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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12721, 2021 06 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135444

RESUMEN

Serious concerns have arisen regarding urbanization processes in western Amazônia, which result in the creation of artificial habitats, promoting the colonization of malaria vectors. We used structural equation modelling to investigate direct and indirect effects of forest cover on larval habitats and anopheline assemblages in different seasons. We found 3474 larvae in the dry season and 6603 in the rainy season, totalling ten species and confirming the presence of malaria vectors across all sites. Forest cover had direct and indirect (through limnological variables) effects on the composition of larval anopheline assemblages in the rainy season. However, during the dry season, forest cover directly affected larval distribution and habitat variables (with no indirect affects). Additionally, artificial larval habitats promote ideal conditions for malaria vectors in Amazonia, mainly during the rainy season, with positive consequences for anopheline assemblages. Therefore, the application of integrated management can be carried out during both seasons. However, we suggest that the dry season is the optimal time because larval habitats are more limited, smaller in volume and more accessible for applying vector control techniques.

2.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112870, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052615

RESUMEN

In the Brazilian Pantanal, wildfire occurrence has increased, reaching record highs of over 40,000 km2 in 2020. Smoke from wildfires worsened the situation of isolated, as well as urban communities, already under an increasing toll of COVID-19. Here we review the impacts and the possible causes of the 2020 mega-fires and recommend improvements for public policies and fire management in this wetland. We calculated the amount of area burnt annually since 2003 and describe patterns in precipitation and water level measurements of the Paraguay River. Our analyses revealed that the 2020 wildfires were historically unprecedented, as 43% of the area (over 17,200 km2) had not been burnt previously in the last two decades. The extent of area affected in 2020 represents a 376% increase compared to the annual average of the area burnt annually in the last two decades, double than the value in 2019. Potential factors responsible for this increase are (i) severe drought decreased water levels, (ii) the fire corridor was located in the Paraguay River flood zone, (iii) constraints on firefighters, (iv) insufficient fire prevention strategy and agency budget reductions, and (v) recent landscape changes. Climate and land use change will further increase the frequency of these extreme events. To make fire management more efficient and cost-effective, we recommend the implementation of an Integrated Fire Management program in the Pantanal. Stakeholders should use existing traditional, local ecological, and scientific knowledge to form a collective strategy with clear, achievable, measurable goals, considering the socio-ecological context. Permanent fire brigades, including indigenous members, should conduct year-round fire management. Communities should cooperate to create a collaborative network for wildfire prevention, the location and characteristics (including flammability) of infrastructures should be (re)planned in fire-prone environments considering and managing fire-catalysed transitions, and depending on the severity of wildfires. The 2020 wildfires were tackled in an ad-hoc fashion and prioritisation of areas for urgent financial investment, management, protection, and restoration is necessary to prevent this catastrophe from happening again.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Incendios Forestales , Biodiversidad , Brasil , Bosques , Humanos , Paraguay , SARS-CoV-2 , Humedales
4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1622, 2018 01 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374216

RESUMEN

We evaluate potential warning signals that may aid in identifying the proximity of ecological communities to biodiversity thresholds from habitat loss-often termed "tipping points"-in tropical forests. We used datasets from studies of Neotropical mammal, frog, bird, and insect communities. Our findings provide only limited evidence that an increase in the variance (heteroskedasticity) of biodiversity-related parameters can provide a general warning signal of impending threshold changes in communities, as forest loss increases. However, such an apparent effect was evident for amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and Amazonian mammal and bird communities, suggesting that impending changes in some species assemblages might be predictable. We consider the potential of such warning signs to help forecast drastic changes in biodiversity.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosque Lluvioso , Clima Tropical , Animales , Anuros/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aves/crecimiento & desarrollo , Brasil , Insectos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mamíferos/crecimiento & desarrollo
5.
Ecol Appl ; 27(1): 5-9, 2017 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27770593

RESUMEN

In November 2015, a large mine-tailing dam owned by Samarco Corporation collapsed in Brazil, generating a massive wave of toxic mud that spread down the Doce River, killing 20 people and affecting biodiversity across hundreds of kilometers of river, riparian lands, and Atlantic coast. Besides the disaster's serious human and socioeconomic tolls, we estimate the regional loss of environmental services to be ~US$521 million per year. Although our estimate is conservative, it is still six times higher than the fine imposed on Samarco by Brazilian environmental authorities. To reduce such disparities between estimated damages and levied fines, we advocate for an environmental bond policy that considers potential risks and environmental services that could possibly be impacted by irresponsible mining activity. Environmental bonds and insurance are commonly used policy instruments in many countries, but there are no clear environmental bond policies in Brazil. Environmental bonds are likely to be more effective at securing environmental restitution than post-disaster fines, which generally are inadequate and often unpaid. We estimate that at least 126 mining dams in Brazil are vulnerable to failure in the forthcoming years. Any such event could have severe social-environmental consequences, underscoring the need for effective disaster-management strategies for large-scale mining operations.


Asunto(s)
Desastres/economía , Minería , Biodiversidad , Brasil , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
7.
Oecologia ; 182(1): 219-29, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27160426

RESUMEN

Studies on phylogenetic community ecology usually infer habitat filtering when communities are phylogenetically clustered or competitive exclusion when communities are overdispersed. This logic is based on strong competition and niche similarity among closely related species-a less common phenomenon than previously expected. Dragonflies and damselflies are good models for testing predictions based on this logic because they behave aggressively towards related species due to mistaken identification of conspecifics. This behavior may drive communities toward phylogenetic overdispersion if closely related species frequently exclude each other. However, phylogenetically clustered communities could also be observed if habitat filtering and/or competitive asymmetry among distantly related species are major drivers of community assembling. We investigated the phylogenetic structure of odonate assemblages in central Brazil in a watershed characterized by variations in stream width, vegetation cover, aquatic vegetation, and luminosity. We observed general clustering in communities according to two indices of phylogenetic structure. Phylogenetic beta diversity coupled with Mantel tests and RLQ analysis evidenced a correlation between the riverine gradient and phylogenetic structure. Larger rivers with aquatic vegetation were characterized by anisopterans, while most zygopterans stayed in small and shaded streams. These results indicate niche conservatism in Odonata habitat occupancy, and that the environment is a major influence on the phylogenetic structure of these communities. We suggest that this is due to clade-specific ecophysiological requirements, and because closely related species may also have competitive advantages and dominate certain preferred habitats.


Asunto(s)
Insectos , Filogenia , Animales , Análisis por Conglomerados , Ecosistema , Ríos
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 186(3): 1655-63, 2014 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24150715

RESUMEN

In order to evaluate the potential risks of human visitation on macroinvertebrate communities in streams, we investigated the effect of trampling using two short-term experiments conducted in a Brazilian ecotourism karst region. We asked three questions: (a) Does trampling increase the drift rate of aquatic macroinvertebrates and organic matter? (b) Does trampling change the macroinvertebrate community organization? (c) If trampling alters the community structure, is a short time (5 days, a between weekends interval - peaks of tourism activities) sufficient for community restructuring? Analysis of variance of richness, total abundance, abundance of the most abundant genus (e.g., Simothraulopsis and Callibaetis), and community composition showed that trampling immediately affects macroinvertebrate community and that the intervals between the peaks of visitation (5 days) are not sufficient to complete community restructuring. Considering that bathing areas receive thousands of visitors every year and that intervals of time without visitation are nearly nonexistent, we suspect that the negative effects on the macroinvertebrate community occur in a cumulative way. Finally, we discuss some simple procedures that could potentially be used for reducing trampling impacts in lotic environments.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Invertebrados/crecimiento & desarrollo , Recreación , Animales , Biodiversidad , Brasil , Humanos , Ríos
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