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1.
Chemosphere ; 356: 141881, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575078

RESUMEN

Acacia Senegal waste (ASW) is remaining biomass following gum Arabic harvesting and has no use mentioned in the literature as of yet. This study aims to convert ASW into valuable biochar via two comparative thermal and hydrothermal techniques, which include pyrochar ASW at 300 °C (PC ASW300) and hydrochar ASW at 180 °C (HC ASW180), respectively, for Cu (II) adsorption from aqueous solutions. SEM-EDS, FTIR, XRD, and XPS were used to characterize the biochar. Adsorption performance was studied as a function of pH, contact time, and adsorbent concentration. Adsorption kinetics were best fit for a pseudo-second-order model. And thermodynamics studies revealed that Cu (II) on biochar was endothermic, spontaneous, and best fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. Pyrochar adsorption capacity (31.93 mg g-1) was seven times that of hydrochar (5.45 mg g-1). ASW treated with phosphorus (PC H3PO4 and HC H3PO4) prior to the carbonization altered the pore structure and surface functional groups as well (O-P-O, P-CH3, and P-OH) of biochar. It was found that treating with phosphorous acid increased adsorption capacity to 141.7 mg g-1 and 22.24 mg g-1 for PC H3PO4 and HC H3PO4, respectively. The surface functional groups of biochar resulted from lignin, alkaloids, and polysaccharides combined with Cu (II) during the adsorption process via surface complexation accompanied by π-electron interaction and Cu (II) reduction. These findings shed light on the ASW biochar potential as a new green cost-effective adsorbent and drew an insightful understanding of Cu (II) adsorption performance and mechanism. It is concluded that ASW-derived biochar is highly effective and a promising alternative for Cu (II) decontamination from wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Carbón Orgánico , Cobre , Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adsorción , Carbón Orgánico/química , Cobre/química , Acacia/química , Aguas Residuales/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química , Cinética , Termodinámica , Descontaminación/métodos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.


Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/efectos de los fármacos , Nefropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Acacia/química , Superóxido Dismutasa , Hemoglobina Glucada/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Expresión Génica , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/genética , Estrés Oxidativo , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Quimioterapia Combinada , Control Glucémico , Insulina/administración & dosificación , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Malondialdehído
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 253(Pt 7): 127458, 2023 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37844816

RESUMEN

In this study, an amine-rich gel (ARAS) was prepared by chemically altering Acacia senegal (AS). ARAS acts as an adsorbent for selenium. Owing to the introduction of amino functional groups and a remarkable specific surface area (91.89 g/m2), ARAS shows maximum adsorption capacities at 75 and 130 mg g-1 for Se(IV) and Se(VI), respectively. The removal efficiency of ARAS is higher (ωSeIV = 98.2 % and ωSeVI = 98.6 %) at lower concentrations (CSeIV = 100 ppm and CSeVI = 95 ppm) and the adsorption equilibrium is achieved within 60 min. The adsorption process of Se (IV) and Se (VI) via ARAS is elucidated using the Quasi-Second-Order kinetic and Langmuir models. The enhanced adsorption capacity of the adsorbent could be attributed to the synergistic effects of electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding, and specific physicochemical properties. Thermodynamic studies reveal that the surface adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic. Notably, ARAS maintains remarkable adsorption stability under a variety of solution conditions, including variable pH (4-11), NaCl concentrations (0-1 M), and the presence of organic solvents. It retains approximately 60 % of its initial adsorption capacity for Se(IV) and Se(VI) after three adsorption cycles. Therefore, ARAS with its cost-effectiveness and exceptional performance shows considerable potential for applications in water treatment.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Selenio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Selenio/química , Adsorción , Senegal , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química , Polisacáridos , Aminas , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Cinética
4.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1245042, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37881253

RESUMEN

Commercial acacia gum (AG) used in this study is a premium-grade free-flowing powder. It is a gummy exudate composed of arabinogalactan branched polysaccharide, a biopolymer of arabinose and galactose. Also known as food additive, acacia gum (E414), which is presently marketed as a functional dietary fiber to improve overall human gut health. The health effects may be related to the luminal pH regulation from the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production. Studies suggested that amylolytic and butyrogenic pathways are the major factors determining the SCFA outcome of AG in the lower gut. However, the primary bacteria involved in the fermentation have not been studied. This study aimed to investigate the putative primary degraders of acacia gum in the gut ecosystem. Isolation and identification of gum-fermenting bacteria were performed through enrichment culture fermentation. The experiment was conducted in an anaerobic chamber for 144 h in three stages. The study was conducted in triplicate using an anaerobic chamber system. This culture system allows specific responses to support only bacteria that are responsible for gum fermentation among the gut microbiota. Five bacterial strains were isolated and found to be gum-fermenting bacteria. Based on the 16s RNA sequence, the isolates matched to butyrate-producing Escherichia fergusonii, ATCC 35469.

5.
Foods ; 12(13)2023 Jun 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37444264

RESUMEN

Gum Arabic, one of the soluble fibers, is considered a source of natural prebiotics that can be fermented by the activity of the intestinal microbiota and, therefore, may have a positive effect on the performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of broilers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gum Arabic on performance, carcass characteristics, physicochemical properties, and quality of broiler breast meat. Six dietary treatments (T1-T5) with a basal diet (CON) containing 0.12%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.0% gum Arabic, respectively. A total of 432 one-day-old male broiler chickens were conducted for 35 days. Performance and carcass characteristics, as well as physical, qualitative, and chemical indicators of breast meat, were evaluated. The results showed that the treatments improved overall performance (p < 0.05), such as body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and performance index, except for feed intake, which was lower at T1, T2, and T5 than at CON. Carcass characteristics, body components, and breast meat color or initial pH were not affected by dietary treatments (p > 0.05), but ultimate pH (T1 and T2) and color lightness were comparatively lower, and color change (T2-T3) was comparatively higher. Cooking water loss (T2-T4) and shear force (T1-T5) were higher in the treatments. Cohesiveness and resilience were higher in T2, while gumminess and chewiness were lower in T4 and T5. T1 breast meat had higher crude protein content and lower crude fat content, but the other chemical compositions were not affected by the treatments. Some fatty acids in the breast meat were more affected by treatments compared to CON. In conclusion, the present findings showed that gum Arabic (0.12% to 0.75%) has favorable effects on growth performance and some quality indicators of breast meat (such as cooking water loss, shear force, protein, and fat content), especially at the level of 0.12% with no alterations on the carcass characteristics and body components or physical indicators of breast meat.

6.
Ecol Evol ; 13(7): e10292, 2023 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37449018

RESUMEN

Even though pollen and seed dispersals are some of the important factors that determine tree species survival across landscapes, gene dispersal data of important tropical dryland tree species such as Acacia senegal that are undergoing various population disturbances remain scarce. Understanding patterns of gene dispersal in these ecosystems is important for conservation, landscape restoration and tree improvement. We investigated pollen and seed mediated gene flow in two A. senegal populations of contrasting state (less disturbed and heavily undisturbed) using nine microsatellites and 128 genotyping-by-sequencing single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) multilocus genotypes of two growth stages (juvenile and adult trees) and their spatial locations. We performed parentage assignments using likelihood approach and undertook spatial genetic structure (SGS) analyses for the two growth stages through correlation among kinship coefficients and geographical distances between pair of individuals. The SNPs showed higher resolving power and assignment rates than microsatellites; however, a combination of the two marker-types improved the assignment rate and provided robust parentage assessments. We found evidence of long-distance (up to 210 m) pollination events for both populations; however, the majority of seed dispersal was found closer to the putative maternal parent. On average, parentage analysis showed high amounts of pollen (40%) and seed (20%) immigration in both populations. Significant positive SGS was found only for the adult cohorts in the less disturbed population for distance classes 20 and 40 m, indicating historical short-distance seed dispersals. Our results suggest long-distance gene flow within the species and we recommend conservation of remnant and isolated populations or individual trees to promote genetic connectivity.

7.
Heliyon ; 9(6): e17197, 2023 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37360101

RESUMEN

Acacia Senegal Gum hydrogel (HASG) with swollen dimension less than 50 µm were fabricated, and chemically modified with versatile diethylenetriamine (d-amine) to tailor the surface properties for environmental remediation. Negatively charged metal ions, for example, chromate (Cr(III)), dichromate (Cr(VI)), and arsenate (As(V)) were removed from aqueous media by using modified hydrogels (m-HASG). The FT-IR spectra revealed some new peaks due to d-amine treatment. The zeta potential measurements confirm a positively charged surface of HASG upon d-amine modification at ambient conditions. The absorption studies revealed that 0.05 g feed of m-(HASG) possesses 69.8, 99.3, and 40.00% cleaning potential against As(V), Cr(VI), and Cr(III), respectively with 2 h contact time in deionized water. Almost comparable adsorption efficiency was achieved by the prepared hydrogels towards the targeted analytes dissolved in real water samples. Adsorption isotherms, for example, Langmuir, Freundlich and modified Freundlich isotherms were applied to the collected data. Briefly, Modified Freundlich isotherm manifested comparatively agreeable line for the all adsorbents pollutants with highest R2 figure. In addition, maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) with 217, 256, and 271 mg g-1 numerical values were obtained against As(V), Cr(VI), and Cr(III), respectively. In real water samples, 217, 256, and 271 mg g-1 adsorption capacity was represented by m-(HASG). In brief, m-(HASG) is a brilliant material for environmental application as cleaner candidate towards toxic metal ions.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37240134

RESUMEN

The continuous emergence of bacterial resistance alters the activities of different antibiotic families and requires appropriate strategies to solve therapeutic impasses. Medicinal plants are an attractive source for researching alternative and original therapeutic molecules. In this study, the fractionation of natural extracts from A. senegal and the determination of antibacterial activities are associated with molecular networking and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data used to characterize active molecule(s). The activities of the combinations, which included various fractions plus an antibiotic, were investigated using the "chessboard" test. Bio-guided fractionation allowed the authors to obtain individually active or synergistic fractions with chloramphenicol activity. An LC-MS/MS analysis of the fraction of interest and molecular array reorganization showed that most identified compounds are Budmunchiamines (macrocyclic alkaloids). This study describes an interesting source of bioactive secondary metabolites structurally related to Budmunchiamines that are able to rejuvenate a significant chloramphenicol activity in strains that produce an AcrB efflux pump. They will pave the way for researching new active molecules for restoring the activity of antibiotics that are substrates of efflux pumps in enterobacterial-resistant strains.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Humanos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Cromatografía Liquida , Senegal , Antibacterianos/química , Cloranfenicol/farmacología , Cloranfenicol/metabolismo , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Proteínas Asociadas a Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo
9.
Biomolecules ; 13(1)2023 01 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671523

RESUMEN

Gum arabic (GA) is a natural product commonly used as a household remedy for treating various diseases in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. Despite its claimed benefits, there has been a lack of research on the findings of current clinical trials (CTs) that investigated its efficacy in the treatment of various medical diseases. The aim of this systematic review was to study CTs which focused on GA and its possible use in the management of various medical diseases. A search of the extant literature was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases to retrieve CTs focusing on evidence-based clinical indications. The databases were searched using the keywords ("Gum Arabic" OR "Acacia senegal" OR "Acacia seyal" OR "Gum Acacia" OR "Acacia Arabica") AND ("Clinical Trial" OR "Randomized Controlled Trial" OR "Randomized Clinical Trial"). While performing the systematic review, data were obtained on the following parameters: title, authors, date of publication, study design, study aim, sample size, type of intervention used, targeted medical diseases, and main findings. Twenty-nine papers were included in this systematic review. The results showed that ingestion of GA altered lipid profiles, renal profiles, plaque, gingival scores, biochemical parameters, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, and adiposity. GA exhibited anti-inflammatory, prebiotic, and antibacterial properties. GA has been successfully used to treat sickle cell anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, metabolic disorders, periodontitis, gastrointestinal conditions, and kidney diseases. Herein, we discuss GA with respect to the underlying mechanisms involved in each medical disease, thereby justifying GA's future role as a therapeutic agent.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Goma Arábiga , Goma Arábiga/uso terapéutico , Acacia/química , Antiinflamatorios , Adiposidad , Presión Sanguínea
10.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 12(6): 599-607, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325241

RESUMEN

Background & aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum that oxidative stress and severe inflammation are the main features of this disease. Previous studies have shown that separate consumption of basil and gum arabic can reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of the study was evaluating the effect of treatment with basil seeds given together with gum arabic on healing, inflammation and oxidative stress in the course of experimental colitis in rats. Experimental procedure: A total number of 50 male rats were used, randomly assigned to five groups of 10 rats each. Colitis was induced in rats by enemas with 4% solution od acetic acid. Four days after induction of colitis, rats were treated for next 4 days with saline or combination of basil seeds plus gum arabic (1 mg/kg) or sulfasalazine (100 mg/g) rectally. The experiment was terminated after last dose of treatment. Rats without induction of colitis were used as a sham group. Results: Acetic acid-induced colitis increased the macroscopic and histopathological damage scores of the colon as well as colon levels of MDA(Malondialdehyde), MPO(Myeloperoxidase), TNFα(Tissue necrosis factor α), IL6 (Interleukin 6)and IL17(Interleukin 17) and decreased SOD(Superoxide Dismutase), GPx (Glutathione Peroxidase) and IL10 (Interleukin 10) levels compared with the control group(P < 0.001). Treatment with basil and gum arabic reduced macroscopic and histopathological damage scores (P < 0.01) of the colon, MDA, MPO, TNFα, IL6(P < 0.001) and IL17 (P < 0.01) levels of the colon and increased SOD, GPx and IL10 levels compared to the colitis group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Rectal administration of combination of basil seeds plus gum arabic after induction of colitis, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and accelerates the healing of the colon in experimental colitis evoked by acetic acid.

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(20)2022 Oct 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36290194

RESUMEN

Gum Arabic (GA) belongs to the Fabaceae family and contains indigestible soluble fibers (80-85%) that could be fermented by commensal bacteria to enhance performance, immune response, and intestinal integrity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GA on performance, serum biochemical indicators, microbiota, immune-related gene expression, and histological changes in chickens. Six GA levels (0.0, 0.12, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0%) were allocated using a total of 432 1-day-old male chickens (12 replicates with 6 chickens each). Growth performance was evaluated on days 10 and 24 of age. Blood parameters, organ pH levels, and intestinal health were determined on day 10 of age. Results showed that GA at 0.12% increased weight gain and 0.12 to 1.0% decreased feed intake but was best in feed conversion ratio and production efficiency except for 1.0% on day 1-10 of age. There was an increase in the thymus weight at GA level 0.25 to 0.75%. GA decreased the pH value of the proventriculus (at 0.50 and 1.0%) as well as the duodenum and cecum (at 0.12 and 1.0%). Chickens fed GA between 0.25 to 1.0% had higher protein and HDL, but lower cholesterol, LDL, and creatinine. Globulin was increased at 0.50% GA, while glucose and triglycerides were decreased (at 0.25 and 0.75% GA, respectively). The immune-related gene expression was reduced, except for 0.25% GA, which increased IL-10. Furthermore, chickens fed GA (0.25 to 0.75%) had higher Lactobacillus spp. and lower Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. When chickens received GA, the villus length and length to crypt ratio were higher, which also improved the integrity of intestinal epithelial cells and early duodenal development. We conclude that using GA (0.25 to 0.75%) as a natural prebiotic positively affects the performance, microbiota, immune response, morphology, and gut health of post-hatched chickens. More studies are needed to determine the potential mechanism of GA on broiler chickens.

12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(4): 244, 2022 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913613

RESUMEN

Gum Arabic (GA) is a natural product containing soluble fiber that is indigestible in the gastrointestinal tract and has been used as a traditional medicine to treat many diseases such as intestinal inflammation, kidney disease, and liver disorders, which may be reflected in the improved performance of broiler chickens when used. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of GA on the performance, immune system, visceral organs, functional tests, and histological changes of the ileum, liver, and kidneys of broilers. A total of 432 1-day-old male broilers were allocated to six dietary treatments (0.0, 0.12, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0% GA) for 35 days. Performance, internal organs, and blood biochemical indices were measured. Morphology and histometry of the intestine were also performed. Meanwhile, tissues of the ileum, liver, and kidney were examined and evaluated microscopically to observe histological changes. All levels of GA (0.12 to 1.0%) had a positive effect on growth performance and feed conversion ratio. In addition, GA had no effect on the relative weight of lymphoid and visceral organs, except for a linear response in the bursa and liver. The levels of GA (0.12 and 0.25%) showed the potential to decrease serum uric acid, creatinine, and alanine aminotransferase. The remarkable increase in small intestinal morphology of chickens fed GA and an increase in all histometric values of the ileum. All histological changes in the intestine, liver, and kidneys improved in chickens fed the basal diet containing 0.12 to 0.50% GA. These results provide useful evidence for the potential use of GA powder (Acacia senegal) as a natural prebiotic to improve performance and intestinal, liver, and kidney health in broiler chickens.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Pollos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Goma Arábiga/farmacología , Estado de Salud , Masculino , Prebióticos , Senegal , Ácido Úrico
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 808-816, jun. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385645

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes. Several studies have been done in a trial to protect against this problem at the ultrastructure level. This study investigates the protective effect of oral administration of Acacia senegal (AS) against the development of DN. Sixty male albino rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, Acacia senegal control, Diabetic untreated, diabetic insulin-treated, Diabetic AS treated, and Diabetic insulin and AS combined treated groups. Plasma glucose, HbA1c, serum Albumin, creatinine, urine creatinine was measured using specific kits. Determinations of creatinine clearance and blood pressure were done. The renal tissues of both kidneys were prepared to investigate under both light (LM) and electron microscope (EM). Ultrastructure examination of renal rats tissue of diabetic untreated rats showed the destruction of the glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cells together with hemorrhage in glomerular capsules (Bowman's capsules). On the other side, both LM and EM revealed improving the endothelial cells and the other glomerular capsules structures, especially with the combined treated group, which confirmed the improvement of the biochemical investigation in the study. In conclusion, from the present study, using the oral AS together with SC insulin could be protected against the development of DN.


RESUMEN: La nefropatía diabética (ND) es la complicación más común de la diabetes. Se han realizado varios estudios de ensayo para abordar esta dificultad a nivel de ultraestructura. Este estudio investiga el efecto protector de la administración oral de Acacia senegal (AS) contra el desarrollo de la ND. Se dividieron sesenta ratas albinas machos aleatoriamente en seis grupos: control, control de Acacia senegal, diabéticos no tratados, diabéticos tratados con insulina, diabéticos tratados con AS y grupos tratados con compuesto de insulina diabética + AS. Se midieron utilizando kits específicos, glucosa plasmática, HbA1c, albúmina sérica, creatinina en sangre y en orina. Se registraron la creatinina y la presión arterial. Los tejidos renales de ambos riñones se prepararon para investigar tanto con microscopio óptico (MO) como electrónico (ME). El examen de la ultraestructura del tejido renal de ratas diabéticas no tratadas mostró la destrucción de la membrana basal glomerular y las células endoteliales junto con hemorragia en las cápsulas glomerulares (cápsulas de Bowman). Por otro lado, tanto MO como ME revelaron una mejora de las células endoteliales y las estructuras capsulares glomerulares, en el grupo tratado con el compuesto, lo que confirmó la mejora de la investigación bioquímica. En conclusión, el uso de AS oral en combinación con insulina podría proteger contra el desarrollo de ND.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Nefropatías Diabéticas/prevención & control , Acacia , Goma Arábiga/administración & dosificación , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Microscopía Electrónica , Biomarcadores , Administración Oral , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Riñón/ultraestructura
14.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 178, 2021 Jun 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187452

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acacia senegal is a plant traditionally used for its various properties, including the treatment of infectious diseases. Recently, our team has demonstrated the ability of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves to increase the activity of phenicol antibiotics against multi-resistant bacteria. The aim of this work is to determine the toxicological effects of the extract and its capacity to inhibit the bacterial mobility of Gram-negative bacteria, in order to evaluate the level of safety use of this plant. METHODS: The cytotoxicity test was performed using the neutral red absorption method. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity were conducted on NMRI mice and Wistar rats. The behaviour and adverse effects were recorded during the 14 days of the acute study. For the subacute test, biochemical parameters, food and water consumption, and morphological parameters were determined. The anti-motility activities were evaluated on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and Escherichia coli AG100, using specific concentrations of Agar as required by the method. RESULTS: HEASG induced inhibition of keratinocytes cell growth with an IC50 of 1302 ± 60 µg/mL. For the acute toxicity study in mice, the single dose of extract of 2000 mg/kg body weight caused no deaths and no behavioural changes were observed; therefore, the median lethal dose (LD50) of HEASG was calculated to 5000 mg/kg body weight. In Wistar rats, no mortality was observed at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day during the 28-day subacute oral toxicity study. The weights of both females and males increased globally over time, regardless of the batch. No statistically significant differences were registered for organ weights and biochemical parameters, except for chloride for biochemical parameters. Water and food consumption did not change significantly. Furthermore, no macroscopic changes in organ appearance were observed. Regarding anti-motility activity, the extract has reduced the swarming motility of PA01 and AG100 significantly at the concentration of 32 µg/mL (P < 0.001). The extract has reduced the swimming motility (P < 0.01) of PA01 but not AG100. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that hydroethanolic extract of A. senegal leaves has significant activity against bacterial motility and relatively low toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Queratinocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Modelos Animales , Hojas de la Planta , Ratas Wistar , Pruebas de Toxicidad Aguda
15.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(3): 324-330, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618277

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus mutans are an oral pathogen that causes dental caries, endocarditis, and systemic dysfunctions, an alternative antibacterial solution from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are investigated. METHODS: AgNPs were synthesized using the ethnobotanical product gum Arabic. It influenced the nanoparticles with medicinal value through their role as capping, stabilizing, or surface-attached components. The biophysical characteristics of the synthesized AgNPs were studied using UV-vis spectrum, XRD, EDAX, SEM, and TEM tools. The AgNPs were spherical with the average size less than 10 nm. By using the well diffusion and microdilution techniques, the impact of synthesized AgNPs was tested against S. mutans isolates. RESULTS: The smaller the size, the greater the antibacterial and antiviral potential the particles exhibit. The biophysical characteristics of AgNPs the presence of phenols, alcohols, amides, sulfoxide, flavanoids, terpenoids and steroids. The AgNPs exhibited a good antibacterial action against the oral pathogen S. mutans. The synthesized NPs at a dose level of 200 µg/mL exhibited an inhibition zone with 18.30 ± 0.5 nm diameter. The synthesised nanoparticles inhibited the genes responsible for biofilm formation of S. mutans over host tooth and gums (gtfB, gtfc, gtfD) and virulent protective factors (comDE, brpA and smu 360) and survival promoter genes (gyrA and spaP, gbpB). CONCLUSION: The potent antibiotic action over S. mutans seen with the synthesized NPs, paves the way for the development of novel dental care products. Also, the small-sized NPs promote its applicability in COVID-19 pandemic containment.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Caries Dental/tratamiento farmacológico , Endocarditis/tratamiento farmacológico , Nanopartículas del Metal , Plata/farmacología , Streptococcus mutans/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas , Goma Arábiga , Humanos
16.
Fitoterapia ; 151: 104859, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610746

RESUMEN

Six new triterpenoid saponins, named senegalosides A-F (1-6) were isolated from the seedpods and roots of Acacia senegal (Mimosaceae). Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Compound 1 possesses an unusual sapogenin, 3ß-hydroxy-21-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (machaeric acid), and was reported here in its natural form for the first time within the genus Acacia. Senegaloside A is the first example of a machaeric-type triterpenoid glycoside in the plant kingdom. The cytotoxic effect of isolated saponins was evaluated on the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell line. As a result, compounds 1, 3-6 were not significantly cytotoxic to H4IIE cells even at 200 µM. Compound 2 was suppressed cell viability at 50-200 µM.


Asunto(s)
Acacia/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Saponinas/farmacología , Triterpenos/farmacología , Animales , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/aislamiento & purificación , Camerún , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Estructura Molecular , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Raíces de Plantas/química , Ratas , Saponinas/aislamiento & purificación , Triterpenos/aislamiento & purificación
17.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435475

RESUMEN

Gum Arabic (GA) is a widely-used additive in food processing, but is also historically used in a number of traditional therapies. It has been shown to have a broad range of health benefits, particularly in improving important cardiovascular risk indicators. Metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiac outcomes are a significant burden on modern healthcare systems, and complementary interventions to aid in its management are required. We aimed to examine the effect of GA on those with, or at risk of, metabolic syndrome to identify an effect on improving important disease parameters related to cardiovascular outcomes. A single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to identify the effects of daily GA supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 80 participants were randomized to receive 20 g of GA daily (n = 40) or placebo (1 g pectin, n = 40) for 12 weeks. Key endpoints included body-anthropometric indices, diet and physical activity assessment, and blood chemistry (HbA1c, fasting glucose, and blood lipids). Of the 80 enrolled, 61 completed the study (intervention: 31, control: 30) with 19 dropping out due to poor treatment compliance. After 12 weeks, the participants receiving the GA showed significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fat-free body mass, energy and carbohydrate consumption, and fasting plasma glucose, as well as increased intake of dietary fiber. They also reported improvements in self-perceived bloating and quality of bowel movements, as well as a decreased appetite score following GA consumption. These results suggest that GA could be a safe and beneficial adjunct to other treatments for those with, or at risk of, metabolic syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/tratamiento farmacológico , Goma Arábiga/administración & dosificación , Síndrome Metabólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Acacia , Adolescente , Adulto , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Fibras de la Dieta/farmacología , Femenino , Hemoglobina Glucada , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Método Simple Ciego , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(6)2020 Jun 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545716

RESUMEN

This study reported the phytochemical composition of two hydroethanolic extracts of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees from Burkina Faso and their activities, alone or in combination with selected antibiotics, against multidrug resistant bacteria. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was used for phytochemical screening. Total phenolic and total flavonoid ant tannins in leaves extracts contents were assessed by spectrophotometric method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of plant extracts and antibiotics were determined using the microdilution method and p-iodonitrotetrazolium chloride. Combinations of extracts and antibiotics were studied using checkerboard assays. Screening revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins in the hydroethanolic extract (HE) of the leaves. The HE of A. seyal showed the highest total phenolic (571.30 ± 6.97 mg GAE/g), total flavonoids (140.41 ± 4.01 mg RTE/g), and tannins (24.72 ± 0.14%, condensed; 35.77 ± 0.19%, hydrolysable tannins). However, the HE of A. senegal showed the lowest total phenolic (69.84 ± 3.54 mg GAE/g), total flavonoids (27.32 ± 0.57 mg RTE/g), and tannins (14.60 ± 0.01%, condensed; 3.09 ± 0.02%, hydrolysable). The MICs for HE and antibiotics were in the range of 2-512 and 0.008-1024 mg/L, respectively. All tested HE presented an MIC greater than 512 mg/L except HE of A. senegal. The lowest MIC value (128 mg/L) was obtained with HE of A. senegal against Klebsiella aerogenes EA298 and Escherichia coli AG100A. Interesting restoring effects on chloramphenicol and florphenicol activity were detected with alcoholic extracts of A. senegal against resistant E. coli and K. aerogenes strains that overproduce AcrAB or FloR pumps. The adjuvant effect of HE of A. senegal suggests that the crude extract of leaves could be a potential source of molecules for improving the susceptibility of bacteria to phenicols antibiotics.

19.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 45(7): 731-736, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905015

RESUMEN

The present study was performed to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of Acacia senegal (Gum Arabic) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Thirty-six adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups: group 1 served as a control; group 2 consisted of rats that received 15% of gum in drinking water for 2 weeks; group 3 comprised ulcerated animals administered 5 mL of ethanol/kg body weight by gavage; and group 4 consisted of rats received 15% of gum in drinking water for 2 weeks before ethanol administration. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-B1), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were assayed in addition to histological study. The results revealed that ethanol decreased SOD, GPx, and PGE2 in tissue and serum total protein and albumin, while increased MDA in tissue, serum TNF-α, IL-B1, PGE2, ALT, AST, and ALP. Histological findings showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration compared with ulcer group. Furthermore, gum administration elevated PGE2, SOD, and GPx and significantly reduced MDA, TNF-α, and IL-B2. In conclusion, Gum Arabic can enhance gastric protection and sustain the integrity of the gastric mucosa. Novelty The selected dose of Gum Arabic has the ability to decrease the pro-inflammatory cytokines in plasma and gastric tissue, thus enhancing gastric protection and maintaining the integrity of the gastric mucosa. Gum Arabic can compensate for the loss of antioxidants.


Asunto(s)
Mucosa Gástrica/efectos de los fármacos , Goma Arábiga/farmacología , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Citocinas/efectos de los fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Etanol , Mucosa Gástrica/lesiones , Glutatión/efectos de los fármacos , Glutatión/metabolismo , Glutatión Peroxidasa/efectos de los fármacos , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Goma Arábiga/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Peroxidasa/efectos de los fármacos , Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Ratas , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/efectos de los fármacos , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/efectos de los fármacos , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Saudi Pharm J ; 28(12): 1791-1796, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424268

RESUMEN

In this study the effect of Gum arabic (Acacia Senegal) was systemically targeted at male fertility with two experiments, the first comparing the effectiveness of Gum arabic (GA) and Tribulus terrestris (TT). For the first experiment, 27 adult mice Balb / c (18 females, 9 males) were divided into 3 in each group, one male and two females, group one had the usual tap water as power, group two had 5% (w / v) GA and group three had 5% (w / v) of TT for 21 days. The results showed, the number of offspring was more with GA treated when compared to TT treated. Blood measurements of testosterone showed significant increase in the GA group as compared to other groups, also Histopathological analysis showed the dose dependent 5% GA had normal seminiferous tubules with increase spermatogenesis. In this study the enhanced fertility in GA-treated mice Balb/c was observed and the experimental studies also show that GA fertility was increased.

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