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Preprint en Portugués | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-1625


The present narrative review synthesized scientific evidence regarding gender and race inequality in the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on women's productive/reproductive work, gender-based violence, and the access to sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS). The results demonstrated that the effective control of the pandemic and the preservation of rights should consider social inequality. Besides the direct effects of SARS-CoV-2, the literature discusses that access barriers to SRHS can lead to an increase of unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions, and maternal mortality. Also, the social distancing has led several women to stay confined with their aggressors, which hinders the access to reporting services, incurring in the increase of gender-based violence and severe outcomes to health. As the main responsible for the care, women are more prone to get the virus in both professional and domestic spheres. The conciliation between work and family has become more difficult for them during the pandemic. Literature naturalizes gender, race, and social class differences, emphasizing risk factors. An intersectional research plan is needed to support the information of public policies that incorporate human rights and embrace the needs of the most vulnerable groups to the COVID-19.

Esta revisão narrativa sintetizou evidências científicas sobre desigualdades de gênero e raça na pandemia da COVID-19, enfocando o trabalho produtivo/reprodutivo das mulheres, a violência de gênero e o acesso aos serviços de saúde sexual e reprodutiva (SSR). Os resultados confirmam que as desigualdades sociais devem ser consideradas para o efetivo controle da pandemia e a preservação de direitos. Para além dos efeitos diretos do SARS-CoV-2, discute-se que barreiras de acesso a serviços de SSR podem ocasionar o aumento de gravidezes não-pretendidas, abortos inseguros e mortalidade materna. O distanciamento social tem obrigado muitas mulheres a permanecer confinadas com seus agressores e dificultado o acesso a serviços de denúncia, incorrendo no aumento da violência de gênero e em desfechos graves à saúde. Como principais responsáveis pelo cuidado, as mulheres estão mais expostas a adoecer nas esferas profissional e doméstica. A conciliação trabalho-família tornou-se mais difícil para elas durante a pandemia. A literatura naturaliza as diferenças de gênero, raça e classe, com ênfase em fatores de risco. Uma agenda de pesquisa com abordagem interseccional é necessária para embasar a formulação de políticas que incorporem os direitos humanos e atendam às necessidades dos grupos mais vulneráveis à COVID-19.

Salud Publica Mex ; 50(1): 40-8, 2008.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18297181


OBJECTIVE: To reveal the effect of cultural practices on the way in which normal birth is conducted in a public hospital in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article about a public maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, compares the points of view of providers and users on four technological normal childbirth procedures: trichotomy, episiotomy, oxytocin infusion, and epidural analgesia. Fieldwork carried out from 2002 to 2003 combined qualitative and quantitative methods. RESULTS: Institutional practices make childbirth unnecessarily difficult for women. Nonetheless, most women accept the conditions because the medical procedures make sense according to their cultural understandings. Service providers support the use of such procedures, although doctors are aware that they contradict recommendations found in scientific medical literature. This article argues that from the perspective of both providers and users, the technological procedures are infused with a culturally specific set of meanings and values. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers must address the cultural understandings of both users and health care professionals in order to improve maternal healthcare in public hospitals in Brazil.

Parto Normal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Características Culturales , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Maternidades , Hospitales Públicos , Humanos , Embarazo
Cad Saude Publica ; 22(7): 1483-91, 2006 Jul.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16791347


This article examines childbirth in a public maternity hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, from the perspective of young and adolescent women, mostly black and working-class. As an anthropological study, it is based on the analysis of birth narratives and hospital ethnography, especially in the obstetric ward. The women describe labor as dominated by fear, loneliness, and pain. These feelings are transformed into love with the birth of the child. Viewing childbirth as a biosocial process, the authors show how the young women construct meanings during the birth; meanwhile, social interactions specific to hospital birth develop, particularly with healthcare professionals. Symbolically, women construct birth as a rite of passage legitimating motherhood, against the institution's effective de-legitimization of sexual reproduction in low-income black mothers and stigmatization of adolescent motherhood.

Maternidades/normas , Bienestar Materno/psicología , Madres/psicología , Parto/psicología , Clase Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Relaciones Familiares , Femenino , Hospitales Públicos , Humanos , Dolor de Parto/psicología , Servicios de Salud Materna/normas , Parto/etnología , Embarazo , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente