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1.
Eur J Dermatol ; 31(4): 538-548, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642140

RESUMEN

Preventing sunburn in childhood is imperative in the light of skin cancer prevention. To provide directions for targeted interventions, a better understanding of children's sunburn and associated parental behaviours is necessary. To explore sun exposure and parent-for-child sun protection patterns and their relationship with sunburn experienced in children. An online survey was conducted among parents (n = 1,299) of children (4 to 12 years). Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify parental subgroups for children's sunburn, sun exposure and several sun protection behaviours (i.e. applying sunscreen, clothing, seeking shade) in two sun exposure settings (i.e. planned versus incidental). LCA results were validated by assessing predictions of class membership through several socio-demographic characteristics. Reported sunburn in the previous year was frequent (>40%). Four latent classes of sunburn-exposure-protection were identified. Overall, the majority of parents reported fair sun protection behaviours. While a low level of protection behaviour was not strongly reflected in lower sunburn rates among the classes, a high level of planned exposure (e.g. going to the beach) seemed to correspond with higher sunburn risk. Parents of younger children and those with more sensitive skin reported sun protection measures more frequently. Older children and those with more sensitive skin experienced more sunburn. This study contributes to current insight into children's sunburn, based on parent-proxy reports. Although a clear differentiation in sunburn risk was not found, several variables, relevant for future interventions, were indicated. By further understanding the complexity of children's sunburn, further research may be directed accordingly.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682582

RESUMEN

To increase usage of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions (EBSCIs) among smokers, an online decision aid (DA) was developed. The aims of this study were (1) to conduct a usability evaluation; (2) to conduct a program evaluation and evaluate decisional conflict after using the DA and (3) to determine the possible change in the intention to use EBSCIs before and directly after reviewing the DA. A cross-sectional study was carried out in September 2020 by recruiting smokers via the Internet (n = 497). Chi-squared tests and t-tests were conducted to test the differences between smokers who differed in the perceived usability of the DA on the program evaluation and in decisional conflict. The possible changes in intention to use EBSCIs during a cessation attempt before and after reviewing the DA were tested using t-tests, McNemar's test and χ2 analysis. The participants evaluated the usability of the DA as moderate (MU; n = 393, 79.1%) or good (GU; n = 104, 20.9%). GU smokers rated higher on all the elements of the program evaluation and experienced less decisional conflict, but also displayed a higher intention to quit. After reviewing the DA, the participants on average had a significantly higher intention to use more EBSCIs, in particular in the form of eHealth. Recommendations to make the DA more usable could include tailoring, using video-based information and including value clarification methods. Furthermore, a hybrid variant in which smokers can use the DA independently and with the guidance of a primary care professional could aid both groups in choosing a fitting EBSCI option.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639280

RESUMEN

The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol for the design, implementation, and evaluation of an animation- versus text-based computer tailoring game intervention aimed at preventing alcohol consumption and binge drinking (BD) in adolescents. A cluster-randomized controlled trial (CRCT) is carried out in students aged 14-19 enrolled in 24 high schools from Andalusia (Spain), which are randomized either to experimental (EC-1, EC-2) or waiting-list control conditions (CC). EC-1 receives an online intervention (Alerta Alcohol) with personalized health advice, using textual feedback and several gamification techniques. EC-2 receives an improved version (Alerta Alcohol 2.0) using animated videos and new gamification strategies. Both programs consist of nine sessions (seven taking place at high school and two at home): session 1 or baseline, sessions 2 and 3 that provide tailored advice based on the I-Change Model; sessions 4, 5, 7, and 8 are booster sessions, and sessions 6 and 9 are follow-up questionnaires at six and twelve months. The CC completes the baseline and the evaluation questionnaires. The primary outcome is BD within 30 days before post-test evaluations, and as secondary outcomes we assess other patterns of alcohol use. The findings should help the development of future alcohol drinking prevention interventions in adolescents.

4.
Psychol Aging ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498895

RESUMEN

In an increasingly digital world, those who remain offline may face greater challenges across multiple contexts of everyday life. Besides being less likely to be internet users, older age groups go online less frequently and for fewer activities. Understanding which factors facilitate or prevent internet use in later life is therefore essential to minimize existing age-based digital inequalities. Based on the 2014 and 2017 waves of the German Ageing Survey, comprising 3,479 respondents aged 40 years and older, this study examined the longitudinal relationships of a wide range of often overlooked, yet potentially relevant factors related to functional ability, social support, and self-perceptions of aging with general internet use and seven specific online behaviors. As the only factors relating to general use and a considerable number of specific uses, cognitive functioning and competence-related self-perceptions of aging emerged as the most important correlates of internet use in middle and late adulthood. Better cognitive functioning preceded contacting friends, acquaintances, and relatives, searching for information, banking, and shopping more frequently 3 years later. In turn, competence self-perceptions of aging preceded contacting others, searching for new social contacts, seeking information, banking, engaging in online entertainment, and creating contents more frequently 3 years later. Reciprocal relationships were also found between each factor and general use, suggesting mutual influences. Additionally, physical functioning and received informational support preceded greater use for specific activities. These findings elucidate which factors to consider when developing effective strategies to promote general and specific internet use among middle-aged and older adults. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcohólicos/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Colombia/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Atención a la Salud , Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Atención Primaria de Salud/tendencias , Derivación y Consulta , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos
6.
Health Educ Res ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195810

RESUMEN

The use of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions (SCIs) can significantly increase the number of successful smoking cessation attempts. To obtain an overview of the knowledge and viewpoints on the effectiveness and use of SCIs, a three-round online Delphi study was conducted among researchers and primary care professionals (PCPs). The four objectives of this study are to gain an overview of (i) the criteria important for recommending SCIs, (ii) the perceptions of both groups on the effectiveness of SCIs, (iii) the factors to consider when counseling different (high-risk) groups of smokers and (iv) the perceptions of both groups on the use of e-cigarettes as an SCI. We found a high level of agreement within groups on which smoker characteristics should be considered when recommending an SCI to smokers. We also found that PCPs display a lower degree of consensus on the effectiveness of SCIs. Both groups see a value in the use of special protocols for different (high-risk) groups of patients, but the two groups did not reach consensus on the use of e-cigarettes as a means to quit. Making an inventory of PCPs' needs regarding SCIs and their usage may provide insight into how to facilitate a better uptake in the primary care setting.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203432

RESUMEN

This longitudinal study aims to examine how changes in health behaviors and socio-cognitive factors influence the academic achievement of Lebanese adolescents over a period of 12 months. Adolescents (n = 563) from private and public schools in Mount Lebanon and the Beirut area, aged between 15 and 18, participated in a three-wave longitudinal study and completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health behaviors, socio-cognitive factors, parenting styles, and academic achievement. A linear mixed model was carried out to examine if changes in health behaviors and cognitive factors affect changes in academic achievement after 6 and 12 months from the baseline, adjusting for demographic variables and parenting style. Results show that improved adherence to the Mediterranean diet and an increase in self-efficacy were associated with an increase in academic achievement. An increase in adherence to the Mediterranean diet had the same effect on academic achievement 6 and 12 months from the baseline, whereas an increase in efficacy beliefs was only significantly associated with achievement at 12 months from the baseline. This study supports the longitudinal link between diet quality and efficacy beliefs with the academic achievement of adolescents. This relationship is independent of sex, age, religion, parents' education, and raising styles.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Dieta Mediterránea , Adolescente , Humanos , Líbano , Estudios Longitudinales , Instituciones Académicas
8.
Tob Control ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226262

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies demonstrated that adolescent e-cigarette use is associated with subsequent tobacco smoking, commonly referred to as the gateway effect. However, most studies only investigated gateways from e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking. This study replicates a cornerstone study revealing a positive association between both adolescent e-cigarette use and subsequent tobacco use; and tobacco and subsequent e-cigarette use in the Netherlands and Flanders. DESIGN: The longitudinal design included baseline (n=2839) and 6-month (n=1276) and 12-month (n=1025) follow-up surveys among a school-based cohort (mean age: 13.62). Ten high schools were recruited as a convenience sample. The analyses involved (1) associations of baseline e-cigarette use and subsequent tobacco smoking among never smokers; (2) associations of e-cigarette use frequency at baseline and tobacco smoking frequency at follow-up; and (3) the association of baseline tobacco smoking and subsequent e-cigarette use among non-users of e-cigarettes. FINDINGS: Consistent with prior findings, baseline e-cigarette use was associated with higher odds of tobacco smoking at 6-month (OR=1.89; 95% CI 1.05 to 3.37) and 12-month (OR=5.63; 95% CI 3.04 to 10.42) follow-ups. More frequent use of e-cigarettes at baseline was associated with more frequent smoking at follow-ups. Baseline tobacco smoking was associated with subsequent e-cigarette use (OR=3.10; 95% CI 1.58 to 6.06 at both follow-ups). CONCLUSION: Our study replicated the positive relation between e-cigarette use and tobacco smoking in both directions for adolescents. This may mean that the gateway works in two directions, that e-cigarette and tobacco use share common risk factors, or that both mechanisms apply.

9.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e22, 2021 05 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036929

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To expedite the use of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions (EBSCIs) in primary care and to thereby increase the number of successful quit attempts, a referral aid was developed. This aid aims to optimize the referral to and use of EBSCIs in primary care and to increase adherence to Dutch guidelines for smoking cessation. METHODS: Practice nurses (PNs) will be randomly allocated to an experimental condition or control condition, and will then recruit smoking patients who show a willingness to quit smoking within six months. PNs allocated to the experimental condition will provide smoking cessation guidance in accordance with the referral aid. Patients from both conditions will receive questionnaires at baseline and after six months. Cessation effectiveness will be tested via multilevel logistic regression analyses. Multiple imputations as well as intention to treat analysis will be performed. Intervention appreciation and level of informed decision-making will be compared using analysis of (co)variance. Predictors for appreciation and informed decision-making will be assessed using multiple linear regression analysis and/or structural equation modeling. Finally, a cost-effectiveness study will be conducted. DISCUSSION: This paper describes the study design for the development and evaluation of an information and decision tool to support PNs in their guidance of smoking patients and their referral to EBSCIs. The study aims to provide insight into the (cost) effectiveness of an intervention aimed at expediting the use of EBSCIs in primary care.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar , COVID-19 , Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Derivación y Consulta , SARS-CoV-2
10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(5): e27088, 2021 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988520

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate whether electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) should be advocated for smoking cessation. Because of this uncertainty, information about the use of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation is usually not provided in governmental smoking cessation communications. However, there is an information need among smokers because despite this uncertainty, e-cigarettes are used by many smokers to reduce and quit tobacco smoking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial that assesses the effect of providing tailored information about e-cigarettes compared to not providing this information on determinants of decision making and smoking reduction and abstinence. This information is provided in the context of a digital smoking cessation intervention. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up period will be conducted among adult smokers motivated to quit smoking within 5 years. Participants will be 1:1 randomized into either the intervention condition or control condition. In this trial, which is grounded on the I-Change model, participants in both conditions will receive tailored feedback on attitude, social influence, preparatory plans, self-efficacy, and coping plans. Information on 6 clusters of smoking cessation methods (face-to-face counselling, eHealth interventions, telephone counselling, group-based programs, nicotine replacement therapy, and prescription medication) will be provided in both conditions. Smokers in the intervention condition will also receive detailed tailored information on e-cigarettes, while smokers in the control condition will not receive this information. The primary outcome measure will be the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked in the past 7 days. Secondary outcome measures will include 7-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence, 7-day point prevalence e-cigarette abstinence, and determinants of decision making (ie, knowledge and attitude regarding e-cigarettes). All outcomes will be self-assessed through web-based questionnaires. RESULTS: This project is supported by a research grant of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu). Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Review Committee Health, Medicine and Life Sciences at Maastricht University (FHML-REC/2019/072). Recruitment began in March 2020 and was completed by July 2020. We enrolled 492 smokers in this study. The results are expected to be published in June 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental design of this study allows conclusions to be formed regarding the effects of tailored information about e-cigarettes on decision making and smoking behavior. Our findings can inform the development of future smoking cessation interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register Trial NL8330; https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/8330. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/27088.

11.
Health Educ Behav ; : 10901981211010434, 2021 May 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053307

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adequate sun safety during childhood is crucial for decreasing skin cancer risk in later life. Although parents are an essential target group in applying sun protection measures for their children, insight into the determinants associated with their sun protection behaviors is limited. AIMS: This study aims to identify the most relevant determinants in predicting multiple parental sun protection intentions and behaviors in different sun exposure situations. METHOD: A longitudinal survey study with two measurements was conducted among Dutch parents (N = 670) of children (4-12 years old). Twenty-seven sociocognitive determinants were examined in terms of relevance regarding four parental sun protection behaviors in different sun exposure situations. The Confidence Interval-Based Estimation of Relevance approach was used to visualize room for improvement (sample means) on all determinants and their association strengths (correlations) with sun protection intentions and behaviors. RESULTS: Behavior-specific rather than generic determinants were most relevant in explaining all sun protection behaviors. Of these determinants, attitude, self-efficacy and action planning, and especially parental feelings of difficulty in performing sun protection behaviors, were most relevant. Altogether, the explained variance of all sociocognitive determinants was highest for shade-seeking behavior (R2 = .41 and .43) and lowest for supportive behavior (R2 = .19 and .29) in both planned and incidental sun exposure situations, respectively. DISCUSSION: This study provides detailed insight into relevant sociocognitive determinants of parental sun protection behaviors in various sun exposure situations and directions for composing parental skin cancer prevention interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Future composition of sun safety interventions should emphasize on enhancing parental feelings of self-efficacy, especially for shade-seeking and clothing behaviors.

12.
Subst Abus ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849396

RESUMEN

Background: Screening for unhealthy alcohol use in routine consultations can aid primary health care (PHC) providers in detecting patients with hazardous or harmful consumption and providing them with appropriate care. As part of larger trial testing strategies to improve implementation of alcohol screening in PHC, this study investigated the motivational (role security, therapeutic commitment, self-efficacy) and organizational context (leadership, work culture, resources, monitoring, community engagement) factors that were associated with the proportion of adult patients screened with AUDIT-C by PHC providers in Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Additionally, the study investigated whether the effect of the factors interacted with implementation strategies and the country. Methods: Pen-and-paper questionnaires were completed by 386 providers at the start of their study participation (79% female, Mage = 39.5, 37.6% doctors, 15.0% nurses, 9.6% psychologists, 37.8% other professional roles). They were allocated to one of four intervention arms: control group; short training only; short training in presence of municipal support; and standard (long) training in presence of municipal support. Providers documented their screening practice during the five-month implementation period. Data were collected between April 2019 and March 2020. Results: Negative binomial regression analysis found an inverse relationship of role security with the proportion of screened patients. Self-efficacy was associated with an increase in the proportion of screened patients only amongst Mexican providers. Support from leadership (formal leader in organization) was the only significant organizational context factor, but only in non-control arms. Conclusion: Higher self-efficacy is a relevant factor in settings where screening practice is already ongoing. Leadership support can enhance effects of implementation strategies.

13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 596253, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681123

RESUMEN

Sun protection among children is of utmost importance since sunburn in early life is a major risk factor for skin cancer development. Because parents play a vital role in enhancing sun safety among children, this study explored parental perceptions concerning sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and sunburn in children. Additionally, the context in which children experience sunburn in order to assist the development, optimization, and targeting of sun safety interventions for parents is revealed. A qualitative study design, using a semi-structured interview guide addressing several themes (e.g., sun exposure, sun protection, and sunburn experiences), was used. Data were collected in the Netherlands in the fall of 2019. Parents were recruited via purposive sampling at schools, youth services centers, and social media. Execution, transcription, and coding of the interviews was done by two researchers, using the qualitative analyzing program Nvivo (interrater reliability of d = 0.84). In total, 26 interviews were performed (n = 17 mothers, n = 17 daughters, aged between 4 and 11 years). Parental perceptions and recall of their child's lifetime sunburn were frequent, even though all parents reported using at least one sun protection measure during sun exposure situations and parents seemed often unaware of their child's sunburn. Moreover, parents reported an overreliance on sunscreen, often failing to adequately protect their children's skin. Water-related activities, a lack of shade, and misconceptions regarding UV-index were often related to sunburn. In addition, unexpected sun exposure or longer exposure duration than initially planned were reported as challenging situations. The majority of parents had positive perceptions regarding tanned skin for both themselves as for children. This study provides directions for skin cancer prevention efforts targeted at both parents and their children. Since a lack of knowledge regarding sufficient sun protection measures and sunburn occurrence in various situations was reported, educational efforts are warranted. Additionally, focusing on clothing, shade-seeking, and adequate sunscreen use is recommended to increase children's sun safety. By intervening in the physical environment as well (e.g., providing shady areas), sun protection barriers can be reduced. Lastly, the general positive attitude toward tanned skin evident in this study is certainly worthy of attention in future interventions.


Asunto(s)
Quemadura Solar , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Países Bajos , Padres , Percepción , Ropa de Protección , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Quemadura Solar/prevención & control , Luz Solar/efectos adversos
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e18524, 2021 02 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620321

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adherence to core type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment behaviors is suboptimal, and nonadherence is generally not limited to one treatment behavior. The internet holds promise for programs that aim to improve adherence. We developed a computer-tailored eHealth program for patients with T2DM to improve their treatment adherence, that is, adherence to both a healthy lifestyle and medical behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the eHealth program in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Patients with T2DM were recruited by their health professionals and randomized into either the intervention group, that is, access to the eHealth program for 6 months, or a waiting-list control group. In total, 478 participants completed the baseline questionnaire, of which 234 gained access to the eHealth program. Of the 478 participants, 323 were male and 155 were female, the mean age was 60 years, and the participants had unfavorable BMI and HbA1c levels on average. Outcome data were collected through web-based assessments on physical activity (PA) levels, caloric intake from unhealthy snacks, and adherence to oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) and insulin therapy. Changes to separate behaviors were standardized and summed into a composite change score representing changes in the overall treatment adherence. Further standardization of this composite change score yielded the primary outcome, which can be interpreted as Cohen d (effect size). Standardized change scores observed in separate behaviors acted as secondary outcomes. Mixed linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the effectiveness of the intervention on overall and separate treatment behavior adherence, accommodating relevant covariates and patient nesting. RESULTS: After the 6-month follow-up assessment, 47.4% (111/234) of participants in the intervention group and 72.5% (177/244) of participants in the control group were retained. The overall treatment adherence improved significantly in the intervention group compared with the control group, reflected by a small effect size (d=0.27; 95% CI 0.032 to 0.509; P=.03). When considering changes in separate treatment behaviors, a significant decrease was observed only in caloric intake from unhealthy snacks in comparison with the control group (d=0.36; 95% CI 0.136 to 0.584; P=.002). For adherence to PA (d=-0.14; 95% CI -0.388 to 0.109; P=.27), OHAs (d=0.27; 95% CI -0.027 to 0.457; P=.08), and insulin therapy (d=0.35; 95% CI -0.066 to 0.773; P=.10), no significant changes were observed. These results from the unadjusted analyses were comparable with the results of the adjusted analyses, the per-protocol analyses, and the sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our multibehavior program significantly improved the overall treatment adherence compared with the control group. To further enhance the impact of the intervention in the personal, societal, and economic areas, a wide-scale implementation of our eHealth intervention is suggested. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NL664; https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/6664.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Internet/normas , Telemedicina/métodos , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
15.
Patient Educ Couns ; 104(6): 1266-1285, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531158

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To broadly synthesize literature regarding decision aids (DAs) supporting decision making about diet, physical activity, sleeping and substance use a scoping review was performed. METHODS: Multiple sources were used: (1) Scientific literature searches, (2) excluded references from a Cochrane review regarding DAs for treatments and screenings, and (3) results from additional searches. Interventions had to (1) support informed decision making and (2) provide information and help to choose between at least two options. Two researchers screened titles and abstracts. Relevant information was extracted descriptively. RESULTS: Thirty-five scientific articles and four DAs (grey literature) were included. Results were heterogeneous. Twenty-nine (94%) studies described substance use DAs. All DAs offered information and value and/or preference clarification. Many other elements were included (e.g., goal-setting). DA's effects were mixed. Few studies used standardized measures, e.g., decisional conflict (n = 4, 13%). Some positive behavioral effects were reported: e.g., smoking abstinence (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: This research shows only some positive behavioral effects of DAs. However, studies reported heterogeneous results/outcomes, impeding knowledge synthesis. Areas of improvement were identified, e.g., establishing which intervention elements are effective regarding health behavior decision making. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: DAs can potentially be beneficial in supporting people to change health behaviors - especially regarding smoking.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Participación del Paciente , Toma de Decisiones , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos
16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(9): 2663-2671, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469752

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We aimed to test the effects of providing municipal support and training to primary health care providers compared to both training alone and to care as usual on the proportion of adult patients having their alcohol consumption measured. METHODS: We undertook a quasi-experimental study reporting on a 5-month implementation period in 58 primary health care centres from municipal areas within Bogotá (Colombia), Mexico City (Mexico), and Lima (Peru). Within the municipal areas, units were randomized to four arms: (1) care as usual (control); (2) training alone; (3) training and municipal support, designed specifically for the study, using a less intensive clinical and training package; and (4) training and municipal support, designed specifically for the study, using a more intense clinical and training package. The primary outcome was the cumulative proportion of consulting adult patients out of the population registered within the centre whose alcohol consumption was measured (coverage). RESULTS: The combination of municipal support and training did not result in higher coverage than training alone (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8). Training alone resulted in higher coverage than no training (IRR = 9.8, 95% CI = 4.1 to 24.7). Coverage did not differ by intensity of the clinical and training package (coefficient = 0.8, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Training of providers is key to increasing coverage of alcohol measurement amongst primary health care patients. Although municipal support provided no added value, it is too early to conclude this finding, since full implementation was shortened due to COVID-19 restrictions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov ID: NCT03524599; Registered 15 May 2018; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03524599.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Atención Primaria de Salud , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología
17.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e4, 2021 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504413

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Providing alcohol screening and brief advice (SBA) in primary health care (PHC) can be an effective measure to reduce alcohol consumption. To aid successful implementation in an upper middle-income country context, this study investigates the perceived appropriateness of the programme and the perceived barriers to its implementation in PHC settings in three Latin American countries: Colombia, Mexico and Peru, as part of larger implementation study (SCALA). METHODS: An online survey based on the Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases (TICD) implementation framework was disseminated in the three countries to key stakeholders with experience in the topic and/or setting (both health professionals and other roles, for example regional health administrators and national experts). In total, 55 respondents participated (66% response rate). For responses to both appropriateness and barriers questions, frequencies were computed, and country comparisons were made using Chi square and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests. RESULTS: Alcohol SBA was seen as an appropriate programme to reduce heavy alcohol use in PHC and a range of providers were considered suitable for its delivery, such as general practitioners, nurses, psychologists and social workers. Contextual factors such as patients' normalised perception of their heavy drinking, lack of on-going support for providers, difficulty of accessing referral services and lenient alcohol control laws were the highest rated barriers. Country differences were found for two barriers: Peruvian respondents rated SBA guidelines as less clear than Mexican (Mann-Whitney U = -18.10, P = 0.001), and more strongly indicated lack of available screening instruments than Colombian (Mann-Whitney U = -12.82, P = 0.035) and Mexican respondents (Mann-Whitney U = -13.56, P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the need to address contextual factors for successful implementation of SBA in practice. General congruence between the countries suggests that similar approaches can be used to encourage widespread implementation of SBA in all three studied countries, with minor tailoring based on the few country-specific barriers.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Colombia , Intervención en la Crisis (Psiquiatría) , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú , Adulto Joven
18.
Health Soc Care Community ; 29(1): 241-249, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633021

RESUMEN

People living in low-income multi-problem households may benefit from participation in a community-based health promotion program. Yet, low participation rates are often a problem. It is important to assess reasons for (not) participating to better tailor programs to the needs of this particular at-risk group. Back2Balance is a health promotion program for low-income multi-problem households from Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. We performed qualitative interviews among participants (n = 16) and non-participants (n = 12) of the program and asked them for their reasons for (not) participating in the program. Interview transcripts were thematically analysed using the Framework method. Participants indicated that reasons for participating encompassed intrapersonal motivators (e.g. to become healthier), interpersonal motivators (e.g. participating to get to know new people) and program level motivators (e.g. learning about a healthy lifestyle, and free or very low cost). Participants and non-participants outlined the importance of intrapersonal barriers (e.g. physical health problems), interpersonal barriers (e.g. family circumstances) and program level barriers (e.g. logistic issues, and not understanding or knowing about some part of the program). Concluding, combining health promotion with social interaction motivated participants to participate in the Back2Balance program. Yet, both participants and non-participants experienced many barriers for participation, some of which were related to their multi-problem situation.

19.
J Interpers Violence ; 36(3-4): NP2056-2078NP, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444627

RESUMEN

Sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem worldwide. Research regarding beliefs about perpetrating sexual IPV is, however, limited. This study investigated attitudes, social influence, and self-efficacy beliefs and intentions toward perpetrating sexual IPV among Grade 8 adolescents (M age = 13.73, SD = 1.04) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The study sample was taken from the baseline data of the Promoting sexual and reproductive health among adolescents in Southern and Eastern Africa (PREPARE) study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Young adolescents (N = 2,199), from 42 randomly selected high schools, participated in the study and answered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Multivariate ANOVA were conducted to assess differences in beliefs and intention toward perpetrating sexual IPV between boys and girls, and between perpetrators and nonperpetrators. Results showed that boys were more frequently perpetrators (11.3% vs. 3.2%) and victims (13.6% vs. 6.4%) of sexual IPV than girls. Boys' attitudes toward perpetrating sexual IPV were more supportive than girls'. Boys perceived their social network to be more likely to think that putting pressure on a boyfriend or girlfriend to have sex is okay, and boys had a lower self-efficacy to refrain from pressuring a boyfriend or girlfriend to have sex compared with girls. Both boys and girls, who have perpetrated sexual IPV, had more tolerant attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy beliefs toward sexual IPV perpetration, compared with nonperpetrators. Intention not to perpetrate sexual IPV did not differ between boys and girls, or between perpetrators and nonperpetrators. Our findings suggest that interventions should address attitude and social influence beliefs regarding sexual IPV perpetration. More attention should be given to sexual IPV perpetration among boys. Given that sexual IPV victimization and perpetration are significantly linked, prevention of sexual IPV perpetration seems to be of utmost importance.

20.
Health Policy ; 125(1): 27-33, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189409

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2006 a major healthcare reform was introduced in the Netherlands, implying managed competition. This study explored the level of consensus on the outcomes and desired changes of this new system, and differences between stakeholder groups. METHODS: A three-round Delphi-study was conducted among Dutch healthcare insurers, health economists, and professionals in general practice (GP) care and mental health (MH) care. In the first round, 20 experts indicated the most important advantages and disadvantages of the Dutch managed competition, and desired changes. Experts in the second (n = 106) and third round (N = 88) rated the importance of the 88 factors identified in the first round. RESULTS: Only healthcare insurers reached consensus on important advantages (i.e. improved efficiency; room for choice). Health economists reached almost no consensus on any factors. GP and MH-care professionals reached most consensus on disadvantages (i.e. focus on price over quality, increased bureaucracy) and desired changes (i.e. reduce bargaining power of healthcare insurers; increase attention for care of complex patients); half of them suggested abolishment of managed competition. CONCLUSION: GP and MH-care professionals were most dissatisfied and suggested several changes or even abolishment of the 2006 reform; healthcare insurers mentioned some benefits. This level of dissatisfaction among health care professionals indicates that there is room for improvement, preferably developed in conjunction with stakeholders.

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