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1.
Nature ; 569(7757): 519-522, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118525

RESUMEN

The physics of star formation and the deposition of mass, momentum and energy into the interstellar medium by massive stars ('feedback') are the main uncertainties in modern cosmological simulations of galaxy formation and evolution1,2. These processes determine the properties of galaxies3,4 but are poorly understood on the scale of individual giant molecular clouds (less than 100 parsecs)5,6, which are resolved in modern galaxy formation simulations7,8. The key question is why the timescale for depleting molecular gas through star formation in galaxies (about 2 billion years)9,10 exceeds the cloud dynamical timescale by two orders of magnitude11. Either most of a cloud's mass is converted into stars over many dynamical times12 or only a small fraction turns into stars before the cloud is dispersed on a dynamical timescale13,14. Here we report high-angular-resolution observations of the nearby flocculent spiral galaxy NGC 300. We find that the molecular gas and high-mass star formation on the scale of giant molecular clouds are spatially decorrelated, in contrast to their tight correlation on galactic scales5. We demonstrate that this decorrelation implies rapid evolutionary cycling between clouds, star formation and feedback. We apply a statistical method15,16 to quantify the evolutionary timeline and find that star formation is regulated by efficient stellar feedback, which drives cloud dispersal on short timescales (around 1.5 million years). The rapid feedback arises from radiation and stellar winds, before supernova explosions can occur. This feedback limits cloud lifetimes to about one dynamical timescale (about 10 million years), with integrated star formation efficiencies of only 2 to 3 per cent. Our findings reveal that galaxies consist of building blocks undergoing vigorous, feedback-driven life cycles that vary with the galactic environment and collectively define how galaxies form stars.

3.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(24): 6354-69, 2015 Jun 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26010083

RESUMEN

Photodesorption of CO ice is suggested to be the main process that maintains a measurable amount of gaseous CO in cold interstellar clouds. A classical molecular dynamics simulation is used to gain insight into the underlying mechanism. Site-site pair potentials were developed on the basis of ab initio calculations for the ground and excited nonrigid CO dimer. Both amorphous and crystalline CO clusters were created and characterized by their densities, expansion coefficients, binding energies, specific heats, and radial distribution functions. Selected CO molecules were electronically excited with 8.7-9.5 eV photons. CO returns to the ground state after a finite lifetime on the excited potential surface. Two desorption mechanisms are found: (1) direct desorption where excited CO itself is released from the cluster after landing on the ground state in an unfavorable orientation; (2) "kick-out" desorption where excited CO kicks out a neighboring CO molecule. These findings are in accord with laboratory experiments. Little dependence on size of the cluster, excitation energy and temperature in the 6-18 K range was found. The predicted photodesorption probability is 4.0 × 10(-3) molecules photon(-1), smaller by a factor of 3-11 than that given by experiments.

4.
Faraday Discuss ; 168: 9-47, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25302372

RESUMEN

A brief introduction and overview of the astrochemistry of dust, ice and gas and their interplay is presented. The importance of basic chemical physics studies of critical reactions is illustrated through a number of recent examples. Such studies have also triggered new insight into chemistry, illustrating how astronomy and chemistry can enhance each other. Much of the chemistry in star- and planet-forming regions is now thought to be driven by gas-grain chemistry rather than pure gas-phase chemistry, and a critical discussion of the state of such models is given. Recent developments in studies of diffuse clouds and PDRs, cold dense clouds, hot cores, protoplanetary disks and exoplanetary atmospheres are summarized, both for simple and more complex molecules, with links to papers presented in this volume. In spite of many lingering uncertainties, the future of astrochemistry is bright: new observational facilities promise major advances in our understanding of the journey of gas, ice and dust from clouds to planets.

5.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(48): 12889-96, 2013 Dec 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24195494

RESUMEN

The dynamics of the reaction H + OH → O ((3)P) + H2 have been studied in a series of quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations and transition state theory (TST) methods using high quality (3)A' and (3)A″ potential energy surfaces (PESs). Accurate OH (υ, j) state resolved cross sections and rate constants on both potential energy surfaces are presented and fitted for OH at (υ = 0, j = 0-16) and (υ = 1, j = 0-6). The cross sections were calculated for different collisional energies (Ec), ranging from the threshold energy at each specific rovibrational state up to 1.0 eV with step sizes of 0.1 eV or less. They increase steeply with collision energy when the barrier to reaction can be overcome, after which the cross sections stay nearly constant with energy. State resolved rate constants in the temperature range 200-2500 K are presented based on the cross sections. Total thermal rate constants were calculated by summing the rates for reaction on the (3)A' and (3)A″ potential energy surfaces weighted by 1/3 and taking into account the thermal populations of the rovibrational states of the OH molecules. The currently calculated thermal rate constants generally agree well with previous indirectly obtained rate constants by Tsang et al. (Tsang, W.; Hampson, R. F. Chemical Kinetic Data Base for Combustion Chemistry. Part I. Methane and Related Compounds. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1986, 15, 1087-1279). It is shown that the improved canonical variational transition (CVT) treatments with the approximation of zero-curvature tunneling (ZCT) or small-curvature tunneling (SCT) produce results more in accord with the QCT results than the TST and CVT methods. The reactions are governed by the direct reaction mechanism. The rate constants for OH in excited vibrational and rotational states are orders of magnitude larger than the thermal rate constants, which needs to be taken into account in astrochemical models.

6.
Chem Rev ; 113(12): 9043-85, 2013 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24261880
7.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(39): 9840-7, 2013 Oct 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23862691

RESUMEN

The cosmic abundance of hydrides depends critically on high-energy UV, X-ray, and particle irradiation. Here we study hydrides in star-forming regions where irradiation by the young stellar object can be substantial, and density and temperature can be much enhanced over interstellar values. Lines of OH, CH, NH, and SH and their ions OH(+), CH(+), NH(+), SH(+), H2O(+), and H3O(+) were observed in star-forming regions by the HIFI spectrometer onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. Molecular column densities are derived from observed ground-state lines, models, or rotational diagrams. We report here on two prototypical high-mass regions, AFGL 2591 and W3 IRS5, and compare them to chemical calculations by making assumptions on the high-energy irradiation. A model assuming no ionizing protostellar emission is compared with (i) a model assuming strong protostellar X-ray emission and (ii) a two-dimensional (2D) model including emission in the far UV (FUV, 6-13.6 eV), irradiating the outflow walls that separate the outflowing gas and infalling envelope material. We confirm that the effect of FUV in two-dimensional models with enlarged irradiated surfaces is clearly noticeable. A molecule that is very sensitive to FUV irradiation is CH(+), enhanced in abundance by more than 5 orders of magnitude. The HIFI observations of CH(+) lines agree with the two-dimensional FUV model by Bruderer et al., which computes abundances, non-LTE excitation, and line radiative transfer.20 It is concluded that CH(+) is a good FUV tracer in star-forming regions. The effect of potential X-ray irradiation is not excluded but cannot be demonstrated by the present data.

8.
Science ; 341(6146): 630-2, 2013 Aug 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23868917

RESUMEN

Planets form in the disks around young stars. Their formation efficiency and composition are intimately linked to the protoplanetary disk locations of "snow lines" of abundant volatiles. We present chemical imaging of the carbon monoxide (CO) snow line in the disk around TW Hya, an analog of the solar nebula, using high spatial and spectral resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of diazenylium (N2H(+)), a reactive ion present in large abundance only where CO is frozen out. The N2H(+) emission is distributed in a large ring, with an inner radius that matches CO snow line model predictions. The extracted CO snow line radius of ~30 astronomical units helps to assess models of the formation dynamics of the solar system, when combined with measurements of the bulk composition of planets and comets.

9.
Science ; 340(6137): 1199-202, 2013 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23744942

RESUMEN

The statistics of discovered exoplanets suggest that planets form efficiently. However, there are fundamental unsolved problems, such as excessive inward drift of particles in protoplanetary disks during planet formation. Recent theories invoke dust traps to overcome this problem. We report the detection of a dust trap in the disk around the star Oph IRS 48 using observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The 0.44-millimeter-wavelength continuum map shows high-contrast crescent-shaped emission on one side of the star, originating from millimeter-sized grains, whereas both the mid-infrared image (micrometer-sized dust) and the gas traced by the carbon monoxide 6-5 rotational line suggest rings centered on the star. The difference in distribution of big grains versus small grains/gas can be modeled with a vortex-shaped dust trap triggered by a companion.

10.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(39): 9661-5, 2013 Oct 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23656468

RESUMEN

The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here.

11.
Nature ; 493(7434): 644-6, 2013 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23364742

RESUMEN

From the masses of the planets orbiting the Sun, and the abundance of elements relative to hydrogen, it is estimated that when the Solar System formed, the circumstellar disk must have had a minimum mass of around 0.01 solar masses within about 100 astronomical units of the star. (One astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance.) The main constituent of the disk, gaseous molecular hydrogen, does not efficiently emit radiation from the disk mass reservoir, and so the most common measure of the disk mass is dust thermal emission and lines of gaseous carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide emission generally indicates properties of the disk surface, and the conversion from dust emission to gas mass requires knowledge of the grain properties and the gas-to-dust mass ratio, which probably differ from their interstellar values. As a result, mass estimates vary by orders of magnitude, as exemplified by the relatively old (3-10 million years) star TW Hydrae, for which the range is 0.0005-0.06 solar masses. Here we report the detection of the fundamental rotational transition of hydrogen deuteride from the direction of TW Hydrae. Hydrogen deuteride is a good tracer of disk gas because it follows the distribution of molecular hydrogen and its emission is sensitive to the total mass. The detection of hydrogen deuteride, combined with existing observations and detailed models, implies a disk mass of more than 0.05 solar masses, which is enough to form a planetary system like our own.

12.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 370(1968): 2778-802, 2012 Jun 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22547244

RESUMEN

In this paper, we discuss the astronomical search for water vapour in order to understand the disposition of water in all its phases throughout the processes of star and planet formation. Our ability to detect and study water vapour has recently received a tremendous boost with the successful launch and operation of the Herschel Space Observatory. Herschel spectroscopic detections of numerous transitions in a variety of astronomical objects, along with previous work by other space-based observatories, will be threaded throughout this paper. In particular, we present observations of water tracing the earliest stage of star birth where it is predominantly frozen as ice. When a star is born, the local energy release by radiation liberates ices in its surrounding envelope and powers energetic outflows that appear to be water factories. In these regions, water plays an important role in the gas physics. Finally, we end with an exploration of water in planet-forming discs surrounding young stars. The availability of accurate molecular data (frequencies, collisional rate coefficients and chemical reaction rates) is crucial to analyse the observations at each of these steps.

13.
Science ; 334(6054): 338-40, 2011 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22021851

RESUMEN

Icy bodies may have delivered the oceans to the early Earth, yet little is known about water in the ice-dominated regions of extrasolar planet-forming disks. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory has detected emission lines from both spin isomers of cold water vapor from the disk around the young star TW Hydrae. This water vapor likely originates from ice-coated solids near the disk surface, hinting at a water ice reservoir equivalent to several thousand Earth oceans in mass. The water's ortho-to-para ratio falls well below that of solar system comets, suggesting that comets contain heterogeneous ice mixtures collected across the entire solar nebula during the early stages of planetary birth.


Asunto(s)
Hielo , Planetas , Estrellas Celestiales , Vapor , Evolución Planetaria , Medio Ambiente Extraterrestre
14.
Faraday Discuss ; 133: 231-43; discussion 347-74, 449-52, 2006.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17191450

RESUMEN

Circumstellar disks are exposed to intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the young star. In the inner disks, the UV radiation can be enhanced by more than seven orders of magnitude compared with the average interstellar radiation field, resulting in a physical and chemical structure that resembles that of a dense photon-dominated region (PDR). This intense UV field affects the chemistry, the vertical structure of the disk, and the gas temperature, especially in the surface layers. The parameters which make disks different from more traditional PDRs are discussed, including the shape of the UV radiation field, grain growth, the absence of PAHs, the gas/dust ratio and the presence of inner holes. Illustrative infrared spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope are shown. New photodissociation cross sections for selected species, including simple ions, are presented. Also, a summary of cross sections at the Lyman alpha 1216 A line, known to be strong for some T Tauri stars, is made. Photodissociation and ionization rates are computed for different radiation fields with color temperatures ranging from 30000 to 4000 K and grain sizes up to a few microm. The importance of a proper treatment of the photoprocesses is illustrated for the transitional disk toward HD 141569A which includes grain growth.

15.
Faraday Discuss ; 133: 331-45; discussion 347-74, 449-52, 2006.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17191456

RESUMEN

We present laboratory data on pure, layered and mixed CO and O2 ices relevant for understanding the absence of gaseous O2 in space. Experiments have been performed on interstellar ice analogues under ultra high vacuum conditions by molecular deposition at 14 K on a gold surface. A combination of reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is used to derive spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of the ices. It is found that for pure ices the desorption energy of O2 is larger than that of CO and N2. TPD spectra reveal similar desorption processes for all examined CO-O2 ice morphologies. The different amorphous and crystalline components of pure 13CO RAIR spectra are analyzed. The RAIRS data of the 13CO stretching vibration show a significant difference between layered and mixed CO-O2 ices: layered CO-O2 ices resemble that of pure 13CO whereas the spectra of mixed ices are broadened. The experiments also show that the sticking probabilities of O2 on CO and O2 on O2 are close to unity. These new results are compared with recently analyzed data of CO-N2 ices. The differences in the TPD and RAIRS spectra of the CO-N2 and CO-O2 ice systems are explained by differences in quadrupole intermolecular interactions and by different crystallization processes of these ices.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 103(33): 12249-56, 2006 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16894165

RESUMEN

When interstellar clouds collapse to form new stars and planets, the surrounding gas and dust become part of the infalling envelopes and rotating disks, thus providing the basic material from which new solar systems are formed. Instrumentation to probe the chemistry in low-mass star-forming regions has only recently become available. The results of a systematic program to study the abundances in solar-mass protostellar and protoplanetary regions are presented. Surveys at submillimeter and infrared wavelengths reveal a rich chemistry, including simple and complex (organic) gases, ices, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and silicates. Each of these species traces different aspects of the physical and chemical state of the objects as they evolve from deeply embedded protostars to pre-main sequence stars with planet-forming disks. Quantitative information on temperatures, densities, and abundances is obtained through molecular excitation and radiative transfer models as well as from analysis of solid-state line profiles. The chemical characteristics are dominated by freeze-out in the coldest regions and ice evaporation in the warmer zones. In the surface layers of disks, UV radiation controls the chemistry. The importance of complementary laboratory experiments and calculations to obtain basic molecular data is emphasized.


Asunto(s)
Astronomía , Medio Ambiente Extraterrestre/química , Compuestos Orgánicos/análisis , Astronomía/instrumentación , Astronomía/métodos , Polvo Cósmico , Evolución Planetaria , Hielo , Sistema Solar
17.
J Chem Phys ; 124(6): 64715, 2006 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16483237

RESUMEN

We present the results of classical dynamics calculations performed to study the photodissociation of water in crystalline and amorphous ice surfaces at a surface temperature of 10 K. A modified form of a recently developed potential model for the photodissociation of a water molecule in ice [S. Andersson et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 408, 415 (2005)] is used. Dissociation in the top six monolayers is considered. Desorption of H(2)O has a low probability (less than 0.5% yield per absorbed photon) for both types of ice. The final outcome strongly depends on the original position of the photodissociated molecule. For molecules in the first bilayer of crystalline ice and the corresponding layers in amorphous ice, desorption of H atoms dominates. In the second bilayer H atom desorption, trapping of the H and OH fragments in the ice, and recombination of H and OH are of roughly equal importance. Deeper into the ice H atom desorption becomes less important and trapping and recombination dominate. Motion of the photofragments is somewhat more restricted in amorphous ice. The distribution of distances traveled by H atoms in the ice peaks at 6-7 Angstroms with a tail going to about 60 Angstroms for both types of ice. The mobility of OH radicals is low within the ice with most probable distances traveled of 2 and 1 Angstrom for crystalline and amorphous ices, respectively. OH is, however, quite mobile on top of the surface, where it has been found to travel more than 80 Angstroms. Simulated absorption spectra of crystalline ice, amorphous ice, and liquid water are found to be in very good agreement with the experiments. The outcomes of photodissociation in crystalline and amorphous ices are overall similar, but with some intriguing differences in detail. The probability of H atoms desorbing is 40% higher from amorphous than from crystalline ice and the kinetic-energy distribution of the H atoms is on average 30% hotter for amorphous ice. In contrast, the probability of desorption of OH radicals from crystalline ice is much higher than that from amorphous ice.

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