Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 49
Filtrar
1.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e083806, 2024 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346888

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Infection prevention and control (IPC) teams are routinely confronted with intense emotions in their daily work, as they are involved in many change processes with front-line medical staff, for example, when promoting compliance with basic IPC measures. In addition, they are confronted with challenges due to their role as intermediaries. Based on former research, this study aims to empower IPC teams to promote clinicians' compliance through interventions focusing on the IPC teams' leadership skills. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The IP-POWER study (Infection Prevention with head and heart: Psychological empowerment of IPC teams), a multicentre, two-arm, non-blinded, cluster-randomised controlled trial with a parallel waiting control group, is planned to be conducted in Germany as of February to November 2024. A group of 10 voluntary hospitals is going to participate in a multistage intervention programme, including 2 days of intense psychological training; 5 hospitals will be randomly assigned to the waiting control group. After the workshops, there will be a 12-week follow-up period during which the contents learnt within the workshops can be applied and internalised into IPC practice. The proposed outcomes (both self-assessed and other-assessed leadership competencies of IPC team members and their task profiles, perceived workload, motivation to act in order to implement IP measures and goal attainment) are going to be collected with an online questionnaire, followed by an analysis with IBM SPSS (Statistics 29 (or later)) using descriptive analyses and multiple linear regressions. Additionally, as external data sources, hand hygiene compliance rates from the study hospitals' monitoring systems will be analysed using χ² tests. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was reviewed and approved by the ethics committee of the University of Leipzig (184/23-ek; vote from 4 July 2023). Findings will be disseminated via peer-review publications, and national and international conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00031879.


Asunto(s)
Higiene de las Manos , Liderazgo , Humanos , Motivación , Control de Infecciones , Empoderamiento , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto
2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 147, 2022 12 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461038

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: One barrier to hand hygiene compliance is overestimation of one's own performance. Overconfidence research shows that overestimation tends to be higher for difficult tasks, which suggests that the magnitude of overestimation also depends on how it is assessed. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that overestimation was stronger for hand hygiene indications with low compliance (i.e., high difficulty), and the hypothesis that self-reported overall compliance based on a single item is higher than based on "5 Moments of Hand Hygiene" (WHO-5) items, since the single item implies an aggregation across indications. METHODS: In the WACH trial (German Clinical Trials Register [DRKS] ID: DRKS00015502), a questionnaire survey was conducted among physicians and nurses in nine surgical clinics (general/visceral surgery or orthopedics/trauma surgery) of six German hospitals. Self-reported compliance was assessed both by a single item and the WHO-5-items using percentage scales. These were compared with each other and with direct observations. Relative frequencies of the WHO-5 indications used to calculate the WHO-5-based self-reported overall compliance rate were estimated by a systematized review of the literature (see appendix). In analysis, t-tests, Chi2-tests and multiple linear regressions were used. RESULTS: Ninety-three physicians (response rate: 28.4%) and 225 nurses (30.4%) participated. Significant compliance differences between physicians and nurses were found for direct observations and were in favor of nurses, while no such differences were found for self-reports. Across the WHO-5, overestimation showed inverse correlations with observed compliance (physicians: r = -0.88, p = 0.049; nurses: r = -0.81, p = 0.093). Support for the hypothesis that the self-reported overall compliance based on one item is higher than that based on WHO-5 items was found for physicians (M = 87.2 vs. 84.1%, p = 0.041; nurses: 84.4 vs. 85.5%, p = 0.296). Exploratory analyses showed that this effect was confined to orthopedic/trauma surgeons (89.9 vs. 81.7%, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Among physicians, results indicate stronger hand hygiene overestimation for low-compliance indications, and when measurements are based on a single item versus the five WHO-5 items. For practice, results contribute to infection prevention and control's understanding of overestimation as a psychological mechanism that is relevant to professional hand hygiene.


Asunto(s)
Higiene de las Manos , Ortopedia , Médicos , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Alemania , Hospitales
3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 22, 2022 01 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101127

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene using alcoholic hand rub solution is essential for the prevention of surgical site infections. There are several opportunities for hygienic hand disinfection (termed "hand hygiene" in the following) during immediate pre-, intra- and postoperative orthopedic patient care. However, the level of hand hygiene compliance among surgical and anesthesia staff in this context is unclear. Therefore, we conducted an observational study in operating theatres of an orthopedic university clinic in northern Germany during July and August 2020. METHODS: One trained person directly and comprehensively observed hand hygiene compliance of surgical and anesthesia staff according to the WHO "My 5 moments for hand hygiene" model (WHO-5). In addition to cross-tabulations with Chi2 tests, multiple logistic regression models were used to study associations between occupational group, medical specialty, and compliance (both overall and for each WHO-5 indication). Models were adjusted for hand hygiene opportunities being associated with female or male healthcare workers, being located within or outside the operation room, and occurring in adult or pediatric surgery. RESULTS: In total, 1145 hand hygiene opportunities during 16 surgeries were observed. The overall compliance was 40.8% (95% CI 37.9-43.6%), with a larger difference between surgical versus anesthesia staff (28.4% vs. 46.1%, p < 0.001) than between physicians versus nurses (38.5% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.13). Adjusting for sex, place of observation, and adult versus pediatric operation theatre, logistic regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between medical specialty and occupational group (p < 0.001). In particular, the odds for compliance were higher for anesthesiologists (47.9%) than for surgeons (19.6%) (OR = 4.8, 95% CI 3.0-7.6). In addition, compliance was higher in pediatric surgery (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.6). In general, WHO-5-stratified results were in line with these overall patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Hygienic hand disinfection compliance was approximately 41%. Notably, surgeons performed worse than anesthesiologists did. These results indicate that hand hygiene compliance in orthopedic surgery needs to be improved. Tailored interventions promise to be an appropriate way to address each occupational group's specific needs.


Asunto(s)
Adhesión a Directriz , Desinfección de las Manos , Hospitales Universitarios , Control de Infecciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/estadística & datos numéricos , Médicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Ortopedia
4.
Front Health Serv ; 2: 960854, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36925806

RESUMEN

Implementation interventions in infection prevention and control (IPC) differ by recipients. The two target groups are healthcare workers directly involved in patient care ("frontline") and IPC professionals as proxy agents, that is, implementation support practitioners. While both types of implementation interventions aim to promote compliance with clinical interventions to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAI), their tailoring may be vastly different, for example, due to different behavioural outcomes. Additionally, IPC teams, as recipients of empowering tailored interventions, are under-researched. To overcome this gap and improve conceptual clarity, we proposed a cascadic logic model for tailored IPC interventions (IPC-CASCADE). In the model, we distinguished between interventions by IPC professionals targeting clinicians and those targeting IPC professionals (first- and second-order implementation interventions, respectively). Tailoring implies selecting behaviour change techniques matched to prospectively-assessed determinants of either clinician compliance (in first-order interventions) or interventions by IPC professionals for frontline workers (in second-order interventions). This interventional cascade is embedded in the prevailing healthcare system. IPC-CASCADE is horizontally structured over time and vertically structured by hierarchy or leadership roles. IPC-CASCADE aims to highlight the potential of increasing the impact of tailored interventions by IPC professionals for clinicians (to improve their compliance) via tailored interventions for IPC professionals (to improve their work as proxy agents). It underlines the links that IPC professionals define between macro contexts (healthcare and hospitals) and frontline workers in HAI prevention. It is specific, i.e., "tailored" to IPC, and expected to assist implementation science to better conceptualise tailoring.

5.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 407(1): 337-341, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432126

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Therapeutic success of surgical interventions is significantly affected by patients' adherence. Patient autonomy can lead to unreasonable behavior. We analyzed the consequences and predisposing factors of patient self-discharge in a plastic and hand surgery cohort. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Data was collected retrospectively in a case-control study with n = 73 patients who had self-discharged in a 10-year time period and n = 130 controls (discharge by the surgeon). Data was collected through the hospital information systems and a particular questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed via chi-squared test and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Patients who self-discharged against medical advice had a significantly higher complication rate (p = 0.045) and a higher number of revision operations (p < 0.001). They were more often dissatisfied with the primary inpatient treatment (p < 0.05). Secondly, they lived more often in shared households (p = 0.002; OR 5.387 (1.734-16.732)) or had to take care of their children at home (p = 0.006; OR 1.481 (1.280-1.741)). There was a significantly lower pain score (NAS) on time of self-discharge (p = 0.002) as well as 24 h after self-discharge (p < 0.001) in self-discharged patients. CONCLUSION: Self-discharge was associated with predisposing factors and poorer outcomes. Patient autonomy can lead to health-compromising behavior and patients should be counseled accordingly.


Asunto(s)
Alta del Paciente , Plásticos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Causalidad , Niño , Mano/cirugía , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
6.
Gesundheitswesen ; 83(10): 797-804, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571554

RESUMEN

AIM OF THE STUDY: Dental group prophylaxis in day-care centers with teeth brushing as one of its components is intended to reduce caries incidence and promote dental health. However, various barriers can hinder implementation of this preventive measure. One concern relates to an increased risk of transmission of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in day-care centers. The ZINFEKT study aimed at determining whether and to what extent there are differences in the occurrence of ARI between day-care centers that implement vs. those that do not implement teeth brushing. METHODS: In an ecological study, 2013-2018 data from the ARI surveillance of the Public Health Agency of Lower Saxony were merged with information from the Dental Services on teeth brushing for n=33 day-care facilities from the urban municipality of Braunschweig, the region of Hannover, and the administrative district of Osnabrück (all Lower Saxony, Germany). Following the concept of patient days from hospital infection surveillance, "ill child weeks" were specified as observational units, defined as weeks for which an ARI had been reported for a registered child. Besides cross-tabulations, relative risks for ill child weeks by teeth brushing and Breslow-Day Tests for interactions with area, size of day-care center, ARI season and time slot with ARI seasons were computed. RESULTS: Overall, the ARI-rate, defined at the proportion of ill child weeks, was 4.6% higher in day-care centers in which teeth brushing took place, vs. centers in which this measure was not implemented (17.9 vs. 13.3%, p<0.0001). In analyses stratified by the geographic and temporal co-variables, the direction of this difference did not change (with one exception: day-care centers with 50 or less registered children) . CONCLUSION: The assumption that regular teeth brushing is associated with higher ARI rates in day-care centers does seem to have an empirical basis. However, despite the study's limitations (primarily its ecological design and possibly limited representativeness of the day-care centers), the identified difference - due both to its magnitude and possibly improvable hygiene compliance - to our assessment does not speak against brushing teeth as a component of dental group prophylaxis in day-care centers.


Asunto(s)
Centros de Día , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Niño , Guarderías Infantiles , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control
7.
Int J Health Geogr ; 20(1): 24, 2021 05 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049563

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies on the association between surrounding greenspace and being overweight in childhood show inconsistent results, possibly because they differ widely in their definition and measurement of surrounding greenspace. Our aim was to evaluate whether the association of greenspace with being overweight depends on the measurement of greenspace in different data sources. METHODS: Based on data from the school entry examinations of 22,678 children in the city of Hannover, Germany, from 2010 to 14, the association between greenspace availability and overweight was examined. Three different sources of greenspace availability were derived for a set of 51 areas of the city: The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the OpenStreetMap (OSM) dataset, and the European Urban Atlas (UA) dataset. Agreement between the indicators on the quantity of greenspace coverage was compared. The association with children's BMI z-score, including potential interaction terms, was assessed using multilevel regression analysis. RESULTS: Greenspace availability per district area derived by NDVI was on average 42%, by OSM 29% and UA 22%, with OSM and UA being strongly correlated. Only the greenspace availability derived by NDVI showed an association with children's BMI z-score: The higher the greenspace availability was, the lower the BMI. The trend of association was higher for boys and migrant children than for girls and non-migrants and was restricted to the highest levels of greenspace availability. CONCLUSIONS: Associations of greenspace with children's weight status depend on the greenspace measurement chosen. Surrounding greenspace was measured more comprehensively by NDVI. Data sources based on land use categories such as UA and OSM may be less suitable to reflect surrounding greenspace relevant for health outcomes. Potential mechanisms warrant further analysis and investigation.


Asunto(s)
Sobrepeso , Parques Recreativos , Niño , Ciudades , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Almacenamiento y Recuperación de la Información , Masculino , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiología
9.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 67, 2021 04 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827692

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs), which due to their long-term consequences are especially critical in orthopedic surgery, entails compliance with over 20 individual measures. However, little is known about the psychosocial determinants of such compliance among orthopedic physicians, which impedes efforts to tailor implementation interventions to improve compliance. Thus, for this professional group, this pilot survey examined psychosocial determinants of self-reported compliance, which have been theoretically derived from the COM-B (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation and Behavior) model. METHODS: In 2019, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in a tertiary care university orthopedic clinic in Hannover, Germany, as a pilot for the WACH-trial ("Wundinfektionen und Antibiotikaverbrauch in der Chirurgie" [Wound Infections and Antibiotics Consumption in Surgery]). Fifty-two physicians participated (38 surgeons, 14 anesthesiologists; response rate: 73.2%). The questionnaire assessed self-reported compliance with 26 SSI preventive measures, and its psychosocial determinants (COM-B). Statistical analyses included descriptive, correlational, and linear multiple regression modeling. RESULTS: Self-reported compliance rates for individual measures varied from 53.8 to 100%, with overall compliance (defined for every participant as the mean of his or her self-reported rates for each individual measure) averaging at 88.9% (surgeons: 90%, anesthesiologists: 85.9%; p = 0.097). Of the components identified in factor analyses of the COM-B items, planning, i.e., self-formulated conditional plans to comply, was the least pronounced (mean = 4.3 on the 7-point Likert scale), while motivation was reported to be the strongest (mean = 6.3). Bi-variately, the overall compliance index co-varied with all four COM-B-components, i.e., capabilities (r = 0.512, p < 0.001), opportunities (r = 0.421, p = 0.002), planning (r = 0.378, p = 0.007), and motivation (r = 0.272, p = 0.051). After mutual adjustment and adjustment for type of physician and the number of measures respondents felt responsible for, the final backward regression model included capabilities (ß = 0.35, p = 0.015) and planning (ß = 0.29, p = 0.041) as COM-B-correlates. CONCLUSION: Though based on a small sample of orthopedic physicians in a single hospital (albeit in conjunction with a high survey response rate), this study found initial evidence for positive correlations between capabilities and planning skills with self-reported SSI preventive compliance in German orthopedic physicians. Analyses of the WACH-trial will further address the role of these factors in promoting SSI preventive compliance in orthopedic surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This survey was conducted as part of the research project WACH ("Wundinfektionen und Antibiotikaverbrauch in der Chirurgie" [Wound Infections and Antibiotic Consumption in Surgery]), which has been registered in the German Clinical Trial Registry ( https://www.drks.de/ ; ID: DRKS00015502).


Asunto(s)
Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoinforme , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anestesiólogos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Alemania , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Cirujanos Ortopédicos , Médicos , Proyectos Piloto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
10.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 781532, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35211036

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Data on burden of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are mostly limited to physical and clinical endpoints as well as quality of life. Research on employment, work productivity, and educational background is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of PAH on employment status and work productivity in Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multicenter cross-sectional survey, patients with PAH were surveyed in two large pulmonary hypertension referral centers in Germany. The survey contained questions on education, employment, work productivity and impairment (WPAI, also at the time of diagnosis), quality of life, and socioeconomic status. Additional data was assessed using clinical research database for 6-min walk distance (6MWD), WHO functional class, and N-terminal fragment of pro-brain natriuretic peptide. All patients provided written informed consent, and the institutional review board approved this study. RESULTS: In total, 212 patients were surveyed (72% female; median, 57 years) approximately 6 years after initial PAH diagnosis. A total of 76% had an idiopathic PAH followed by hereditary and associated PAH (10% each). Employment at the time of diagnosis was 48% (34% full-time, 14% part-time), with productivity measured by a WPAI score of 6 points and decreased to 29% (21% full-time, 8% part-time) at the time of the survey (with a WPAI score of 2 points, p < 0.001). Logistic regression showed education and 6MWD as predictors for employment. Patients in moderate or high educational category had a 3.6- or 5.6-fold chance, respectively, of being employed (p = 0.025 and p = 0.019), and per 50-m increase of 6MWD, the odds of being employed were 1.2, p = 0.042. CONCLUSION: Patients with PAH had a reduced employment rate, which was influenced by education and 6MWD. There was a considerable loss of employment over the course of the disease. Employment should be one possible treatment goal in patients with PAH to provide social participation to this patient group.

11.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(7): Doc81, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33364360

RESUMEN

Objective: In the spring of 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the question arose at Hannover Medical School as to how simulated patients (SP) could still be utilized in the communication course that is part of the module "Diagnostic methods" taught in the second year of the model medical curriculum known as HannibaL. Methods: This short report summarizes the process of implementing the utilization of SP in analog classroom teaching and describes the relevant results on the concluding Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in comparison to the previous year. Results: Overall, the analog SP deployments were practicable under local conditions and in compliance with precautionary measures to curb the risk of infection, whereby the OSCE scores did not deviate significantly from those in the prior year. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic and perhaps other epidemics as well, it will continue to be important in the future to make locally adapted, purpose-oriented, and preventively effective decisions regarding university didactics in undergraduate studies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Simulación de Paciente , Enseñanza/organización & administración , Competencia Clínica , Comunicación , Curriculum , Evaluación Educacional , Humanos , Pandemias , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 230: 113590, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889358

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is an efficacious behaviour to prevent community-associated infections. Estimates of the proportion of populations who wash their hands have indicated limited compliance. While biases of self-report items for hand hygiene, such as the tendency to overestimate one's behaviour, represent a limitation, direct survey questions remain important. This study aims to compare indices of handwashing compliance based on single vs. combined handwashing attributes, i.e., its frequency, technique, and duration. METHODS: Data of a representative survey on hygiene and infection control by the German Federal Centre for Health Education were analysed. In a cross-sectional, computer-assisted telephone interview design, the resident population in Germany aged 16-85 years was surveyed in 2012. For handwashing, duration, frequency in different situations, and technique (use of soap, washing interdigital spaces, and drying hands) were self-reported. Self-reports were rated as (non-)compliant based on national recommendations and combined into single- and multi-attribute indices. Use of hand disinfectants, recall of handwashing instruction plates in public restrooms, and socio-demographics were also assessed. In total, N = 4483 persons participated (response rate: 49.7%). Data were weighted to compensate for sampling bias and analysed by cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression. Primarily due to missing data, the analysis was confined to N = 4093 respondents (i.e., 91%). RESULTS: Among women, the proportion of those who reported to wash hands "almost always" in at least seven of nine situations was 30.8% (men: 20.3%). In contrast, 51% of men reported always using soap, drying hands, and washing interdigital spaces (women: 43.5%; p < 0.001). Compliance based on indices that included "frequency" was higher in women by 5.2% for "frequency + technique" (17.6% vs. 12.4%), and 2.5% for "frequency + duration" (13.1% vs. 10.6%) and "frequency + duration + technique" (8.8% vs. 6.3%; p < 0.02). Socio-demographic differences were most consistent regarding higher compliance among healthcare workers. Finally, especially men recalling handwashing instruction plates in public restrooms had higher compliance than those with no recall, namely, for "frequency + technique" (15.4% vs. 10.6%; OR: 1.9), all three attributes (7.6% vs. 5.3%; OR = 1.7), and "technique" (56.9% vs. 47.7%; OR = 1.6). The highest odds ratio was noted for disinfectant use among men (OR = 2.5; 12.2% vs. 4.9%). DISCUSSION: While being representative for Germany, limitations include the survey's cross-sectionality, response rate, and the study representing the situation in 2012. Nonetheless, indices based on combined attributes allow better comparison to scarce compliance estimates for Germany based on observation. Socio-demographic differences add to existing evidence, e.g., higher compliance by healthcare workers. Finally, although reverse causation is possible, it is notable that although handwashing instruction plates in public restrooms focus on duration and technique, women recalling them reported higher frequency, and men more often report hand disinfectant use, suggesting possible carry-over effects. CONCLUSION: Self-reported handwashing compliance assessment may be improved by partitioning the behavioural domain into different attributes and using indices based on combinations of these.


Asunto(s)
Desinfección de las Manos , Higiene , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Control de Infecciones , Masculino
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295200

RESUMEN

In recent years, built environmental characteristics have been linked to childhood overweight, but the results remain inconsistent across studies. The present study examines associations between several built environmental features and body weight status (BMI) z-score among a large sample of preschool children in the city of Hannover, Germany. Walkability (Index), green space availability, and playground availability related to preschool children's home environments were measured using data from OpenStreetMap (OSM). These built environment characteristics were linked to the data from the 2010-2014 school entry examinations in the Hannover city (n = 22,678), and analysed using multilevel linear regression models to examine associations between the built environment features and the BMI z-score of these children (4-8 years old). No significant associations of built environmental factors on children's BMI were detected, but the effect between green space availability and BMI was modified by the parental educational level. In children with lower compared to higher educated parents, a higher spatial availability of greenspace was significantly associated with reduced body weight. Future research should continue to monitor the disparities in diverse built environment features and how these are related to children's health.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Entorno Construido , Características de la Residencia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Ciudades , Alemania , Humanos
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 236, 2020 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192505

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are highly prevalent in abdominal surgery despite evidence-based prevention measures. Since guidelines are not self-implementing and SSI-preventive compliance is often insufficient, implementation interventions have been developed to promote compliance. This systematic review aims to identify implementation interventions used in abdominal surgery to prevent SSIs and determine associations with SSI reductions. METHODS: Literature was searched in April 2018 (Medline/PubMed and Web of Science Core Collection). Implementation interventions were classified using the implementation subcategories of the EPOC Taxonomy (Cochrane Review Group Effective Practice and Organisation of Care, EPOC). Additionally, an effectiveness analysis was conducted on the association between the number of implementation interventions, specific compositions thereof, and absolute and relative SSI risk reductions. RESULTS: Forty studies were included. Implementation interventions used most frequently ("top five") were audit and feedback (80% of studies), organizational culture (70%), monitoring the performance of healthcare delivery (65%), reminders (53%), and educational meetings (45%). Twenty-nine studies (72.5%) used a multimodal strategy (≥3 interventions). An effectiveness analysis revealed significant absolute and relative SSI risk reductions. E.g., numerically, the largest absolute risk reduction of 10.8% pertained to thirteen studies using 3-5 interventions (p < .001); however, this was from a higher baseline rate than those with fewer or more interventions. The largest relative risk reduction was 52.4% for studies employing the top five interventions, compared to 43.1% for those not including these. Furthermore, neither the differences in risk reduction between studies with different numbers of implementation interventions (bundle size) nor between studies including the top five interventions (vs. not) were significant. CONCLUSION: In SSI prevention in abdominal surgery, mostly standard bundles of implementation interventions are applied. While an effectiveness analysis of differences in SSI risk reduction by number and type of interventions did not render conclusive results, use of standard interventions such as audit and feedback, organizational culture, monitoring, reminders, and education at least does not seem to represent preventive malpractice. Further research should determine implementation interventions, or bundles thereof, which are most effective in promoting compliance with SSI-preventive measures in abdominal surgery.


Asunto(s)
Abdomen/cirugía , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/prevención & control , Atención a la Salud , Adhesión a Directriz , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962918

RESUMEN

Background: Professional hand hygiene compliance represents a multifaceted behaviour with various determinants. Thus, it has been proposed to apply psychological frameworks of behaviour change to its promotion. However, randomized controlled trials of such approaches, which also assess nosocomial infections (NIs), are rare. This study analyses data of the PSYGIENE-trial (PSYchological optimized hand hyGIENE promotion), which has shown improvements in compliance after interventions tailored based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA), on rates of NIs with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Methods: A parallel-group cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted on all 10 intensive care units and two hematopoietic stem cell transplantation units at Hannover Medical School, a German tertiary care hospital. Educational training sessions for physicians and nurses (individual-level intervention) and feedback discussions with clinical managers and head nurses (cluster-level) were implemented in 2013. In the "Tailoring"-arm (n = 6 wards), interventions were tailored based on HAPA-components, which were empirically assessed and addressed by behaviour change techniques. As active controls, n = 6 wards received untailored educational sessions of the local "Clean Care is Safer Care"-campaign (Aktion Saubere Hände: "ASH"-arm). From 2013 to 2015 compliance was assessed by observation following the World Health Organization, while alcohol-based hand rub usage (AHRU) and NIs with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus were assessed following national surveillance protocols. Data were analysed at cluster-level. Results: In the "Tailoring"-arm, interventions led to a decrease of 0.497 MDRO-infections per 1000 inpatient days from 2013 to 2015 (p = 0.015). This trend was not found in the "ASH"-arm (- 0 . 022 infections; p = 0.899). These patterns corresponded inversely to the trends in compliance but not in AHRU. Conclusions: While interventions tailored based on the HAPA-model did not lead to a significantly lower incidence rate of MDRO-infections compared to control wards, a significant reduction, compared to baseline, was found in the second follow-up year in the "Tailoring"- but not the "ASH"-arm. This indicates that HAPA-tailored hand hygiene interventions may contribute to the prevention of NIs with MDRO. Further research should focus on addressing compliance by interventions tailored not only to wards, but also leaders, teams, and individuals. Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register/International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, DRKS00010960. Registered 19 August 2016-Retrospectively registered, https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00010960. http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial2.aspx?TrialID=DRKS00010960.


Asunto(s)
Gestores de Casos/psicología , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Higiene de las Manos/métodos , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Anciano , Gestores de Casos/educación , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Femenino , Alemania , Adhesión a Directriz , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Supervisión de Enfermería
16.
Eur J Pediatr ; 177(5): 753-763, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470636

RESUMEN

Overweight and obesity constitute a global epidemic with rates that are increasing rapidly in children. The aim of the present study was to examine ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight in pre-school children in a multicultural context. Data were collected from a compulsory school entry examination in the Hannover Region, Germany (n = 50,716) from 2010 to 2014. The prevalence of overweight (including pre-obesity and obesity status) and obesity was estimated using a German national reference. The migration status of the children was based on the parent's migration history. Multivariable logistic and hierarchical multinomial regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the overweight, pre-obesity, and obesity status. The prevalence of overweight was significantly higher among migrant children (12.7%) than among the non-migrant children (6.9%). After adjusting for socioeconomic and child development variables, migration background was strongly associated with weight status. The Turkish migrant children showed the highest odds of being pre-obesity (OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.7-2.56) and obesity (OR 2.09, 95%CI 1.67-2.77) compared to non-migrant children. CONCLUSION: Ethnic and social inequalities exist in childhood overweight among pre-school children in the Hannover Region. Thus, appropriate interventions targeting high-risk migrant groups are needed. What is Known: • The current trend of prevalence rates in Germany for overweight and obesity of pre-school children is becoming stable. • Prevalence of overweight and obesity is clearly higher among migrant children than among non-migrant children. What is New: • This article reveals ethnic variance among different migrant groups. • Turkish migrant children have a higher rate of prevalence even compared to other migrant groups. • Length of child day care attendance fails to exert a strong influence on overweight after adjusting for socio-economic and child development variables.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Pediátrica/etnología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Antropometría , Preescolar , Etnicidad , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
19.
Obes Surg ; 27(9): 2378-2387, 2017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28285469

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Past research indicated high psychiatric comorbidity and poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients seeking surgical treatment for obesity. This study investigated if preoperative bariatric surgery patients perceive equally poor HRQOL and increased levels of anxiety and depression as mentally ill patients. METHODS: The study included four groups: 192 bariatric surgery candidates (PRE, 71% women, BMI 48.35 ± 8.98 kg/m2), 96 psychotherapy inpatients with mental disorders (PSY, 77% women, BMI 27.12 ± 9.17 kg/m2), 103 postoperative bariatric surgery patients (POST, 78% women, BMI 30.38 ± 2.88 kg/m2), and a convenience sample of 96 non-clinical volunteers with pre-obesity or obesity grade 1 (CG, 52% women, BMI 29.22 ± 2.64 kg/m2). HRQOL was measured using the 12-item short form health survey (SF-12), and psychopathology was assessed with the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). RESULTS: The PRE group exhibited the lowest physical HRQOL, and the PSY group the lowest mental HRQOL. The highest mental/physical HRQOL was reported by the POST group and the CG, without significant differences between these two groups. While the PSY group scored higher on HADS-anxiety scale than the PRE group, neither group differed with regards to symptoms of depression. The lowest levels of HADS-depression were found in the POST group and the CG. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that bariatric surgery candidates may suffer from equally high levels of depression as psychotherapy inpatients, but they perceive better mental well-being. Routine mental health evaluation should incorporate assessments for both psychopathology and HRQOL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS00009901.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Cirugía Bariátrica/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Obesidad Mórbida/psicología , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/etiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Comorbilidad , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/etiología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Unidades Hospitalarias , Humanos , Pacientes Internos/psicología , Pacientes Internos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Mórbida/cirugía , Periodo Preoperatorio , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/diagnóstico , Calidad de Vida/psicología
20.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 114(3): 29-36, 2017 01 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28179049

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The German "Clean Hands Campaign" (an adaptation of the WHO "Clean Care is Safer Care" programme) to promote hand hygiene among hospital personnel at Hannover Medical School (MHH, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover), known as Aktion Saubere Hände (ASH), met with initial success. By 2013, however, compliance rates with hygienic hand disinfection in the hospital's ten intensive care units (ICUs) and two hematopoietic stem cell transplantation units (HSCTUs) had relapsed to their initial levels (physicians: 48%; nurses: 56%). The cluster- randomized controlled trial PSYGIENE was conducted to investigate whether interventions tai - lored in ways suggested by research in behavioral psychology might bring about more sustainable improvements than the ASH. METHODS: The "Health Action Process Approach" (HAPA) compliance model specifies key psychological determinants of compliance. These determinants were assessed among health care workers in the ICUs and HSCTUs of the MHH by questionnaire (response rates: physicians: 71%; nurses: 63%) and by interviews of the responsible ward physicians and head nurses (100%). In 2013, 29 tailored behavior change techniques were implemented in educational training sessions and feedback discussions in the six wards that constituted the intervention arm of the trial, while ASH training sessions were provided in the control arm. The compliance rates for 2014 and 2015 (the primary outcomes of the trial) were determined by nonparticipating observation of hygienic hand disinfection, in accordance with the World Health Organization's gold standard. RESULTS: The two groups did not differ in their baseline compliance rates in 2013 (intervention: 54%, control: 55%, p = 0.581). The tailored interventions led to increased compliance in each of the two follow-up years (2014: 64%, p<0.001; 2015: 70%, p = 0.001), while the compliance in the control arm increased to 68% in 2014 (p<0.001) but fell back to 64% in 2015 (p = 0.007). The compliance increases from 2013-2015 and the compliance rate in 2015 were higher in the intervention arm (p<0.005). This was mainly attributable to the nurses' behavior, as the corresponding parameters for physicians did not differ significantly between the two study arms in stratified analysis. CONCLUSION: Tailored interventions based on behavioral psychology principles led to more sustainable increases in compliance with hand hygiene guidelines than ASH training sessions did. This was true among nurses, and thus also for hospital ward personnel as a whole (i.e., nurses and physicians combined). Further studies are needed to identify more target group-specific interventions that may improve compliance among physicians.


Asunto(s)
Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Higiene de las Manos/estadística & datos numéricos , Higiene de las Manos/normas , Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Pautas de la Práctica en Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Pautas de la Práctica en Enfermería/normas , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/normas
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...