO x emissions, most notably in the Southeastern U.S. and during O3 exceedance events, under the revised standard proposed in 2015 (>70 ppb, 8 h maximum). This suggests that decreasing mobile source NO x emissions could help in meeting more stringent O3 standards in the future.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Ozono , Óxidos de Nitrógeno , Sudeste de Estados Unidos , Emisiones de Vehículos
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(10): 5610-5618, 2018 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659257

RESUMEN

Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is a cyclic volatile methyl siloxane (cVMS) that is widely used in consumer products and commonly observed in urban air. This study quantifies the ambient mixing ratios of D5 from ground sites in two North American cities (Boulder, CO, USA, and Toronto, ON, CA). From these data, we estimate the diurnal emission profile of D5 in Boulder, CO. Ambient mixing ratios were consistent with those measured at other urban locations; however, the diurnal pattern exhibited similarities with those of traffic-related compounds such as benzene. Mobile measurements and vehicle experiments demonstrate that emissions of D5 from personal care products are coincident in time and place with emissions of benzene from motor vehicles. During peak commuter times, the D5/benzene ratio (w/w) is in excess of 0.3, suggesting that the mass emission rate of D5 from personal care product usage is comparable to that of benzene due to traffic. The diurnal emission pattern of D5 is estimated using the measured D5/benzene ratio and inventory estimates of benzene emission rates in Boulder. The hourly D5 emission rate is observed to peak between 6:00 and 7:00 AM and subsequently follow an exponential decay with a time constant of 9.2 h. This profile could be used by models to constrain temporal emission patterns of personal care products.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Siloxanos , Benceno , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Vehículos a Motor , Estados Unidos
12.
Science ; 359(6377): 760-764, 2018 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449485

RESUMEN

A gap in emission inventories of urban volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, which contribute to regional ozone and aerosol burdens, has increased as transportation emissions in the United States and Europe have declined rapidly. A detailed mass balance demonstrates that the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs)-including pesticides, coatings, printing inks, adhesives, cleaning agents, and personal care products-now constitutes half of fossil fuel VOC emissions in industrialized cities. The high fraction of VCP emissions is consistent with observed urban outdoor and indoor air measurements. We show that human exposure to carbonaceous aerosols of fossil origin is transitioning away from transportation-related sources and toward VCPs. Existing U.S. regulations on VCPs emphasize mitigating ozone and air toxics, but they currently exempt many chemicals that lead to secondary organic aerosols.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Hidrocarburos/efectos adversos , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Ácido Dioctil Sulfosuccínico , Humanos , Hidrocarburos/análisis , Estados Unidos , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(4): 1981-1989, 2018 02 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353485

RESUMEN

Catechol (1,2-benzenediol) is emitted from biomass burning and produced from a reaction of phenol with OH radicals. It has been suggested as an important secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursor, but the mechanisms of gas-phase oxidation and SOA formation have not been investigated in detail. In this study, catechol was reacted with OH and NO3 radicals in the presence of NOx in an environmental chamber to simulate daytime and nighttime chemistry. These reactions produced SOA with exceptionally high mass yields of 1.34 ± 0.20 and 1.50 ± 0.20, respectively, reflecting the low volatility and high density of reaction products. The dominant SOA product, 4-nitrocatechol, for which an authentic standard is available, was identified through thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and was quantified in filter samples by liquid chromatography using UV detection. Molar yields of 4-nitrocatechol were 0.30 ± 0.03 and 0.91 ± 0.06 for reactions with OH and NO3 radicals, and thermal desorption measurements of volatility indicate that it is semivolatile at typical atmospheric aerosol loadings, consistent with field studies that have observed it in aerosol particles. Formation of 4-nitrocatechol is initiated by abstraction of a phenolic H atom by an OH or NO3 radical to form a ß-hydroxyphenoxy/o-semiquinone radical, which then reacts with NO2 to form the final product.


Asunto(s)
Catecoles , Aerosoles , Biomasa
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1529: 81-92, 2017 Dec 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126588

RESUMEN

Chromatography provides important detail on the composition of environmental samples and their chemical processing. However, the complexity of these samples and their tendency to contain many structurally and chemically similar compounds frequently results in convoluted or poorly resolved data. Data reduction from raw chromatograms of complex environmental data into integrated peak areas consequently often requires substantial operator interaction. This difficulty has led to a bottleneck in analysis that increases analysis time, decreases data quality, and will worsen as advances in field-based instrumentation multiply the quantity and informational density of data produced. In this work, we develop and validate an automated approach to fitting chromatographic data within a target retention time window with a combination of multiple idealized peaks (Gaussian peaks either with or without an exponential decay component). We compare this single-ion peak fitting approach to drawn baseline integration methods of more than 70,000 peaks collected by field-based chromatographs spanning across a wide range of volatilities and functionalities. Accuracy of peak fitting under real-world conditions is found to be within 10%. The quantitative parameters describing the fit (e.g. coefficients, fit residuals, etc.) are found to provide valuable information to increase the efficiency of quality control and provide constraints to accurately integrate peaks that are significantly convoluted with neighboring peaks. Implementation of the peak fitting method is shown to yield accurate integration of peaks otherwise too poorly resolved to separate into individual compounds and improved quantitative metrics to determine the fidelity of the data reduction process, while substantially decreasing the time spent by operators on data reduction.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía , Estadística como Asunto/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estadística como Asunto/normas
15.
Chem Rev ; 117(21): 13187-13229, 2017 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28976748

RESUMEN

Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been widely used to study the emissions, distributions, and chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. The applications of PTR-MS have greatly promoted understanding of VOC sources and their roles in air-quality issues. In the past two decades, many new mass spectrometric techniques have been applied in PTR-MS instruments, and the performance of PTR-MS has improved significantly. This Review summarizes these developments and recent applications of PTR-MS in the atmospheric sciences. We discuss the latest instrument development and characterization work on PTR-MS instruments, including the use of time-of-flight mass analyzers and new types of ion guiding interfaces. Here we review what has been learned about the specificity of different product ion signals for important atmospheric VOCs. We present some of the recent highlights of VOC research using PTR-MS including new observations in urban air, biomass-burning plumes, forested regions, oil and natural gas production regions, agricultural facilities, the marine environment, laboratory studies, and indoor air. Finally, we will summarize some further instrument developments that are aimed at improving the sensitivity and specificity of PTR-MS and extending its use to other applications in atmospheric sciences, e.g., aerosol measurements and OH reactivity measurements.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(15): 10241-54, 2016 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27021601

RESUMEN

We use a large laboratory, modeling, and field dataset to investigate the isoprene + O3 reaction, with the goal of better understanding the fates of the C1 and C4 Criegee intermediates in the atmosphere. Although ozonolysis can produce several distinct Criegee intermediates, the C1 stabilized Criegee (CH2OO, 61 ± 9%) is the only one observed to react bimolecularly. We suggest that the C4 Criegees have a low stabilization fraction and propose pathways for their decomposition. Both prompt and non-prompt reactions are important in the production of OH (28% ± 5%) and formaldehyde (81% ± 16%). The yields of unimolecular products (OH, formaldehyde, methacrolein (42 ± 6%) and methyl vinyl ketone (18 ± 6%)) are fairly insensitive to water, i.e., changes in yields in response to water vapor (≤4% absolute) are within the error of the analysis. We propose a comprehensive reaction mechanism that can be incorporated into atmospheric models, which reproduces laboratory data over a wide range of relative humidities. The mechanism proposes that CH2OO + H2O (k(H2O)∼ 1 × 10(-15) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1)) yields 73% hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP), 6% formaldehyde + H2O2, and 21% formic acid + H2O; and CH2OO + (H2O)2 (k(H2O)2∼ 1 × 10(-12) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1)) yields 40% HMHP, 6% formaldehyde + H2O2, and 54% formic acid + H2O. Competitive rate determinations (kSO2/k(H2O)n=1,2∼ 2.2 (±0.3) × 10(4)) and field observations suggest that water vapor is a sink for greater than 98% of CH2OO in a Southeastern US forest, even during pollution episodes ([SO2] ∼ 10 ppb). The importance of the CH2OO + (H2O)n reaction is demonstrated by high HMHP mixing ratios observed over the forest canopy. We find that CH2OO does not substantially affect the lifetime of SO2 or HCOOH in the Southeast US, e.g., CH2OO + SO2 reaction is a minor contribution (<6%) to sulfate formation. Extrapolating, these results imply that sulfate production by stabilized Criegees is likely unimportant in regions dominated by the reactivity of ozone with isoprene. In contrast, hydroperoxide, organic acid, and formaldehyde formation from isoprene ozonolysis in those areas may be significant.

19.
J Geophys Res Atmos ; 121(16): 9849-9861, 2016 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619286

RESUMEN

We use a 0-D photochemical box model and a 3-D global chemistry-climate model, combined with observations from the NOAA Southeast Nexus (SENEX) aircraft campaign, to understand the sources and sinks of glyoxal over the Southeast United States. Box model simulations suggest a large difference in glyoxal production among three isoprene oxidation mechanisms (AM3ST, AM3B, and MCM v3.3.1). These mechanisms are then implemented into a 3-D global chemistry-climate model. Comparison with field observations shows that the average vertical profile of glyoxal is best reproduced by AM3ST with an effective reactive uptake coefficient γglyx of 2 × 10-3, and AM3B without heterogeneous loss of glyoxal. The two mechanisms lead to 0-0.8 µg m-3 secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from glyoxal in the boundary layer of the Southeast U.S. in summer. We consider this to be the lower limit for the contribution of glyoxal to SOA, as other sources of glyoxal other than isoprene are not included in our model. In addition, we find that AM3B shows better agreement on both formaldehyde and the correlation between glyoxal and formaldehyde (RGF = [GLYX]/[HCHO]), resulting from the suppression of δ-isoprene peroxy radicals (δ-ISOPO2). We also find that MCM v3.3.1 may underestimate glyoxal production from isoprene oxidation, in part due to an underestimated yield from the reaction of IEPOX peroxy radicals (IEPOXOO) with HO2. Our work highlights that the gas-phase production of glyoxal represents a large uncertainty in quantifying its contribution to SOA.

20.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(19): 4418-32, 2015 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25789976

RESUMEN

Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) containing low-pressure mercury (Hg) lamps that emit UV light at both 185 and 254 nm ("OFR185") to generate OH radicals and O3 are used in many areas of atmospheric science and in pollution control devices. The widely used potential aerosol mass (PAM) OFR was designed for studies on the formation and oxidation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), allowing for a wide range of oxidant exposures and short experiment duration with reduced wall loss effects. Although fundamental photochemical and kinetic data applicable to these reactors are available, the radical chemistry and its sensitivities have not been modeled in detail before; thus, experimental verification of our understanding of this chemistry has been very limited. To better understand the chemistry in the OFR185, a model has been developed to simulate the formation, recycling, and destruction of radicals and to allow the quantification of OH exposure (OHexp) in the reactor and its sensitivities. The model outputs of OHexp were evaluated against laboratory calibration experiments by estimating OHexp from trace gas removal and were shown to agree within a factor of 2. A sensitivity study was performed to characterize the dependence of the OHexp, HO2/OH ratio, and O3 and H2O2 output concentrations on reactor parameters. OHexp is strongly affected by the UV photon flux, absolute humidity, reactor residence time, and the OH reactivity (OHR) of the sampled air, and more weakly by pressure and temperature. OHexp can be strongly suppressed by high OHR, especially under low UV light conditions. A OHexp estimation equation as a function of easily measurable quantities was shown to reproduce model results within 10% (average absolute value of the relative errors) over the whole operating range of the reactor. OHexp from the estimation equation was compared with measurements in several field campaigns and shows agreement within a factor of 3. The improved understanding of the OFR185 and quantification of OHexp resulting from this work further establish the usefulness of such reactors for research studies, especially where quantifying the oxidation exposure is important.


Asunto(s)
Aerosoles/química , Radical Hidroxilo/química , Modelos Químicos , Oxidación-Reducción , Procesos Fotoquímicos , Calibración , Gases/química , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/química , Mercurio , Ozono/química , Fotones , Presión , Temperatura , Factores de Tiempo , Rayos Ultravioleta
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