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1.
Environ Microbiol ; 23(1): 299-315, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185968

RESUMEN

Geobacter sulfurreducens is a model bacterium to study the degradation of organic compounds coupled to the reduction of Fe(III). The response of G. sulfurreducens to the electron donors acetate, formate, hydrogen and a mixture of all three with Fe(III) citrate as electron acceptor was studied using comparative physiological and proteomic approaches. Variations in the supplied electron donors resulted in differential abundance of proteins involved in the citric acid cycle (CAC), gluconeogenesis, electron transport, and hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenase. Our results provided new insights into the electron donor metabolism of G. sulfurreducens. Remarkably, formate was the preferred electron donor compared to acetate, hydrogen, or acetate plus hydrogen. When hydrogen was the electron donor, formate was formed, which was associated with a high abundance of formate dehydrogenase. Notably, abundant proteins of two CO2 fixation pathways (acetyl-CoA pathway and the reversed oxidative CAC) corroborated chemolithoautotrophic growth of G. sulfurreducens with formate or hydrogen and CO2 , and provided novel insight into chemolithoautotrophic growth of G. sulfurreducens.


Asunto(s)
Acetatos/metabolismo , Crecimiento Quimioautotrófico/fisiología , Compuestos Férricos/metabolismo , Formiatos/metabolismo , Geobacter/metabolismo , Ciclo del Ácido Cítrico/fisiología , Transporte de Electrón/fisiología , Electrones , Formiato Deshidrogenasas/metabolismo , Geobacter/genética , Geobacter/crecimiento & desarrollo , Gluconeogénesis/fisiología , Hidrógeno/química , Compuestos Orgánicos/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción , Proteómica
2.
ISME J ; 15(4): 1150-1164, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303933

RESUMEN

Ammonia oxidation was considered impossible under highly acidic conditions, as the protonation of ammonia leads to decreased substrate availability and formation of toxic nitrogenous compounds. Recently, some studies described archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers growing at pH as low as 4, while environmental studies observed nitrification at even lower pH values. In this work, we report on the discovery, cultivation, and physiological, genomic, and transcriptomic characterization of a novel gammaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacterium enriched via continuous bioreactor cultivation from an acidic air biofilter that was able to grow and oxidize ammonia at pH 2.5. This microorganism has a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle, using ammonia as energy source. The observed growth rate on ammonia was 0.196 day-1, with a doubling time of 3.5 days. The strain also displayed ureolytic activity and cultivation with urea as ammonia source resulted in a growth rate of 0.104 day-1 and a doubling time of 6.7 days. A high ammonia affinity (Km(app) = 147 ± 14 nM) and high tolerance to toxic nitric oxide could represent an adaptation to acidic environments. Electron microscopic analysis showed coccoid cell morphology with a large amount of intracytoplasmic membrane stacks, typical of gammaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers. Furthermore, genome and transcriptome analysis showed the presence and expression of diagnostic genes for nitrifiers (amoCAB, hao, nor, ure, cbbLS), but no nirK was identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this strain belonged to a novel bacterial genus, for which we propose the name "Candidatus Nitrosacidococcus tergens" sp. RJ19.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco , Microbiología del Suelo , Archaea , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Nitrificación , Oxidación-Reducción , Filogenia
3.
ISME J ; 14(5): 1223-1232, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042101

RESUMEN

The trace amounts (0.53 ppmv) of atmospheric hydrogen gas (H2) can be utilized by microorganisms to persist during dormancy. This process is catalyzed by certain Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi, and is estimated to convert 75 × 1012 g H2 annually, which is half of the total atmospheric H2. This rapid atmospheric H2 turnover is hypothesized to be catalyzed by high-affinity [NiFe] hydrogenases. However, apparent high-affinity H2 oxidation has only been shown in whole cells, rather than for the purified enzyme. Here, we show that the membrane-associated hydrogenase from the thermoacidophilic methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV possesses a high apparent affinity (Km(app) = 140 nM) for H2 and that methanotrophs can oxidize subatmospheric H2. Our findings add to the evidence that the group 1h [NiFe] hydrogenase is accountable for atmospheric H2 oxidation and that it therefore could be a strong controlling factor in the global H2 cycle. We show that the isolated enzyme possesses a lower affinity (Km = 300 nM) for H2 than the membrane-associated enzyme. Hence, the membrane association seems essential for a high affinity for H2. The enzyme is extremely thermostable and remains folded up to 95 °C. Strain SolV is the only known organism in which the group 1h [NiFe] hydrogenase is responsible for rapid growth on H2 as sole energy source as well as oxidation of subatmospheric H2. The ability to conserve energy from H2 could increase fitness of verrucomicrobial methanotrophs in geothermal ecosystems with varying CH4 fluxes. We propose that H2 oxidation can enhance growth of methanotrophs in aerated methane-driven ecosystems. Group 1h [NiFe] hydrogenases could therefore contribute to mitigation of global warming, since CH4 is an important and extremely potent greenhouse gas.


Asunto(s)
Verrucomicrobia/fisiología , Ecosistema , Hidrógeno , Hidrogenasas/metabolismo , Metano , Oxidación-Reducción , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo
4.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 11: 13, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29416558

RESUMEN

Background: Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial communities were compared using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Results: In both reactors, lactate was the main initial product and was associated with growth of Streptococcus spp. (86% average relative abundance). Subsequently, lactate served as a substrate for secondary fermentations. In the reactor inoculated with rumen fluid from the Dutch cow, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Streptococcus increased from the start, and lactate, acetate, formate and ethanol were produced. From day 1.33 to 2, lactate and acetate were degraded, resulting in butyrate production. Butyrate production coincided with a decrease in relative abundance of Streptococcus spp. and increased relative abundances of bacteria of other groups, including Parabacteroides, Sporanaerobacter, Helicobacteraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. In the reactor with the Thai cow inoculum, Streptococcus spp. also increased from the start. When lactate was consumed, acetate, propionate and butyrate were produced (day 3-4). After day 3, bacteria belonging to five dominant groups, Bacteroides, Pseudoramibacter_Eubacterium, Dysgonomonas, Enterobacteriaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, were detected and these showed significant positive correlations with acetate, propionate and butyrate levels. Conclusions: The complexity of rumen microorganisms with high adaptation capacity makes rumen fluid a suitable source to convert organic waste into valuable products without the addition of hydrolytic enzymes. Starch waste is a source for organic acid production, especially lactate.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 239, 2018 01 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339722

RESUMEN

Methanol is generally metabolized through a pathway initiated by a cobalamine-containing methanol methyltransferase by anaerobic methylotrophs (such as methanogens and acetogens), or through oxidation to formaldehyde using a methanol dehydrogenase by aerobes. Methanol is an important substrate in deep-subsurface environments, where thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfotomaculum have key roles. Here, we study the methanol metabolism of Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii strain 17T, isolated from a 3000-m deep geothermal water reservoir. We use proteomics to analyze cells grown with methanol and sulfate in the presence and absence of cobalt and vitamin B12. The results indicate the presence of two methanol-degrading pathways in D. kuznetsovii, a cobalt-dependent methanol methyltransferase and a cobalt-independent methanol dehydrogenase, which is further confirmed by stable isotope fractionation. This is the first report of a microorganism utilizing two distinct methanol conversion pathways. We hypothesize that this gives D. kuznetsovii a competitive advantage in its natural environment.


Asunto(s)
Alcohol Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Desulfotomaculum/enzimología , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/genética , Metanol/metabolismo , Metiltransferasas/metabolismo , Alcohol Deshidrogenasa/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Cobalto/metabolismo , Cobalto/farmacología , Medios de Cultivo/química , Desulfotomaculum/genética , Expresión Génica , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Hidrólisis , Metiltransferasas/genética , Oxidación-Reducción , Filogenia , Proteómica/métodos , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo , Vitamina B 12/farmacología
6.
J Gen Appl Microbiol ; 64(1): 1-8, 2018 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187682

RESUMEN

Glycerol is a main co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol may serve as a cheap and attractive substrate in biotechnological applications, e.g. for the production of valuable chemicals or as an electron donor for reduction processes. In this work, sulfate reduction with glycerol was studied at neutral and acidic pH using bioreactor sludge samples and Tinto River sediments as a source of inoculum, respectively. Communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and fermentative bacteria were co-enriched at both pH values. Molecular analyses revealed that sequences belonging to Desulfomicrobium genus were dominant in the cultures enriched at pH 7, while Desulfosporosinus sequences dominated in the culture enriched at pH 4. Glycerol conversion was coupled to sulfate reduction, but the substrate was incompletely oxidized to acetate in the neutrophilic enrichments, and acetate, lactate, and 1,3-propanediol under low pH conditions. Two strains belonging to Desulfomicrobium and Proteiniphilum genera were isolated from the neutrophilic enrichments, but the first isolate was not able to use glycerol, which suggests a syntrophic relationship between glycerol-degrading fermentative bacteria and SRB. A Clostridium strain able to grow with glycerol was isolated from the low pH enrichment. Our data indicate that glycerol promotes the growth of sulfate-reducing communities to form sulfide, which can be used to precipitate and recover heavy metals.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Reactores Biológicos/microbiología , ADN Bacteriano , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiología , Oxidación-Reducción , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Ríos/microbiología , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología
7.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 66(10): 3957-3963, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27406836

RESUMEN

Species of the genus Trichococcus share high similarity of their 16S rRNA gene sequences (>99 %). Digital DNA-DNA hybridization values (dDDH) among type strains of all described species of the genus Trichococcus (T. flocculiformis DSM 2094T, T. pasteurii DSM 2381T, T. collinsii DSM 14526T, T. palustris DSM 9172T, and T. patagoniensisDSM 18806T) indicated that Trichococcus sp. strain R210T represents a novel species of the genus Trichococcus. The dDDH values showed a low DNA relatedness between strain R210T and all other species of the genus Trichococcus (23-32%). Cells of strain R210T were motile, slightly curved rods, 0.63-1.40×0.48-0.90 µm and stained Gram-positive. Growth was optimal at pH 7.8 and at temperature of 30 °C. Strain R210T could utilize several carbohydrates, and the main products from glucose fermentation were lactate, acetate, formate and ethanol. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain R210T was 47.9 mol%. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics along with measured dDDH values for all species of the genus Trichococcus, it is suggested that strain R210T represents a novel species within the genus Trichococcus, for which the name Trichococcus ilyis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R210T (=DSM 22150T=JCM 31247T).


Asunto(s)
Carnobacteriaceae/clasificación , Filogenia , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , Reactores Biológicos/microbiología , Carnobacteriaceae/genética , Carnobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
8.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 64(Pt 7): 2449-2454, 2014 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24776531

RESUMEN

A novel anaerobic succinate-producing bacterium, strain ZWB(T), was isolated from sludge collected from a biogas desulfurization bioreactor (Eerbeek, the Netherlands). Cells were non-spore-forming, motile, slightly curved rods (0.4-0.5 µm in diameter and 2-3 µm in length), and stained Gram-negative. The temperature range for growth was 25-40 °C, with an optimum at 37 °C. The pH range for growth was 7.0-9.0, with an optimum at pH 7.5. Strain ZWB(T) was able to ferment glycerol and several carbohydrates mainly to H2, succinate and acetate. Sulfur and fumarate could be used as electron acceptors by strain ZWB(T). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.6 mol%. The most abundant fatty acids were iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 DMA. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain ZWB(T) belongs to the family Ruminococcaceae and it is distantly related to Saccharofermentans acetigenes JCM 14006(T) (92.1%). Based on the physiological features and phylogenetic analysis, strain ZWB(T) represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Ercella succinigenes gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Ercella succinigenes is ZWB(T) ( = DSM 27333(T) = JCM 19283(T)).


Asunto(s)
Reactores Biológicos , Bacilos Gramnegativos Anaerobios Rectos, Curvos y Espirales/clasificación , Filogenia , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Bacilos Gramnegativos Anaerobios Rectos, Curvos y Espirales/genética , Bacilos Gramnegativos Anaerobios Rectos, Curvos y Espirales/aislamiento & purificación , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Países Bajos , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
9.
Microb Biotechnol ; 5(4): 573-8, 2012 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22117537

RESUMEN

A coccal bacterium (strain ES5) was isolated from methanogenic bioreactor sludge with glycerol as the sole energy and carbon source. Strain ES5 fermented glycerol to 1,3-propanediol as main product, and lactate, acetate and formate as minor products. The strain was phylogenetically closely related to Trichococcus flocculiformis; the rRNA gene sequence similarity was 99%. However, strain ES5 does not show the typical growth in chains of T. flocculiformis. Moreover, T. flocculiformis does not ferment glycerol. Strain ES5 used a variety of sugars for growth. With these substrates, lactate, acetate and formate were the main products, while 1,3-propanediol was not formed. The optimum growth temperature of strain ES5 ranges from 30-37°C, but like several other Trichoccoccus strains, strain ES5 is able to grow at low temperature (< 10°C). Therefore, strain ES5 may be an appropriate catalyst for the biotechnological production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol at low ambient temperature.


Asunto(s)
Carnobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Glicoles de Propileno/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Carbono/metabolismo , Carnobacteriaceae/clasificación , Carnobacteriaceae/genética , Carnobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Análisis por Conglomerados , ADN Bacteriano/química , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Ribosómico/química , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Metabolismo Energético , Formiatos/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , Temperatura
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 88(2): 595-603, 2010 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20680263

RESUMEN

A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts.


Asunto(s)
Cloratos/metabolismo , Combustibles Fósiles/microbiología , Percloratos/metabolismo , Veillonellaceae/fisiología , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Oxidorreductasas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Veillonellaceae/clasificación , Veillonellaceae/enzimología , Veillonellaceae/aislamiento & purificación
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