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1.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 78: 31-36, 2024 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851038

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peer bullying is widely observed across the world and continues to grow. Peer-bullying children and children exposed to peer bullying often display a fall in academic achievements, an increase in psychiatric problems, and problematic relationships with their parents. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to identify the effects of demographic, health-related, and school-related characteristics in school-age children, including their grade, academic success, and status of liking their school, on their peer-bullying tendencies. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was carried out as a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in September-November 2023 with sixth- and seventh-grade students at four middle schools in Turkey. The sample size was calculated as 750 in a 95% confidence interval and with a 5% margin of error. The data were collected using a Health-Related Descriptive Characteristics Form and the Swearer Bullying Scale. RESULTS: Children who were seventh-grade students, those who had a family income above expenses, those who were obese, those who perceived their health status as good, those who had low academic achievement, and those who stated that they did not like their school had higher peer bullying tendencies (p < 0.05). In the multiple linear regression analysis, self-perceived health status, grade level, and academic achievement status were identified as factors that significantly affected the peer bullying tendencies of the children, and these factors explained 26.3% of the total variance in these tendencies. CONCLUSION: Self-perceived health status, grade level, and academic achievement status significantly affected the peer bullying tendencies of school children. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: To prevent peer bullying and mitigate its negative effects, it is extremely important that school nurses periodically identify the peer bullying tendencies of school children and associated factors.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1473, 2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824499

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between exposure to work-related violence/threats and harassment, and future sickness absence (SA) due to common mental disorders (CMDs), taking familial factors (shared genetics and early-life environment) and neuroticism into account. METHODS: The study sample included 8795 twin individuals from the Swedish Twin Project of Disability Pension and Sickness Absence (STODS), including survey data from the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE). Self-reported work-related violence and/or threats as well as work-related harassment (including bullying) and national register data on SA due to CMDs were analyzed using standard logistic regression, and conditional logistic regression among complete twin pairs discordant on exposures. Individuals were followed for a maximum of 13 years. Interactions between neuroticism and exposures were assessed using both multiplicative and additive interaction analyses. RESULTS: Exposure to work-related violence/threats was associated with higher odds of SA due to CMDs when adjusting for age, sex, marital status, children, education, type of living area, work characteristics, and symptoms of depression and burnout (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.52-2.95). Higher odds of SA due to CMDs were also found for exposure to harassment (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10-2.11) and a combined indicator of exposure to violence/threats and/or harassment (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.52-2.59), compared with the unexposed. Analyses of twins discordant on exposure, using the unexposed co-twin as reference, showed reduced ORs. These ORs were still elevated but no longer statistically significant, potentially due to a lack of statistical power. No multiplicative interaction was found between neuroticism and exposure to work-related violence/threats, or harassment. However, a statistically significant additive interaction was found between neuroticism and exposure to violence/threats, indicating higher odds of SA due to CMDs in the group scoring lower on neuroticism. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to work-related offensive behaviors was associated with SA due to CMDs. However, the results indicated that these associations may be partly confounded by familial factors. In addition, an interaction between exposure and neuroticism was suggested. Thus, when possible, future studies investigating associations and causality between offensive behaviors at work and mental health-related outcomes, should consider familial factors and neuroticism.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Neuroticismo , Ausencia por Enfermedad , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Suecia/epidemiología , Adulto , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Prospectivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Violencia Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia Laboral/psicología , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832961

RESUMEN

Bullying victimisation is an increasing global health problem among adolescents and is associated with short- and long-term adverse mental health outcomes. Investigating whether associations with mental health vary across national contexts and why, can provide insights into mechanisms underlying those associations and inform policy. We used data from 479,685 adolescents participating in the 2018 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) cross-sectional survey and examined whether the associations between bullying victimisation, psychological distress and life satisfaction vary across 63 countries. We further tested the modifying role of country-level factors - bullying prevalence, income inequality and national wealth, by implementing multilevel cross-country analyses. We found significant associations between bullying victimisation, increased psychological distress (ß = 0.181; 95%CI: 0.178, 0.184) and decreased life satisfaction (ß = -0.158; 95%CI: -0.162, -0.155). Associations between bullying victimisation, psychological distress and life satisfaction among adolescents were consistent across countries in terms of direction but effect sizes varied substantially. The effects ranged from ß = 0.08 in the Philippines to ß = 0.40 in South Korea for psychological distress and from ß = -0.05 in the Philippines to ß = -0.36 in the United Kingdom for life satisfaction. In addition, consistent with the "healthy context paradox" effect, associations between bullying and mental health were larger in countries where the prevalence of bullying was lower, as well as in higher-income countries. Interventions aiming to reduce bullying victimisation should aim to provide additional targeted support for those who still experience bullying after the intervention.

4.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2024 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849685

RESUMEN

Sexually and gender diverse (SGD) youth experience more peer bullying victimization than heterosexual, cisgender youth during adolescence, yet the emergence and persistence of these disparities remain underexplored. Also, it is unclear which factors are associated with these disparities across development, and how these disparities are linked to late adolescent health discrepancies. This study utilized the sample from the Millennium Cohort Study in Britain (N = 10,080; 51.3% assigned female at birth; Mage = 2.28, SDage = 0.46 at Wave 2), in which 23.74% of youth reported non-heterosexual attraction, 21.59% reported non-heterosexual identity, and 1.08% reported gender identity not in line with the sex assigned at birth. Using latent class growth modeling, four peer bullying victimization trajectories were identified, with early peak (7.2%), late childhood peak (6.3%), adolescence onset (12.8%), and low (73.6%) rates of victimization. SGD youth, compared to heterosexual and cisgender youth, were found to have increased odds of being in the victimization-involved classes, especially the adolescence onset class. The study further revealed that SGD youth reported more mental health and relational difficulties in childhood, which were linked to their heightened risk of longer-lasting victimization. Further, long-term victimization was found to partially account for the disparities in health and well-being for SGD youth in late adolescence. In conclusion, SGD youth were more likely to experience longer-lasting bullying victimization during childhood and adolescence, its related mental and relational vulnerabilities were already established in childhood, and such victimization disparities were further linked to their detrimental health and well-being in late adolescence. The design, hypotheses, and target analyses of the current study were preregistered on 21st April 2023 at https://osf.io/f2zxy .

5.
J Community Psychol ; 2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822714

RESUMEN

Multiple studies have shown that adolescents exposed to community violence are likely to engage in bullying behaviors. However, we still need to understand which variables can help reduce the influence of community violence exposure (CVE) on bullying. To investigate this question, a study was conducted with a sample of 568 Mexican adolescents, comprising 276 (48.6%) males and 292 (51.4%) females aged 12 to 16 years old (M age = 13.7 years, SD = 0.82). The study examined how parental support (PS) and parental induction to justice sensitivity (JS) can moderate the relationship between CVE and bullying. The study used structural equation modeling with latent variables. The results showed that CVE was positively associated with bullying, whereas PS and the induction to perpetrator JS were negatively associated. The moderation analysis suggests that the relationship between CVE and bullying was weaker among adolescents who received high PS. On the other hand, low and high parental induction to JS had the same moderating effect. Based on the findings, parental practices are critical when developing preventive programs to reduce the harmful effects of CVE on bullying behavior.

6.
J Adolesc ; 2024 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824456

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Experiencing physical sibling abuse is a form of family violence that is common but understudied. While it is often perceived as a normative aspect of sibling relationships, there are apparent behavioral consequences. The current study aims to advance the literature by utilizing the displaced aggression model and I3 theory to longitudinally examine trait anger as a pathway linking physical sibling abuse to bullying perpetration. METHODS: Using data from the Bullying, Sexual, and Dating Violence Trajectories from Early to Late Adolescence in the Midwestern United States, 2008-2013, adolescents (n = 851, M = 14.8 years) completed questionnaires at baseline and were reassessed 6 months later. RESULTS: Results suggested that when adolescents experience physical sibling abuse, they are more likely to engage in bullying perpetration. Mediation analyses indicated that as adolescents were physically abused by a sibling at home, they were more likely to report higher levels of trait anger, which subsequently increased their risk of engaging in bullying perpetration. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that experiencing physical sibling abuse has long-term detrimental consequences, including elicitation of trait anger, subsequently predicting bullying perpetration.

7.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 248: 104335, 2024 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38878470

RESUMEN

This research investigated the relationships between school climates and bullying behaviors in Chinese adolescents, and tested the mediating effect of prosocial tendency according to the seesaw effect. School climates were operationalized using three constructs: subjective diversity of student development goals, teacher support, and peer trust. Bullying behaviors included traditional (i.e., physical, nonphysical, and relational) and cyber bullying behaviors. We recruited 538 adolescents from three schools in Beijing, China (286 girls, 252 boys; average age = 12.47) and asked them to fill out the surveys measuring school climates and prosocial tendency at the outset and to report school bullying behaviors three months later. The results showed that subjective diversity of student development goals and peer trust were directly associated with less cyber bullying behavior. Moreover, teacher support and peer trust were indirectly associated with less traditional bullying behaviors via prosocial tendency. Our findings extend the existing literature on the relationships between school climates and bullying behaviors by incorporating different types of bullying behaviors, concentrating on Chinese adolescents from a cultural viewpoint, and tapping into the underlying mechanism via revealing prosocial tendency as a mediator. Theoretical and empirical contributions of this study, as well as practical implications are discussed.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 361: 146-156, 2024 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866250

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Students who are bullied not only affect academic performance, but also produce a range of psychological problems. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between school bullying and academic burnout among Chinese students, assuming school climate to play a moderating role in the aforementioned relationship. This study provides corresponding intervention strategies and reference data for the prevention and treatment of bullying in schools. METHODS: The data was obtained by a cross-sectional survey of 20,730 Chinese students from 23rd May to 23rd June 2022. Multiple linear regressions and Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) were used to examine the hypotheses. RESULTS: This study revealed that all dimensions of school bullying and school bullying level (ß = -0.09; 95 % CI, -4.946, -3.833) were associated with academic burnout. Verbal bullying (ß = 0.15; 95 % CI, 1.689, 1.972) had the strongest association with academic burnout, followed by social (ß = 0.14; 95 % CI, 1.496, 1.779) and physical bullying (ß = 0.13; 95 % CI, 1.451, 1.734), while cyber bullying (ß = 0.08; 95 % CI, 0.847, 1.127) had the weakest association with academic burnout. In addition, school climate can moderate the association between school bullying and academic burnout. Students who experienced school bullying and in bad school climate showed elevated levels of academic. LIMITATIONS: This study used cross-sectional data, preventing us from drawing conclusions about causation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that creating a harmonious school climate and reducing school bullying may effectively alleviate academic burnout caused by school climate and school bullying.

9.
J Sch Psychol ; 105: 101315, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876544

RESUMEN

Peer defending has been shown to protect bullied peers from further victimization and social-emotional problems. However, research examining defending behavior has demonstrated positive and negative social-emotional adjustment effects for defending students themselves. To explain these mixed findings, researchers have suggested that associations between defending behavior and social-emotional adjustment may be buffered by protective factors (i.e., defender protection hypothesis) or exacerbated by vulnerability or risk factors (i.e., defender vulnerability hypothesis). Consistent with these hypotheses, the present study aimed to investigate whether relationships with teachers and peers would moderate the association between defending behavior and social-emotional adjustment. This three-wave longitudinal study examined the association between peer nominated defending behavior and later self-reported depressive symptoms and self-esteem in 848 Belgian students in Grades 4-6 (53% girls; Mage = 10.61 years, SD = 0.90 at Wave 1). Peer nominated positive and negative teacher-student relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) and peer relationships (i.e., acceptance and rejection) were included as moderators. Clustered multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that defending behavior did not predict later depressive symptoms (ß = -0.04, p = .80) or self-esteem (ß = -0.19, p = .42). The lack of these associations could be explained by the defender protection and vulnerability hypotheses. However, contrary to our expectations, teacher-student closeness and peer acceptance did not play a protective role in the association between defending behavior and social-emotional adjustment (ß = -1.48-1.46, p = .24-0.96). In addition, teacher-student conflict and peer rejection did not put defending students at risk for social-emotional maladjustment (ß = -1.96-1.57, p = .54-0.97). Thus, relationships with teachers and peers did not moderate the association between defending behavior and later depressive symptoms and self-esteem.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Depresión , Ajuste Emocional , Relaciones Interpersonales , Grupo Paritario , Instituciones Académicas , Autoimagen , Ajuste Social , Estudiantes , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Niño , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Depresión/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Bélgica , Maestros/psicología
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 722, 2024 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862919

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Unprofessional behaviours between healthcare workers are highly prevalent. Evaluations of large-scale culture change programs are rare resulting in limited evidence of intervention effectiveness. We conducted a multi-method evaluation of a professional accountability and culture change program "Ethos" implemented across eight Australian hospitals. The Ethos program incorporates training for staff in speaking-up; an online system for reporting co-worker behaviours; and a tiered accountability pathway, including peer-messengers who deliver feedback to staff for 'reflection' or 'recognition'. Here we report the final evaluation component which aimed to measure changes in the prevalence of unprofessional behaviours before and after Ethos. METHODS: A survey of staff (clinical and non-clinical) experiences of 26 unprofessional behaviours across five hospitals at baseline before (2018) and 2.5-3 years after (2021/2022) Ethos implementation. Five of the 26 behaviours were classified as 'extreme' (e.g., assault) and 21 as incivility/bullying (e.g., being spoken to rudely). Our analysis assessed changes in four dimensions: work-related bullying; person-related bullying; physical bullying and sexual harassment. Change in experience of incivility/bullying was compared using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Change in extreme behaviours was assessed using multivariable binary logistic regression. All models were adjusted for respondent characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 3975 surveys were completed. Staff reporting frequent incivility/bullying significantly declined from 41.7% (n = 1064; 95% CI 39.7,43.9) at baseline to 35.5% (n = 505; 95% CI 32.8,38.3; χ2(1) = 14.3; P < 0.001) post-Ethos. The odds of experiencing incivility/bullying declined by 24% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.76; 95% CI 0.66,0.87; P < 0.001) and odds of experiencing extreme behaviours by 32% (aOR 0.68; 95% CI 0.54,0.85; P < 0.001) following Ethos. All four dimensions showed a reduction of 32-41% in prevalence post-Ethos. Non-clinical staff reported the greatest decrease in their experience of unprofessional behaviour (aOR 0.41; 95% CI 0.29, 0.61). Staff attitudes and reported skills to speak-up were significantly more positive at follow-up. Awareness of the program was high (82.1%; 95% CI 80.0, 84.0%); 33% of respondents had sent or received an Ethos message. CONCLUSION: The Ethos program was associated with significant reductions in the prevalence of reported unprofessional behaviours and improved capacity of hospital staff to speak-up. These results add to evidence that staff will actively engage with a system that supports informal feedback to co-workers about their behaviours and is facilitated by trained peer messengers.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Cultura Organizacional , Humanos , Australia , Femenino , Masculino , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Acoso Escolar/prevención & control , Adulto , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Mala Conducta Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Mala Conducta Profesional/psicología , Acoso Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Acoso Sexual/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad
11.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1568, 2024 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862940

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To solve the problem of workplace bullying among nurses, it is necessary to review the effects of interventions and generalize the findings. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of cognitive rehearsal programs on workplace bullying among hospital nurses. METHODS: Data were collected from March 30 to April 11, 2021, and 11,048 journal articles published in South Korea and internationally were examined across eight databases. Nine articles were selected for inclusion in the systematic literature review; five of the nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. For randomized controlled trials, the risk of bias was evaluated, and for non-randomized controlled trials, the study quality was evaluated using the Risk of Bias for Non-randomized Studies version 2.0. Egger's regression test was performed to determine publication bias. RESULTS: Of the nine articles selected for this study, two were randomized controlled trials and seven were non-randomized controlled trials. The I2 value was 18.9%, indicating non-significant heterogeneity. The overall effect size of the cognitive rehearsal programs was -0.40 (95% confidence interval: -0.604 to -0.196; Z = -3.85; p = .0001) in a random-effects model, indicating a large effect size with statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, cognitive rehearsal programs that address workplace bullying among hospital nurses are effective. Health policymakers must implement cognitive rehearsal programs in a policy manner to address the problems of bullying in the workplace.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Acoso Escolar/prevención & control , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , República de Corea , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 107, 2024 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816858

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to explore the clinical significance of school refusal behavior, its negative impact on psychological well-being of children and adolescents and its relationship with the most common psychopathological conditions during childhood and adolescence (e.g. neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric disorders). School refusal behavior refers to a distressing condition experienced by children and adolescents that compromise regular school attendance and determine negative consequences on mental health and adaptive functioning. A narrative review of the literature published between January 2019 and March 2023 was conducted. Ten studies (n = 10) were included from a literature search of the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, PsycInfo, MedLine, and Cochrane Library. The results indicate that school refusal is highly present in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder due to the presence of behavioral problems and deficits in communication skills. As for psychiatric disorders, school refusal appears to be highly common in anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and somatic symptoms. We also found that school refusal behavior may be associated with various emotional and behavioral conditions that act as risk factors. Especially, but are not limited to, it may be associated with a diminished self-concept, exposure to cyberbullying, specific affective profiles and excessive technology usage. Our results indicate that school refusal is a condition with many clinical facets. It can be attributed to both vulnerability factors, both temperamental and relational, and to various psychopathological conditions that differ significantly from each other, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders. Recognizing these aspects can improve the implementation of patient-tailored therapeutic interventions that are consequently more likely to produce effective outcomes. The therapeutic intervention should facilitate the recognition of cognitive biases regarding school as a threatening environment, while regulating negative emotions associated with school attendance. Additionally, therapeutic intervention programs linked to social skill training and problem-solving training, conducted directly within the school setting, can enhance children's abilities to cope with academic performance and social relationships, ultimately preventing school refusal.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones Académicas , Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Relevancia Clínica
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 337: 115968, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820653

RESUMEN

This paper analyzed the role of depression as a mediator in the association between bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide risk in adolescent females. A total of 751 Colombian adolescent females (M= 13.71, SD=1.897), who were administered the Plutchik Suicide Risk Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire and Cyberbullying. Bullying victimization and aggression and cyberbullying victimization were found to contribute statistically significant effects that explaining 22 % of the variance in depression. The variables of victimization in bullying and cyberbullying and depression explained 64 % of the variance in suicidal risk, and depression mediated the association between victim and aggressor roles in bullying and cyberbullying in predicting suicidal risk, whose total direct and indirect effects are statistically significant. The findings support the role of depression as a mediating variable between bullying and cyberbullying and suicidal risk in female adolescents and highlight the importance of focusing prevention and intervention efforts on risk factors for depression and suicidal behavior in cases of bullying and cyberbullying.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Víctimas de Crimen , Ciberacoso , Depresión , Suicidio , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciberacoso/psicología , Ciberacoso/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Suicidio/psicología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Niño , Colombia/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Agresión/psicología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 337: 115936, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705042

RESUMEN

To evaluate the effect of ADHD diagnosis by the age of 10 on the suicide/self-harm risk at age 14 and examine factors that may modify/mediate the association, a longitudinal study based on the nationwide survey consisting of 5,107 children in Australia was used. Self-harm and suicidal risks in children with ADHD at age 14 were the main outcomes; ADHD medication, history of bullied or depression, and other sociodemographic disadvantages, were treated as covariates. The diagnosis of ADHD at age 10 is associated with elevated risks of self-harm, suicidal thoughts, planning, or attempts by age 14, with greater susceptibility in males. The pathway from ADHD symptoms to suicide/self-harm could also be mediated by depression and exposure to bullying assessed at age 12. Note that depression and exposure to bullying might at best contribute to less than 10 % of the total effect of ADHD diagnosis on either the risk of suicide or self-harm. Early gender-tailored intervention and prevention strategies are crucial in clinical practice and health policy.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Acoso Escolar , Conducta Autodestructiva , Suicidio , Humanos , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Masculino , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Femenino , Adolescente , Niño , Australia/epidemiología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Suicidio/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Depresión/epidemiología , Ideación Suicida , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 33: e28, 2024 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764153

RESUMEN

AIMS: Caused by multiple risk factors, heavy burden of major depressive disorder (MDD) poses serious challenges to public health worldwide over the past 30 years. Yet the burden and attributable risk factors of MDD were not systematically known. We aimed to reveal the long-term spatio-temporal trends in the burden and attributable risk factors of MDD at global, regional and national levels during 1990-2019. METHODS: We obtained MDD and attributable risk factors data from Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. We used joinpoint regression model to assess the temporal trend in MDD burden, and age-period-cohort model to measure the effects of age, period and birth cohort on MDD incidence rate. We utilized population attributable fractions (PAFs) to estimate the specific proportions of MDD burden attributed to given risk factors. RESULTS: During 1990-2019, the global number of MDD incident cases, prevalent cases and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) increased by 59.10%, 59.57% and 58.57%, respectively. Whereas the global age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), age-standardized prevalence rate (ASPR) and age-standardized DALYs rate (ASDR) of MDD decreased during 1990-2019. The ASIR, ASPR and ASDR in women were 1.62, 1.62 and 1.60 times as that in men in 2019, respectively. The highest age-specific incidence, prevalence and DALYs rate occurred at the age of 60-64 in women, and at the age of 75-84 in men, but the maximum increasing trends in these age-specific rates occurred at the age of 5-9. Population living during 2000-2004 had higher risk of MDD. MDD burden varied by socio-demographic index (SDI), regions and nations. In 2019, low-SDI region, Central sub-Saharan Africa and Uganda had the highest ASIR, ASPR and ASDR. The global PAFs of intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and bullying victimization (BV) were 8.43%, 5.46% and 4.86% in 2019, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past 30 years, the global ASIR, ASPR and ASDR of MDD had decreased trends, while the burden of MDD was still serious, and multiple disparities in MDD burden remarkably existed. Women, elderly and populations living during 2000-2004 and in low-SDI regions, had more severe burden of MDD. Children were more susceptible to MDD. Up to 18.75% of global MDD burden would be eliminated through early preventing against IPV, CSA and BV. Tailored strategies-and-measures in different regions and demographic groups based on findings in this studywould be urgently needed to eliminate the impacts of modifiable risk factors on MDD, and then mitigate the burden of MDD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Salud Global , Humanos , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Carga Global de Enfermedades/tendencias , Femenino , Masculino , Incidencia , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Prevalencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Anciano , Años de Vida Ajustados por Discapacidad/tendencias , Adulto Joven , Costo de Enfermedad , Adolescente
16.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 247: 104310, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761756

RESUMEN

Prevalence estimates of sibling bullying indicate it occurs more frequently and with more negative consequences than peer bullying, yet many countries do not track or investigate the phenomenon. University students from Argentina, Estonia, and the United States were surveyed to investigate their retrospective experiences involving sibling bullying, how often it occurred, the roles held, and the forms communicated. In the aggregated data, roughly 50 % of the sampled emerging adults (N = 3477) reported experience with sibling bullying, with the dual role of bully-victim being the most frequently reported role held by males and females, with the second role being bully for males and victim for females. Verbal forms of bullying were most frequently reported by males and females, with physical, relational, and technological forms occurring less frequently, indicating the importance of studying the messages conveyed during bullying incidents. Variations between biological sex, bullying role and form were detected that indicate siblings experience bullying in ways that are unique from peer bullying. Country comparisons revealed bullying frequencies varied among males and females, suggesting sibling bullying experiences are likely to be culturally influenced. More research is warranted to examine the negative impact bullying has on sibling psycho-social development and the potential transfer to non-familial relationships and contexts. Discussion of these findings and the implications for academics and practitioners alike is provided.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven , Prevalencia , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Argentina/epidemiología , Adolescente , Estonia/epidemiología , Relaciones entre Hermanos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Comparación Transcultural , Hermanos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología
17.
J Adolesc Health ; 75(1): 51-59, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739055

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This population-based cohort study aimed to examine the association with childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bullying experiences during adolescence among Digital Generation individuals, exploring both traditional and cyberbullying. METHODS: This study included data from 15,240 participants, collected from the Taiwan Adolescent to Adult Longitudinal Study project. Participants, initially in seventh and 10th grade in 2015, were selected through a multistage stratified sampling approach. Self-report questionnaires assessed traditional and cyberbullying victimization experiences during adolescence, with 5-year longitudinal follow-up. Childhood ADHD diagnoses were identified by linking data to Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2015. Logistic regression models were employed to examine the relationship between childhood ADHD and bullying victimization while controlling for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Individuals diagnosed with childhood ADHD exhibited a significantly higher likelihood of experiencing bullying during adolescence (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-1.80). This association extended to various forms of bullying, including physical (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.20-1.68), verbal (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.20-1.67), relational (aOR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.22-1.71), and cyber (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.14-1.61). Additional factors positively associated with bullying victimization included male, binge drinking, and depression, while a positive campus atmosphere was protective against bullying. However, there is no evidence for interactions between these factors and ADHD in their associations with bullying. DISCUSSION: Childhood ADHD increases the risk of both traditional and cyberbullying during adolescence. Recognizing this risk is essential for targeted interventions and further research on underlying mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Acoso Escolar , Víctimas de Crimen , Ciberacoso , Humanos , Adolescente , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Ciberacoso/psicología , Ciberacoso/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Taiwán/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Autoinforme , Estudios de Cohortes , Niño
18.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2024 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816540

RESUMEN

Parental actions, such as parent-child communication and parent-teacher consultation about a child's social adjustment, have been addressed as predictors, but not as outcomes of victimization. This study, based on the Bronfenbrenner's social-ecological model, considered them as outcomes as well as predictors of child victimization and examined their longitudinal bi-directional relationship with child victimization. Data were drawn from the Seoul Education Longitudinal Study, where a total of 4005 Korean youth (female = 43.6%, age mean = 12.43, SD = 1.48 in the first wave), and their parents (female = 87%) were surveyed for six waves (when the youth were 7th to 12th grade). Autoregressive cross-lagged analyses revealed that child victimization positively predicted parent-teacher consultation and negatively predicted parent-child communication, and of these strategies, only parent-child communication was a statistically significant negative predictor of subsequent victimization. The results of this study suggest that parents tend to talk with teachers instead of their own children when bullying occurs, but it is ineffective in preventing further victimization. Communicating with one's children, which is a less common reaction, appears to be a better preventative measure.

19.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2359267, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38803196

RESUMEN

In 2017, the Gulf crisis led to a blockade that severely restricted Qatar's air, land, and sea access. This political crisis had far-reaching consequences, particularly affecting cross-national families and children. This qualitative analysis explores the effects of the blockade's political instability on individuals and families, specifically for Qatari citizens married to non-Qatari spouses and their cross-national children. Applying the General Aggression Model and Social Learning Theory, we interviewed 24 individuals residing in Qatar from nations directly affected by the crisis (Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). Two main themes emerged: first, the characteristics of aggressive and bullying behaviour, and second, the impacts on the well-being of cross-national families. The results showed that Qatari women and their children suffered disproportionately due to gender-based citizenship rights issues. The impacts on their well-being included heightened anxiety, depression, feelings of danger, uncertainty, and division within individuals, families, and communities. Recommendations include increasing collaborative efforts between governments, educational institutions, and community-based organizations, which are crucial to addressing aggressive and bullying behaviour across all age groups fostering a more harmonious and resilient society.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Acoso Escolar , Hostilidad , Política , Humanos , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Qatar , Femenino , Agresión/psicología , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Niño , Adulto Joven , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Adolescente
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719972

RESUMEN

The main objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate how modifiable parental factors are related to traditional and cyberbullying victimization in children and adolescents. A systematic literature search of modifiable parental factors associated with bullying victimization was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science electronic databases. Meta-analyses were performed to assess the mean effect sizes of the associations between the broader categories of parental factors (risk and protective) and bullying victimization (traditional and cyber), as well as between specific parental factors and bullying victimization (traditional and cyber). The differential impact of maternal and paternal factors (risk and protective) was examined. Age and gender were tested as moderators. Out of the 13,171 records identified, 158 studies met the inclusion criteria. Larger evidence was found for the association between parental risk (i.e., authoritarian parenting, aversiveness, inter-parental conflict, over-involvement, permissive parenting, and withdrawal) and protective (i.e., authoritative parenting, autonomy granting, warmth, and monitoring) factors, respectively, and traditional bullying victimization, with parental warmth, aversiveness, and withdrawal being the only common related predictors for traditional and cyberbullying victimization. The effect sizes were generally small. Maternal and paternal factors showed similar patterns of association with both types of bullying victimization. Age had a moderating effect on the association between parental protective factors and cyberbullying victimization. Overall, the present findings suggest that parental factors are relevant in protecting or putting children at risk for bullying victimization, especially in the offline context.

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