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Nature ; 597(7876): 366-369, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526704


Southeast Australia experienced intensive and geographically extensive wildfires during the 2019-2020 summer season1,2. The fires released substantial amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere3. However, existing emission estimates based on fire inventories are uncertain4, and vary by up to a factor of four for this event. Here we constrain emission estimates with the help of satellite observations of carbon monoxide5, an analytical Bayesian inversion6 and observed ratios between emitted carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide7. We estimate emissions of carbon dioxide to be 715 teragrams (range 517-867) from November 2019 to January 2020. This is more than twice the estimate derived by five different fire inventories8-12, and broadly consistent with estimates based on a bottom-up bootstrap analysis of this fire episode13. Although fires occur regularly in the savannas in northern Australia, the recent episodes were extremely large in scale and intensity, burning unusually large areas of eucalyptus forest in the southeast13. The fires were driven partly by climate change14,15, making better-constrained emission estimates particularly important. This is because the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide may become increasingly dependent on fire-driven climate-carbon feedbacks, as highlighted by this event16.

Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Imágenes Satelitales , Incendios Forestales/estadística & datos numéricos , Atmósfera/química , Australia , Teorema de Bayes , Monóxido de Carbono/análisis , Cambio Climático , Eucalyptus , Bosques , Pradera , Incertidumbre
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843920


Methane emissions due to accidents in the oil and natural gas sector are very challenging to monitor, and hence are seldom considered in emission inventories and reporting. One of the main reasons is the lack of measurements during such events. Here we report the detection of large methane emissions from a gas well blowout in Ohio during February to March 2018 in the total column methane measurements from the spaceborne Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). From these data, we derive a methane emission rate of 120 ± 32 metric tons per hour. This hourly emission rate is twice that of the widely reported Aliso Canyon event in California in 2015. Assuming the detected emission represents the average rate for the 20-d blowout period, we find the total methane emission from the well blowout is comparable to one-quarter of the entire state of Ohio's reported annual oil and natural gas methane emission, or, alternatively, a substantial fraction of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions from several European countries. Our work demonstrates the strength and effectiveness of routine satellite measurements in detecting and quantifying greenhouse gas emission from unpredictable events. In this specific case, the magnitude of a relatively unknown yet extremely large accidental leakage was revealed using measurements of TROPOMI in its routine global survey, providing quantitative assessment of associated methane emissions.

Adv Funct Mater ; 27(12)2017 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319321


Bioprinting is the most convenient microfabrication method to create biomimetic three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue constructs, which can be used to regenerate damaged tissue and provide platforms for drug screening. However, existing bioinks, which are usually composed of polymeric biomaterials, are poorly conductive and delay efficient electrical coupling between adjacent cardiac cells. To solve this problem, we developed a gold nanorod (GNR) incorporated gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA)-based bioink for printing 3D functional cardiac tissue constructs. The GNR concentration was adjusted to create a proper microenvironment for the spreading and organization of cardiac cells. At optimized concentration of GNR, the nanocomposite bioink had a low viscosity, similar to pristine inks, which allowed for the easy integration of cells at high densities. As a result, rapid deposition of cell-laden fibers at a high resolution was possible, while reducing shear stress on the encapsulated cells. In the printed GNR constructs, cardiac cells showed improved cell adhesion and organization when compared to the constructs without GNRs. Furthermore, the incorporated GNRs bridged the electrically resistant pore walls of polymers, improved the cell-to-cell coupling, and promoted synchronized contraction of the bioprinted constructs. Given its advantageous properties, this gold nanocomposite bioink may find wide application in cardiac tissue engineering.

Science ; 340(6137): 1199-202, 2013 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23744942


The statistics of discovered exoplanets suggest that planets form efficiently. However, there are fundamental unsolved problems, such as excessive inward drift of particles in protoplanetary disks during planet formation. Recent theories invoke dust traps to overcome this problem. We report the detection of a dust trap in the disk around the star Oph IRS 48 using observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The 0.44-millimeter-wavelength continuum map shows high-contrast crescent-shaped emission on one side of the star, originating from millimeter-sized grains, whereas both the mid-infrared image (micrometer-sized dust) and the gas traced by the carbon monoxide 6-5 rotational line suggest rings centered on the star. The difference in distribution of big grains versus small grains/gas can be modeled with a vortex-shaped dust trap triggered by a companion.