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1.
Phys Rev E ; 104(3-1): 034122, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654166

RESUMEN

We investigate the statistics of selected rare events in a (1+1)-dimensional (classical) stochastic growth model which describes the evolution of (quantum) random unitary circuits. In such classical formulation, particles are created and/or annihilated at each step of the evolution process, according to rules which generally favor a growing cluster size. We apply a large-deviation approach based on biased Monte Carlo simulations, with suitable adaptations, to evaluate (a) the probability of ending up with a single particle at a specified final time t_{f} and (b) the probability of having particles outside the light cone, defined by a "butterfly velocity" v_{B}, at t_{f}. Morphological features of single-particle final configurations are discussed, in connection with whether the location of such particle is inside or outside the light cone; we find that joint occurrence of both events of types (a) and (b) drives significant changes to such features, signaling a second-order phase transition.

2.
Phys Rev E ; 100(1-1): 012141, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499777

RESUMEN

We present a numerical study of a two-lane version of the stochastic nonequilibrium model known as the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process. For such a system with open boundaries, and suitably chosen values of externally imposed particle injection (α) and ejection (ß) rates, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur. We investigate the statistics and internal structure of the stochastically induced transitions or "flips," which occur between opposite broken-symmetry states as the system evolves in time. From the distribution of time intervals separating successive flips, we show that the evolution of the associated characteristic times against externally imposed rates yields information regarding the proximity to a critical point in parameter space. On short timescales, we probe for the possible existence of precursor events to a flip between opposite broken-symmetry states. We study an adaptation of domain-wall theory to mimic the density reversal process associated with a flip.

3.
Phys Rev E ; 95(4-1): 042121, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505791

RESUMEN

We present a simplified description for spin-dependent electronic transport in honeycomb-lattice structures with spin-orbit interactions, using generalizations of the stochastic nonequilibrium model known as the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process. Mean field theory and numerical simulations are used to study currents, density profiles, and current polarization in quasi-one-dimensional systems with open boundaries, and externally imposed particle injection (α) and ejection (ß) rates. We investigate the influence of allowing for double site occupancy, according to Pauli's exclusion principle, on the behavior of the quantities of interest. We find that double occupancy shows strong signatures for specific combinations of rates, namely high α and low ß, but otherwise its effects are quantitatively suppressed. Comments are made on the possible relevance of the present results to experiments on suitably doped graphenelike structures.

4.
Phys Rev E ; 94(1-1): 012105, 2016 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27575075

RESUMEN

We study the dynamical evolution toward steady state of the stochastic nonequilibrium model known as the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process, in both uniform and nonuniform (staggered) one-dimensional systems with open boundaries. Domain-wall theory and numerical simulations are used and, where pertinent, their results are compared to existing mean-field predictions and exact solutions where available. For uniform chains we find that the inclusion of fluctuations inherent to the domain-wall formulation plays a crucial role in providing good agreement with simulations, which is severely lacking in the corresponding mean-field predictions. For alternating-bond chains the domain-wall predictions for the features of the phase diagram in the parameter space of injection and ejection rates turn out to be realized only in an incipient and quantitatively approximate way. Nevertheless, significant quantitative agreement can be found between several additional domain-wall theory predictions and numerics.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26066114

RESUMEN

We present a mean-field theory for the dynamics of driven flow with exclusion in graphenelike structures, and numerically check its predictions. We treat first a specific combination of bond transmissivity rates, where mean field predicts, and numerics to a large extent confirms, that the sublattice structure characteristic of honeycomb networks becomes irrelevant. Dynamics, in the various regions of the phase diagram set by open boundary injection and ejection rates, is then in general identical to that of one-dimensional systems, although some discrepancies remain between mean-field theory and numerical results, in similar ways for both geometries. However, at the critical point for which the characteristic exponent is z=3/2 in one dimension, the mean-field value z=2 is approached for very large systems with constant (finite) aspect ratio. We also treat a second combination of bond (and boundary) rates where, more typically, sublattice distinction persists. For the two rate combinations, in continuum or late-time limits, respectively, the coupled sets of mean-field dynamical equations become tractable with various techniques and give a two-band spectrum, gapless in the critical phase. While for the second rate combination quantitative discrepancies between mean-field theory and simulations increase for most properties and boundary rates investigated, theory still is qualitatively correct in general, and gives a fairly good quantitative account of features such as the late-time evolution of density profile differences from their steady-state values.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24229141

RESUMEN

We study driven flow with exclusion in graphenelike structures. The totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), a well-known model in its strictly one-dimensional (chain) version, is generalized to cylinder (nanotube) and ribbon (nanoribbon) geometries. A mean-field theoretical description is given for very narrow ribbons ("necklaces") and nanotubes. For specific configurations of bond transmissivity rates, and for a variety of boundary conditions, theory predicts equivalent steady-state behavior between (sublattices on) these structures and chains. This is verified by numerical simulations, to excellent accuracy, by evaluating steady-state currents. We also numerically treat ribbons of general width. We examine the adequacy of this model to the description of electronic transport in carbon nanotubes and nanoribbons or specifically designed quantum-dot arrays.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23496641

RESUMEN

Numerical transfer-matrix methods are used to discuss the shape of the phase diagram, in field-temperature parameter space, of two-dimensional honeycomb-lattice Ising spin-1/2 magnets, with antiferromagnetic couplings along at least one lattice axis, in a uniform external field. Both the order and universality class of the underlying phase transition are examined as well. Our results indicate that in one particular case, the critical line has, at least to a very good approximation, a horizontal section (i.e., at constant field) of finite length, starting at the zero-temperature end of the phase boundary. Other than that, we find no evidence of unusual behavior, at variance with the re-entrant features predicted in earlier studies.


Asunto(s)
Campos Magnéticos , Imanes , Modelos Estadísticos , Simulación por Computador
8.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 86(4 Pt 1): 041127, 2012 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23214549

RESUMEN

We consider fluctuations of steady-state current activity, and of its dynamic counterpart, the local current, for the one-dimensional totally asymmetric simple exclusion process. The cumulants of the integrated activity behave similarly to those of the local current, except that they do not capture the anomalous scaling behavior in the maximal-current phase and at its boundaries. This indicates that the systemwide sampling at equal times, characteristic of the instantaneous activity, overshadows the subtler effects which come about from nonequal time correlations, and are responsible for anomalous scaling. We show that apparently conflicting results concerning asymmetry (skewness) of the corresponding distributions can in fact be reconciled, and that (apart from a few well-understood exceptional cases) for both activity and local current one has positive skew deep within the low-current phase, and negative skew everywhere else.

9.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 85(4 Pt 1): 041111, 2012 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22680424

RESUMEN

We consider steady-state current activity statistics for the one-dimensional totally asymmetric simple exclusion process. With the help of the known operator algebra (for general open boundary conditions), as well as general probabilistic concepts (for the periodic case), we derive and evaluate closed-form expressions for the lowest three moments of the probability distribution function. These are confirmed, to excellent degree of accuracy, by numerical simulations. Further exact expressions and asymptotic approximations are provided for probability distributions and generating functions.


Asunto(s)
Coloides/química , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Reología/métodos , Soluciones/química , Simulación por Computador
10.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 84(3 Pt 1): 031107, 2011 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22060328

RESUMEN

We consider strips of Ising spins at criticality. For strips of width N sites, subdominant (additive) finite-size corrections to scaling are assumed to be of the form a(k)/N(k) for the free energy, and b(k)/N(k) for inverse correlation length, with integer values of k. We investigate the set {a(k),b(k)} (k≥2) by exact evaluation and numerical transfer-matrix diagonalization techniques, and their changes upon varying anisotropy of couplings, spin quantum number S, and (finite) interaction range, in all cases for both periodic (PBCs) and free (FBCs) boundary conditions across the strip. We find that the coefficient ratios b(k)/a(k) remain constant upon varying coupling anisotropy for S=1/2 and first-neighbor couplings, for both PBCs and FBCs (albeit at distinct values in either case). Such apparently universal behavior is not maintained upon changes in S or interaction range.

11.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 84(3 Pt 1): 031132, 2011 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22060353

RESUMEN

Transfer-matrix methods, with the help of finite-size scaling and conformal invariance concepts, are used to investigate the critical behavior of two-dimensional square-lattice Ising spin-1/2 systems with first- and second-neighbor interactions, both antiferromagnetic, in a uniform external field. On the critical curve separating collinearly ordered and paramagnetic phases, our estimates of the conformal anomaly c are very close to unity, indicating the presence of continuously varying exponents. This is confirmed by direct calculations, which also lend support to a weak-universality picture; however, small but consistent deviations from the Ising-like values η=1/4, γ/ν=7/4, ß/ν=1/8 are found. For higher fields, on the line separating row-shifted (2×2) and disordered phases, we find values of the exponent η very close to zero.

12.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 83(6 Pt 1): 061113, 2011 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21797308

RESUMEN

We consider the one-dimensional totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with position-dependent hopping rates. The problem is solved, in a mean-field adiabatic approximation, for a general (smooth) form of spatial rate variation. Numerical simulations of systems with hopping rates varying linearly against position (constant rate gradient), for both periodic and open-boundary conditions, provide detailed confirmation of theoretical predictions, concerning steady-state average density profiles and currents, as well as open-system phase boundaries, to excellent numerical accuracy.

13.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 81(5 Pt 1): 051122, 2010 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20866200

RESUMEN

Numerical transfer-matrix methods are applied to two-dimensional Ising spin systems, in the presence of a confining magnetic field which varies with distance |x| to a "trap center," proportionally to (|x|/ℓ)p, where p>0 . On a strip geometry, the competition between the "trap size" ℓ and the strip width L is analyzed in the context of a generalized finite-size scaling ansatz. In the low-field regime ℓ >> L, we use conformal-invariance concepts in conjunction with a linear-response approach to derive the appropriate (p-dependent) limit of the theory, which agrees very well with numerical results for magnetization profiles. For high fields ℓ ≲ L, correlation-length scaling data broadly confirm an existing picture of p-dependent characteristic exponents. Standard spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising systems are considered, as well as the Blume-Capel model.

14.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 80(4 Pt 1): 041125, 2009 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19905291

RESUMEN

Transfer-matrix methods are used, in conjunction with finite-size scaling and conformal invariance concepts, to generate an accurate phase diagram for a two-dimensional square-lattice Ising spin-1/2 magnet, with couplings which are positive along one coordinate axis and negative along the other, in a uniform external field. Our results indicate that the critical line starts horizontally at the zero-temperature end of the phase boundary, at variance with the re-entrant behavior predicted in some earlier studies. Estimates of the thermal scaling exponent are very close to the Ising value y(T)=1 along the critical line, except near T=0 , where strong crossover effects prevent a reliable analysis.

15.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 78(3 Pt 1): 031106, 2008 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18850992

RESUMEN

Properties of the one-dimensional totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), and their connection with the dynamical scaling of moving interfaces described by a Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation are investigated. With periodic boundary conditions, scaling of interface widths (the latter defined via a discrete occupation-number-to-height mapping), gives the exponents alpha=0.500(5) , z=1.52(3) , beta=0.33(1) . With open boundaries, results are as follows: (i) in the maximal-current phase, the exponents are the same as for the periodic case, and in agreement with recent Bethe ansatz results; (ii) in the low-density phase, curve collapse can be found to a rather good extent, with alpha=0.497(3) , z=1.20(5) , beta=0.41(2) , which is apparently at variance with the Bethe ansatz prediction z=0 ; (iii) on the coexistence line between low- and high-density phases, alpha=0.99(1) , z=2.10(5) , beta=0.47(2) , in relatively good agreement with the Bethe ansatz prediction z=2 . From a mean-field continuum formulation, a characteristic relaxation time, related to kinematic-wave propagation and having an effective exponent z;{'}=1 , is shown to be the limiting slow process for the low-density phase, which accounts for the above mentioned discrepancy with Bethe ansatz results. For TASEP with quenched bond disorder, interface width scaling gives alpha=1.05(5) , z=1.7(1) , beta=0.62(7) . From a direct analytic approach to steady-state properties of TASEP with quenched disorder, closed-form expressions for the piecewise shape of averaged density profiles are given, as well as rather restrictive bounds on currents. All these are substantiated in numerical simulations.

16.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 77(2 Pt 1): 021131, 2008 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18352011

RESUMEN

We discuss the application of wavelet transforms to a critical interface model which is known to provide a good description of Barkhausen noise in soft ferromagnets. The two-dimensional version of the model (one-dimensional interface) is considered, mainly in the adiabatic limit of very slow driving. On length scales shorter than a crossover length (which grows with the strength of the surface tension), the effective interface roughness exponent zeta is approximately 1.20 , close to the expected value for the universality class of the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson model. We find that the waiting times between avalanches are fully uncorrelated, as the wavelet transform of their autocorrelations scales as white noise. Similarly, detrended size-size correlations give a white-noise wavelet transform. Consideration of finite driving rates, still deep within the intermittent regime, shows the wavelet transform of correlations scaling as 1/f(1.5) for intermediate frequencies. This behavior is ascribed to intra-avalanche correlations.

17.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 74(2 Pt 1): 021114, 2006 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17025400

RESUMEN

The statistics of critical spin-spin correlation functions in Ising systems with nonfrustrated disorder are investigated on a strip geometry, via numerical transfer-matrix techniques. Conformal invariance concepts are used, in order to test for logarithmic corrections to pure power-law decay against distance. Fits of our data to conformal-invariance expressions, specific to logarithmic corrections to correlations on strips, give results with the correct sign, for the moments of order n = 0-4 of the correlation-function distribution. We find an interval of disorder strength along which corrections to pure-system behavior can be decomposed into the product of a known n -dependent factor and an approximately n -independent one, in accordance with predictions. A phenomenological fitting procedure is proposed, which takes partial account of subdominant terms of correlation-function decay on strips. In the low-disorder limit, it gives results in fairly good agreement with theoretical predictions, provided that an additional assumption is made.

18.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 72(6 Pt 2): 066104, 2005 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16486007

RESUMEN

We study roughness probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the time signal for a critical interface model, which is known to provide a good description of Barkhausen noise in soft ferromagnets. Starting with time "windows" of data collection much larger than the system's internal "loading time" (related to demagnetization effects), we show that the initial Gaussian shape of the PDF evolves into a double-peaked structure as window width decreases. We advance a plausible physical explanation for such a structure, which is broadly compatible with the observed numerical data. Connections to experiment are suggested.

19.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 69(2 Pt 2): 026126, 2004 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14995539

RESUMEN

We investigate the dimensional crossover of scaling properties of avalanches (domain-wall jumps) in a single-interface model, used for the description of Barkhausen noise in disordered magnets. By varying the transverse aspect ratio A=L(y)/L(x) of simulated samples, the system dimensionality changes from two to three. We find that perturbing away from d=2 is a relevant field. The exponent tau characterizing the power-law scaling of avalanche distributions varies between 1.06(1) for d=2 and 1.275(15) for d=3, according to a crossover function f(x), x identical with (L-1x)(phi)/A, with phi=0.95(3). We discuss the possible relevance of our results to the interpretation of thin-film measurements of Barkhausen noise. We also study the probability distributions of interface roughness, sampled among successive equilibrium configurations in the Barkhausen noise regime. Attempts to fit our data to the class of universality distributions associated to 1/f(alpha) noise give alpha approximately 1-1.1 for d=2 and 3 (provided that suitable boundary conditions are used in the latter case).

20.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 65(5 Pt 2): 056104, 2002 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12059644

RESUMEN

We investigate the finite-temperature corrections to scaling in the three-state square-lattice Potts antiferromagnet, close to the critical point at T=0. Numerical diagonalization of the transfer matrix on semi-infinite strips of width L sites, 4 < or = L < or = 14, yields finite-size estimates of the corresponding scaled gaps, which are extrapolated to L --> infinity. Owing to the characteristics of the quantities under study, we argue that the natural variable to consider is x identical with L e(-2 beta). For the extrapolated scaled gaps we show that square-root corrections, in the variable x, are present, and provide estimates for the numerical values of the amplitudes of the first- and second-order correction terms, for both the first and second scaled gaps. We also calculate the third scaled gap of the transfer matrix spectrum at T=0, and find an extrapolated value of the decay-of-correlations exponent, eta(3)=2.00(1). This is at odds with earlier predictions, to the effect that the third relevant operator in the problem would give eta(P(stagg))=3, corresponding to the staggered polarization.

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