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1.
Ansiedad estrés ; 29(1): 27-33, ene.-abr. 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-215394

RESUMEN

El objetivo de este estudio longitudinal prospectivo es analizar los efectos que han tenido los acontecimientos relacionados con la pandemia por Covid-19 en el estado emocional de adolescentes víctimas y no víctimas de bullying. Para ello se han comparado las puntuaciones obtenidas en ansiedad y depresión en y entre ambos grupos antes, durante y después del confinamiento. Se ha hallado que durante el confinamiento las medidas en ansiedad y depresión aumentaron entre los adolescentes no víctimas de bullying, mientras que disminuyeron significativamente en aquellos que eran víctimas. Después del confinamiento y tras el primer curso escolar presencial, la ansiedad y la depresión ha disminuido en el grupo no víctimas y aumentado significativamente en el de víctimas, además, mientras que para los primeros estos síntomas están fuertemente asociados a preocupaciones como un nuevo distanciamiento social, para los segundos están asociados con pensamientos negativos sobre el presente y el futuro.(AU)


The aim of this prospective longitudinal study is to analyze the effects that events related to the Covid-19 pandemic have had on the emotional state of adolescent victims and not victims of bullying. For this purpose, the scores obtained in anxiety and depression in and between both groups before, during and after confinement were compared. It has been found that during confinement measures in anxiety and depression increased among adolescents not victims of bullying, while they decreased significantly in those who were victims. After confinement and after the first school year on-site, anxiety and depression have decreased in the non-victim group and increased significantly in the victim group, moreover, while for the former these symptoms are strongly associated with concerns as a new social estrangement, for the latter they are associated with negative thoughts about the present and the future.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Pandemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ansiedad , Depresión , Acoso Escolar , Estrés Psicológico , Síntomas Afectivos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos
2.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-7, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-213894

RESUMEN

Background/objective: This study examines the paths through which Covid-19 can negatively impact health and lead to somatic symptoms. Based on the dual process theory, fears can impair health in two ways: through psychological distress, which is an automatic reaction to fear, and through a more conscious and deliberative rumination process. Method: Data from a representative sample of the Spanish population (N = 3083 subjects,18 years or older) were obtained from a Survey by the Sociological Research Center (CIS). The dual path model was tested, and a longer sequence was included where the two mediators act sequentially to produce an impact on somatic symptoms. Results: The results showed how Covid-19 fears translate into somatic problems. Beyond the direct relations, and after comparing with other possible alternative models, our findings support a process where rumination mediates between fears and psychological distress, and psychological distress in turn leads to somatic problems. Conclusions: This process reveals a plausible mechanism that explains the somatization of health problems during the Covid-19 pandemic, and it provides theoretical and practical inputs to better understand the role of fears in health in crisis contexts. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Pandemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Miedo , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , España
3.
Rev. esp. med. nucl. imagen mol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(2): 106-112, mar.-abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-217327

RESUMEN

La infección por SARS-CoV-2 tiene una relación muy importante con la patología cardiovascular. Desde el inicio de la pandemia se objetivó una relación estrecha entre la comorbilidad cardiovascular y un peor pronóstico de los pacientes COVID-19. El estudio de la fisiopatología de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 y la enfermedad cardiovascular sugieren varias hipótesis concomitantes: el daño miocárdico directo por el virus, la hipoxemia secundaria a la insuficiencia respiratoria, la respuesta inflamatoria a la infección y/o los fenómenos tromboembólicos. El daño cardiovascular se puede manifestar en la fase aguda de la infección con cuadros de infarto agudo de miocardio, miocarditis, arritmias…, durante esta fase los procedimientos de Cardiología Nuclear no han tenido un papel determinante en el diagnóstico y manejo de estos pacientes. En cambio, en la fase subaguda de la infección y en el síndrome del COVID post-agudo la Cardiología Nuclear parece ofrecer luz a lo que sucede en el sistema cardiovascular en esta fase de la enfermedad. La pandemia de la COVID-19 ha representado un gran reto para los sistemas de salud constatándose una reducción importante de pruebas diagnósticas no urgentes con el objetivo de disminuir el riesgo de transmisión a pacientes y personal sanitario. La Cardiología Nuclear no ha sido una excepción. Además de la priorización de pruebas urgentes/preferentes y las medidas generales de screening, higiene y distancia, los principales organismos y sociedades científicas de Medicina Nuclear y Cardiología Nuclear han elaborado recomendaciones y guías para su práctica segura introduciendo notables cambios en los protocolos SPECT de perfusión miocárdica (AU)


SARS-CoV-2 infection has a very important relationship with cardiovascular disease. Since the beginning of the pandemic, a close relationship has been observed between cardiovascular comorbidity and a worse prognosis in COVID-19 patients. The study of the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular disease suggests several concomitant hypotheses: direct myocardial damage by the virus, hypoxemia secondary to respiratory failure, inflammatory response to infection and/or thromboembolic phenomena. Cardiovascular damage can manifest in the acute phase of infection with acute myocardial infarction, myocarditis, arrhythmias..., during this phase Nuclear Cardiology procedures have not played a determining role in the diagnosis and management of these patients. On the other hand, in the subacute phase of the infection and in the post-acute COVID syndrome, Nuclear Cardiology seems to shed light on what happens in the cardiovascular system in this phase of the disease. The COVID-19 pandemic has represented a great challenge for health systems, with a significant reduction in non-urgent diagnostic procedures with the aim of reducing the risk of transmission to patients and health personnel. Nuclear Cardiology has not been an exception. In addition to the prioritization of urgent/non-deferrable procedures and general screening, hygiene and distance measures, the main organizations and scientific societies of Nuclear Medicine and Nuclear Cardiology released recommendations and guidelines for safe practice, introducing significant changes in myocardial perfusion SPECT protocol (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Pandemias , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Medicina Nuclear
4.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 45(2): 74-83, mar.- abr. 2023. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-217334

RESUMEN

Introducción Durante el periodo inicial del confinamiento por la COVID-19 se tomaron una serie de medidas de restricción que modificaron el día a día de la población. En este estudio se buscó conocer el impacto de este periodo en la salud física y mental de niños y jóvenes con discapacidad originada en la infancia, y de sus familias, y describir los cambios que se produjeron en el acceso a la educación y a los servicios de salud. Material y métodos Se realizó un estudio analítico observacional y transversal. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta electrónica a través de una plataforma online realizada por la Academia Europea de Discapacidad Infantil. La encuesta incluyó preguntas sobre cuatro bloques temáticos: características sociodemográficas y de salud, impacto del confinamiento en la salud y bienestar, acceso a la educación y a los servicios de salud. Resultados Se obtuvieron 145 respuestas. El 45,5% de los niños y jóvenes eran totalmente dependientes. Se percibió un impacto sobre su salud física (54,5%), mental (47,6%) y sobre ambas (32%), mayores niveles de estrés (68,3%) y problemas de sueño (41,4%), así como una sobrecarga muy elevada en el 84,8% de los progenitores, sobre todo en familias de niños con mayor nivel de dependencia (p<0,001). El 55% de los niños y jóvenes no recibieron ningún tratamiento durante este periodo, ni siquiera remoto. Conclusiones El confinamiento afectó en gran medida la salud física y mental, así como a los servicios recibidos por los niños y jóvenes con discapacidad y sus familias (AU)


Introduction During the initial period of COVID-19 lockdown, restriction measures modified the day-to-day life of the population. This study sought to know the impact of this period on the physical and mental health of children and young people with disabilities originating in childhood, and their families, and to describe the changes that occurred in access to education and health services. Material and methods An observational and cross-sectional analytical study was carried out. The data were obtained by means of an electronic survey through an online platform carried out by the European Academy of Childhood Disability. The survey included questions on four thematic blocks: sociodemographic and health characteristics, impact of lock down on health and well-being, and access to education and health services. Results One hundred and forty-five responses were obtained. 45.5% of the children and young people were totally dependent. There was an impact on their physical (54.5%), mental health (47.6%) and both (32%), higher levels of stress (68.3%), and sleep problems (41.4%), as well as a high burden in 84.8% of parents, especially in families of children with a higher level of dependency (P=.00). 55% of children and young people did not receive any treatment during this period, not even remotely. Conclusions COVID lock down period greatly affected physical and mental health, as well as the services for children and young people with disabilities and their families (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Cuarentena , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Pandemias , Servicios de Salud del Niño , Servicios de Salud para Personas con Discapacidad , Estudios Transversales , España
5.
Acta otorrinolaringol. esp ; 74(2): 108-115, marzo-abril 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-217389

RESUMEN

Introducción: Este estudio trata de valorar la repercusión de la pandemia sobre la incidencia y la evolución clínica de la infección periamigdalina (IPA).Material y métodosRevisamos en un seguimiento longitudinal y descriptivo retrospectivo las circunstancias de los pacientes atendidos durante 5 años, de 2017 a 2021, en dos hospitales, uno comarcal y otro terciario. Se registraron variables relacionadas con la patología de base, antecedentes de amigdalitis, tiempo de evolución, visitas previas en Atención Primaria, hallazgos en el diagnóstico, relación absceso/flemón y días de estancia hospitalaria.ResultadosDe 2017 a 2019 la incidencia de la enfermedad osciló entre 14 y 16 casos/100.000 habitantes-año, pero en 2020 se redujo a 9,3, un 43% menos. Los pacientes con IPA que consultaron en pandemia generaron pocas visitas previas en servicios de Atención Primaria, presentaron mayor severidad de los síntomas y mayor demora en el diagnóstico. Además, hubo más abscesos que flemones y la necesidad de ingreso hospitalario superior a 24h fue del 66%. Apenas hubo causalidad con amigdalitis agudas, aunque el 66% de los pacientes padecía amigdalitis de repetición, y el 71% patología concomitante. Todos estos hallazgos mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas respecto a los casos prepandemia.ConclusionesLa protección de la transmisión aérea, el distanciamiento social y el confinamiento adoptados en nuestro país son medidas que han podido modificar la evolución de la IPA, con una incidencia muy inferior, un período de recuperación mayor y mínima relación con amigdalitis aguda. (AU)


Introduction: This study assessed if the healthcare system overload and the organizational changes made in response to COVID-19 may be having an impact on clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the peritonsillar infection (PTI).Materials and methodsIn a retrospective longitudinal and descriptive follow-up, we reviewed the circumstances of the patients attended during 5 years, from 2017 to 2021, in two hospitals, one regional and other tertiary. Variables related to underlying pathology, history of tonsillitis, time of evolution, previous visits to Primary Care, diagnostic findings, abscess/phlegmon ratio, and length of hospital stay were recorded.ResultsFrom 2017 to 2019, the incidence of the disease ranged between 14 and 16 cases/100,000 inhabitants-year, and decreased to 9.3 in 2020, a 43% less. Patients with PTI consulting in pandemic time were visited much less often in Primary Care services. They showed a greater severity of symptoms and the period of time between their appearance and diagnosis was longer. Additionally, there were more abscesses and the need for hospital admission greater than 24h was 66%. There was hardly a causal relationship with acute tonsillitis, although 66% of the patients evidenced history of recurrent tonsillitis, and 71% concomitant pathology. All these findings showed statistically significant differences with the pre-pandemic cases.ConclusionsThe protection of airborne transmission, the social distancing and the lockdown adopted in our country are measures that seem having been able to modify the evolution of PTI, with a much lower incidence, a longer recovery period and a minimal relationship with acute tonsillitis. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Otolaringología , Epidemiología , Coronavirus Relacionado al Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias
6.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 36(2): 114-124, abr. 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-217393

RESUMEN

Predictions for a near end of the pandemic by the World Health Organization should be interpreted with caution. Current evidence indicates that the efficacy of a fourth dose of classical mRNA vaccines (BT162b2 or mRNA-1273) is low and short-lived in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection in its predominant variant (Omicron). However, its efficacy is high against severe symptomatic infection, hospitalization and death. The new vaccines being introduced are bivalent and active against the Omicron variants. Potential new vaccines to be introduced in the coming year include a vaccine based on a recombinant protein that emulates the receptor binding domain of the Spike protein under development by the Spanish company Hipra, as well as vaccines for nasal or oral administration. Available information suggests that vaccines against COVID-19 can be administered in association with influenza vaccination without particular complications. New drugs against COVID-19, both antiviral and anti-inflammatory, are under investigation, but this does not seem to be the case with monoclonal antibodies. The indication to use masks in some circumstances will be maintained next year in view of the accumulation of scientific data on their efficacy. Finally, the long COVID or Post-COVID syndrome may continue to affect a very high proportion of patients who have had the disease, requiring combined diagnostic and therapeutic resources. (AU)


Las predicciones para un próximo fin de la pandemia de la Organización Mundial de la Salud deben interpretarse con precaución. La evidencia actual indica que la eficacia de una cuarta dosis de las vacunas clásicas ARNm (BNT162b2 o mRNA-1273) es baja y de corta duración para prevenir la infección de SARS-CoV-2 en su variante predominante (Omicron). No obstante, su eficacia es alta frente a la infección sintomática grave, hospitalización y muerte. Las nuevas vacunas que están siendo introducidas son bivalentes y activas frente a las variantes Omicron. Entre las potenciales nuevas vacunas que se introducirán en el próximo año, se encuentra una vacuna basada en una proteína recombinante que emula el dominio de unión al receptor de la proteína Spike en desarrollo por la compañía española Hipra, así como vacunas de administración nasal u oral. La información disponible apunta a que las vacunas frente al COVID-19 podrán administrarse asociadas a la vacunación antigripal sin particulares complicaciones. Se encuentran en investigación nuevos fármacos frente a COVID-19 tanto antivirales como anti-inflamatorios pero no parece ocurrir lo mismo con los anticuerpos monoclonales. La indicación de utilizar mascarillas en algunas circunstancias se mantendrá el próximo año en vista a la acumulación de datos científicos sobre su eficacia. Finalmente, el síndrome del COVID largo o Post-COVID puede que siga afectando a una proporción muy elevada de los pacientes que sufrieron la enfermedad, requiriendo recursos diagnósticos y terapéuticos combinados. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Pandemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Coronavirus Relacionado al Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo , Vacunación Masiva , Máscaras/tendencias
7.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 36(2): 125-143, abr. 2023. tab, ilus, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-217394

RESUMEN

The Health Sciences Foundation has assembled a multidisciplinary group around a series of questions about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the general population and specific groups within that population, particularly healthcare workers.In the general population, the most prevalent mental disorders have been anxiety, sleep disorders and affective disorders, primarily depression. There has been a considerable increase in suicidal behavior, especially in young women and men over 70 years of age. There has been an increase in alcohol abuse and nicotine, cannabis and cocaine use. In contrast, the use of synthetic stimulants during periods of confinement has decreased. With regard to non-substance addictions, gambling was very limited, pornography consumption increased significantly and there was an increase in compulsive shopping and the use of video games.Particularly vulnerable groups include adolescents and patients with autism spectrum disorders. Healthcare workers suffered an increase in depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress, especially those who were exposed during the early stages of the pandemic. Female sex, being a nurse, proximity to patients with COVID-19, working in a rural environment and having previous psychiatric or organic illnesses were some of the most frequently repeated factors in various studies in this population group.The media have shown a good degree of knowledge about these problems and have dealt with them frequently and from the point of view of ethics, crisis situations, such as the one experienced, have triggered not only physical but also moral claudications. (AU)


La Fundación de Ciencias de la Salud ha reunido a un grupo multidisciplinar alrededor de una serie de preguntas sobre el impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de la población en general y de grupos específicos de dicha población, particularmente los trabajadores sanitarios.En la población general, los trastornos mentales más prevalentes han sido la ansiedad, los trastornos del sueño y los trastornos afectivos, fundamentalmente la depresión. Se ha producido un aumento considerable de la conducta suicida, especialmente en mujeres jóvenes y varones mayores de 70 años. Se ha incrementado el abuso de alcohol y los consumos de nicotina, cannabis y cocaína.Por el contrario, ha disminuido el consumo de los estimulantes sintéticos durante los periodos de confinamiento. Respecto a las adicciones sin sustancia, el juego de apuestas quedó muy limitado, el consumo de pornografía experimentó un incremento notable y hubo un aumento de la compra compulsiva y del uso de videojuegos.En cuanto a grupos particularmente vulnerables hay que destacar el de los adolescentes y el de los enfermos con trastornos del espectro autista. Los sanitarios han sido un grupo especialmente vulnerable, en particular los que estuvieron expuestos durante las primeras fases de la pandemia. El sexo femenino, el ser enfermera, la proximidad a los pacientes con COVID-19, el ejercicio en un medio rural y padecer enfermedades psiquiátricas u orgánicas previas, fueron algunos de los factores más frecuentemente repetidos en diversos estudios en este grupo de población. Depresión, ansiedad y estrés post-traumático fueron los trastornos más frecuentes.Los medios de comunicación han mostrado un buen grado de conocimiento sobre estos problemas y los han tratado con frecuencia. Desde el prisma de la ética, las situaciones de crisis, como la vivida, han desencadenado claudicaciones no solo físicas sino también morales. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Pandemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Salud Mental , Personal de Salud , Coronavirus Relacionado al Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo
8.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 36(2): 180-186, abr. 2023. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-217399

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Analizar la frecuencia de coinfecciones entre los virus gripales y el SARS-CoV-2, además de las diferencias en la evolución (riesgo de mortalidad, ingreso hospitalario o en intensivos) de los pacientes infectados por el virus del SARS-CoV-2 según vacunación o no vacunación de la gripe en la temporada 2021-2022. Método: Estudio retrospectivo observacional de base poblacional en una cohorte de 19.850 pacientes diagnosticados de COVID-19 entre el 1 de junio de 2021 y 28 de febrero de 2022 en la isla de Gran Canaria. Resultados. Fueron vacunados de la gripe 1.789 personas, el 9% del total de pacientes diagnosticados de COVID-19. 13.676 personas (68,9%) contaban con pauta completa de vacunación del COVID-19. En el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de junio de 2021 y 28 de febrero de 2022 se registraron 8 casos de coinfección gripe y COVID-19. Hipertensión (18,5%), asma (12,8%) y diabetes (7,2%) fueron las comorbilidades más frecuentes. Hubo 147 defunciones (0,7%). Las personas de mayor edad ([OR] 1,11 IC 95% 1,09-1,13) y con cáncer ([OR] 4,21 IC 95% 2,58-6,89) tuvieron mayor riesgo de fallecer por COVID-19 (p<0,05). El sexo femenino fue considerado un factor protector ([OR] 0,61 IC 95% 0,40-0,92). Conclusiones: La edad avanzada, el sexo masculino y el cáncer fueron factores pronósticos independientes de mortalidad. Tres dosis de la vacuna del SARS-CoV-2 y la vacuna de la gripe fueron altamente efectivas para prevenir muertes e ingresos relacionados con COVID-19. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la vacunación contra la gripe puede ayudar a controlar la pandemia. (AU)


Objectives: To analyze the frequency of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 co-infections, as well as the differences in the course of disease (risk of mortality, hospital and intensive care admissions) in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus in relation to flu vaccination status in the 2021-2022 season.Methodology. Population-based observational retrospective study in a cohort of 19,850 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between June 1, 2021 and February 28, 2022 on the island of Gran Canaria. Results: A total of 1,789 patients (9%) diagnosed with COVID-19 had received flu vaccinations. 13,676 people (68.9%) had a full course of COVID-19 vaccinations. In the period between June 1, 2021 and February 28, 2022, 8 cases of flu and COVID-19 coinfection were recorded. Hypertension (18.5%), asthma (12.8%) and diabetes (7.2%) were the most frequent comorbidities. There were 147 deaths (0.7%). Older patients ([OR] 1.11 95% CI 1.09-1.13) and people with cancer ([OR] 4.21 95% CI 2.58-6.89) had a higher risk of dying from COVID-19 (p<0.05). Female sex was noted as a protective factor ([OR] 0.61 95% CI 0.40-0.92). Conclusions: Old age, male sex and cancer were independent prognostic factors for mortality. Three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and influenza vaccines were highly effective in preventing COVID-19-related deaths and hospital admissions. These findings suggest that flu vaccination can help control the pandemic. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Pandemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Infecciones , España
9.
Radiología (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 65(2): 176-179, mar.- abr. 2023. ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-217619

RESUMEN

La enfermedad causada por SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) se ha convertido en una pandemia mundial y en consecuencia en un problema de salud pública. Se han descrito múltiples complicaciones asociadas a la COVID-19, entre ellas alteraciones de la coagulación. Si bien es conocido que la infección induce un estado protrombótico, también se han descrito complicaciones hemorrágicas en estos pacientes, sobre todo en pacientes anticoagulados. Presentamos dos casos de hematoma pulmonar espontáneo en pacientes con neumonía COVID-19 y terapia anticoagulante. Nuestro objetivo es describir esta complicación, que, aunque poco frecuente, conviene tener en cuenta en pacientes anticoagulados y con COVID-19 concomitante (AU)


The disease caused by Sars-Cov-2 (Covid-19) has become a worldwide pandemic and consequently a public health problem. Multiple complications associated with Covid-19 have been described, including coagulation abnormalities. Although the infection is known to induce a prothrombotic state, hemorrhagic complications have also been reported in patients with Covid-19, especially in anticoagulated patients. We present two cases of spontaneous pulmonary hematoma in patients with Covid-19 undergoing anticoagulant treatment. We aim to describe this complication, which although uncommon, should be taken into account in anticoagulated patients with Covid-19 (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Pandemias , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Hematoma/etiología , Anticoagulantes/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Pulmonares/etnología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
10.
mSystems ; : e0092822, 2023 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36861992

RESUMEN

In the 21st century, several emergent viruses have posed a global threat. Each pathogen has emphasized the value of rapid and scalable vaccine development programs. The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has made the importance of such efforts especially clear. New biotechnological advances in vaccinology allow for recent advances that provide only the nucleic acid building blocks of an antigen, eliminating many safety concerns. During the COVID-19 pandemic, these DNA and RNA vaccines have facilitated the development and deployment of vaccines at an unprecedented pace. This success was attributable at least in part to broader shifts in scientific research relative to prior epidemics: the genome of SARS-CoV-2 was available as early as January 2020, facilitating global efforts in the development of DNA and RNA vaccines within 2 weeks of the international community becoming aware of the new viral threat. Additionally, these technologies that were previously only theoretical are not only safe but also highly efficacious. Although historically a slow process, the rapid development of vaccines during the COVID-19 crisis reveals a major shift in vaccine technologies. Here, we provide historical context for the emergence of these paradigm-shifting vaccines. We describe several DNA and RNA vaccines in terms of their efficacy, safety, and approval status. We also discuss patterns in worldwide distribution. The advances made since early 2020 provide an exceptional illustration of how rapidly vaccine development technology has advanced in the last 2 decades in particular and suggest a new era in vaccines against emerging pathogens. IMPORTANCE The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused untold damage globally, presenting unusual demands on but also unique opportunities for vaccine development. The development, production, and distribution of vaccines are imperative to saving lives, preventing severe illness, and reducing the economic and social burdens caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Although vaccine technologies that provide the DNA or RNA sequence of an antigen had never previously been approved for use in humans, they have played a major role in the management of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we discuss the history of these vaccines and how they have been applied to SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, given that the evolution of new SARS-CoV-2 variants continues to present a significant challenge in 2022, these vaccines remain an important and evolving tool in the biomedical response to the pandemic.

11.
J Aging Soc Policy ; : 1-21, 2023 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36862847

RESUMEN

Protective measures that were taken during the COVID-19 pandemic, targeted older people as an at-risk group. The objective of this article is to investigate how older people in the Netherlands experienced the mitigation measures and whether these measures endorse and promote the idea of an age-friendly world. The WHO conceptual framework of age-friendliness, which consists of eight areas, has been used for a framework analysis of 74 semi-structured interviews with older Dutch adults, that were held during the first and the second wave of the pandemic. The results of the analysis indicate that the areas of social participation, respect and inclusion were affected most, and the measures concerning communication and the health services were experienced as age-unfriendly. The WHO framework is a promising tool for assessment of social policies, and we suggest its further development for this purpose.

12.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 22: 23259582231159093, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36862608

RESUMEN

Background: Patients' satisfaction is an important indicator of determining the quality of pharmaceutical care (PC). This study investigated Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients' satisfaction with PC at Federal Medical Centre, Keffi-Nigeria and determined the statistical correlation between the respondents' socio-demographic variables and their satisfaction with PC. Methods: This cross-sectional survey study involved 351 randomly selected HIV-positive patients receiving PC in the facility. A Likert-type questionnaire was used for the data collection. Results: The Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire was .916. The "overall perception of pharmacists' care or service" had a mean satisfaction score of 4.24 ± 0.749 and "the amount of time spent with the pharmacists" had a mean score of 3.94 ± 0.791. No significant association was found between socio-demographic variables and overall patients' satisfaction with PC. Conclusion: The reliability of the questionnaire was high and the HIV patients had a good satisfaction with the PC they received in the facility.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Servicios Farmacéuticos , Humanos , Satisfacción del Paciente , VIH , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Pandemias , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Atención Terciaria de Salud
13.
Indian Heart J ; 2023 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36863611

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vaccines against the COVID-19 pandemic were introduced in late 2020. The present study has been conducted to study the serious Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFIs) reported for COVID-19 vaccines from India. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of the causality assessment reports for the 1112 serious AEFIs published by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India, was conducted. For the current analysis, all the reports published till 29.03.2022 were included. The primary outcome variables analyzed were the consistent causal association and the thromboembolic events. RESULTS: The majority of the serious AEFIs assessed were either coincidental (578, 52%) or vaccine product related (218, 19.6%). All the serious AEFIs were reported among the Covishield (992, 89.2%) and COVAXIN (120, 10.8%) vaccines. Among these, 401 (36.1%) were deaths, and 711 (63.9%) were hospitalized and recovered. On adjusted analysis, females, the younger age group and non-fatal AEFIs showed a statistically significant consistent causal association with COVID-19 vaccination. Thromboembolic events were reported among 209 (18.8%) of the analyzed participants, with a significant association with higher age and case fatality rate. CONCLUSION: Deaths reported under serious AEFIs were found to have a relatively lower consistent causal relationship with the COVID-19 vaccines than the recovered hospitalizations in India. No consistent causal association was found between the thromboembolic events and the type of COVID-19 vaccine administered in India.

14.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 41(3): 149-154, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36870732

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the care of patients with other diseases. Difficulty in access to healthcare during these months has been especially relevant for persons with HIV infection (PWH). This study therefore sought to ascertain the clinical outcomes and effectiveness of the measures implemented among PWH in a region with one of the highest incidence rates in Europe. METHODS: Retrospective, observational, pre-post intervention study to compare the outcomes of PWH attended at a high-complexity healthcare hospital from March to October 2020 and during the same months across the period 2016-2019. The intervention consisted of home drug deliveries and preferential use of non face-to-face consultations. The effectiveness of the measures implemented was determined by reference to the number of emergency visits, hospitalisations, mortality rate, and percentage of PWH with viral load >50copies, before and after the two pandemic waves. RESULTS: A total of 2760 PWH were attended from January 2016 to October 2020. During the pandemic, there was a monthly mean of 106.87 telephone consultations and 2075 home deliveries of medical drugs dispensed to ambulatory patients. No statistically significant differences were found between the rate of admission of patients with COVID-HIV co-infection and that of the remaining patients (1172.76 admissions/100,000 population vs. 1424.29, p=0.401) or in mortality (11.54% vs. 12.96%, p=0.939). The percentage of PWH with viral load >50copies was similar before and after the pandemic (1.20% pre-pandemic vs. 0.51% in 2020, p=0.078). CONCLUSION: Our results show that the strategies implemented during the first 8 months of the pandemic prevented any deterioration in the control and follow-up parameters routinely used on PWH. Furthermore, they contribute to the debate about how telemedicine and telepharmacy can fit into future healthcare models.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Atención a la Salud , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Centros de Atención Terciaria
15.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 2023 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36872077

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is protracted and episodic surges from viral variants continue to place significant strain on healthcare systems. COVID-19 vaccines, antiviral therapy and monoclonal antibodies have significantly reduced COVID-19 associated morbidity and mortality. Concurrently, telemedicine has gained acceptance as a model of care and a tool for remote monitoring. These advances allow us to safely transit our inpatient-based care for COVID-19 infected kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) to a hospital-at-home (HaH) model of care. METHODS: KTRs with PCR-proven COVID-19 infection were triaged by teleconsult and laboratory tests. Suitable patients were enrolled into the HaH. Remote monitoring via teleconsults were conducted daily until patients were de-isolated based on a time-based criterion. Monoclonal antibodies were administered in a dedicated clinic where indicated. RESULTS: Eighty-one KTRs with COVID-19 were enrolled into the HaH between February and June 2022, 70 (86.4%) completed HaH recovery without complications. Eleven (13.6%) patients required inpatient hospitalization for medical issues (n = 8) and weekend monoclonal antibody infusion (n = 3). Patients requiring inpatient hospitalization had longer transplant vintage (15 years vs. 10 years, p = .03), anaemia (haemoglobin 11.6 g/dL vs. 13.1 g/dL, p = .01), lower eGFR (39.8 vs. 62.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 , p < .05) and lower RBD levels (<50 AU/mL vs. 1435 AU/mL, p = .02). HaH saved 753 inpatient patient-days with no deaths observed. Hospital admission rates from the HaH programme was 13.6%. Patients who required inpatient care had direct access admission without utilization of emergency department resources. CONCLUSION: Selected KTRs with COVID-19 infection can be safely managed in a HaH programme; alleviating strain on inpatient and emergency healthcare resources.

16.
Respir Investig ; 61(3): 321-331, 2023 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36889020

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The long-term trends of COVID-19 mental sequelae remain unknown. Thus, this study aimed to survey the one-year temporal trends of PTSD and health-related quality of life of COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were followed up at three, six, and 12 months after discharge. Patients with COVID-19 who were able to communicate and complete the questionnaires were included in the study. All participants were asked to complete the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health (SF-36) survey and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). The cutoff point of 24/25 of IES-R was defined as preliminary PTSD. Patients exhibiting PTSD symptoms at six months or later were regarded as "delayed patients," while those exhibiting PTSD symptoms at all the time points were "persistent patients." RESULTS: Of the 98 patients screened between June and November 2020, 72 participated in the study. A total of 11 (15.3%) had preliminary PTSD at three months, 10 (13.9%) at six months, and 10 (13.9%) at 12 months; delayed and persistent patients were four patients (7.54%) each. Patients with preliminary PTSD had lower mental summary scores in SF-36; 47 (IQR 45, 53) for patients with preliminary PTSD and 60 (49, 64) without preliminary PTSD at three months, 50 (45, 51) and 58 (52, 64) at six months, and 46 (38, 52) and 59 (52, 64) at 12 months. CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers should care about the courses of PTSD in COVID-19 survivors and be aware that patients with PTSD symptoms may have a lower health-related quality of life.

17.
Semergen ; 49(5): 101939, 2023 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36889055

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study analyzed the impact of patients' age, sex, vaccination, immunosuppressive treatment, and previous comorbidities on the risk of developing persistent COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 virus reinfection. METHOD: Population-based observational retrospective study of a cohort of 110,726 patients aged 12 years or older, who were diagnosed with COVID-19 between June 1st, 2021 and February 28th, 2022 in the island of Gran Canaria. RESULTS: 340 patients suffered reinfection. The combination of advanced age, female sex and lack of complete or incomplete vaccination against COVID-19 was strongly predictive of reinfection (p<0.05). In the 188 patients who developed persistent COVID-19, the persistence of symptoms was more frequent in adult patients, women, and patients with a diagnosis of asthma. Complete vaccination was associated with a lower risk of reinfection ([OR] 0.05, 95%CI 0.04-0.07; p<0.05) and of developing persistent COVID-19 ([OR] 0.07, 95%CI 0.05-0.10; p<0.05). None of the patients with reinfection or persistent COVID-19 died during the period of the study. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the link between age, sex, asthma and risk of persistent COVID-19. It was not possible to define the patient's comorbidities as a factor that influences the development of reinfection, but its association with age, sex, type of vaccine and hypertension was demonstrated. Higher vaccination coverage was associated with a lower risk of persistent COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.

18.
Semergen ; 49(5): 101938, 2023 Jan 24.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36889056

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Since the beginning of the pandemic, it has become necessary to know the epidemiological evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, this study aims to describe the characteristics of the casuistry of COVID-19 in health and social-health workers in the health area of A Coruña and Cee during the first epidemic wave, as well as to determine the association between the clinical profile and/or its duration and the condition of RT-PCR repositivization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the study period, 210 cases belonging to healthcare and social-healthcare workers from the healthcare area of A Coruña and Cee were diagnosed. A descriptive analysis of sociodemographic factors was carried out, as well as the search for association between the clinical picture and the duration of detection of a positive RT-PCR. RESULTS: The most affected categories were nursing (33.3%) and nursing assistants (16.2%). The mean time taken for cases to become RT-PCR negative was 18.3±9.1 days, with a median of 17. It was observed that 26 cases (13.8%) had a positive result in a subsequent RT-PCR, without meeting criteria for reinfection. The existence of skin manifestations and arthralgias was associated with repositivization after adjusting for age and sex (OR=4.6 and OR=6.5, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In healthcare professionals diagnosed with COVID-19 during the first wave, symptoms such as dyspnea, skin manifestations and arthralgias led to RT-PCR repositivization after a previous negative result and without meeting criteria for reinfection.

19.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 72: 104582, 2023 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36889098

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Long-term data on the effectiveness and safety of the booster dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in people affected by multiple sclerosis (pwMS) are lacking, hence a retrospective monocentric study exploring these issues was undertaken. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PwMS who had received the booster dose of anti-COVID19 mRNA vaccines (either Comirnaty or Spikevax) according to the national regulation were included. The occurrence of adverse events or disease reactivation and SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded up to last follow-up. Factors predictive of COVID-19 were explored using logistic regression analyses. A two-tailed p-value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: One hundred and fourteen pwMS were included: 80 females (70%); median age at the booster dose 42 years (range 21 - 73); 106/114 patients (93%) were receiving a disease-modifying treatment at vaccination. The median follow-up after the booster dose was 6 (range 2 - 7) months. Adverse events were experienced in 58% of the patients, being mild to moderate in most cases; 4 reactivations of MS were observed, two of which occurring within 4 weeks after the booster. SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in 24/114 (21%) cases, occurring a median of 74 days (5-162) after the booster dose and requiring hospitalisation in 2 patients. Six cases received direct antiviral drugs. Age at vaccination and time between the primary vaccination cycle and the booster dose were independently and inversely associated with the risk of COVID-19 (HR 0.95 and 0.98, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The administration of the booster dose in pwMS showed an overall good safety profile and protected 79% of the patients from SARS-CoV-2 infection. The observed association between the risk of infection after the booster dose and both younger age at vaccination and shorter interval period to the booster dose suggest that unobserved confounders, possibly including behavioural and social factors, play a relevant role in determining the individual propensity to get infected with COVID-19.

20.
Epidemics ; 43: 100675, 2023 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36889158

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children play a key role in the transmission of many infectious diseases. They have many of their close social encounters at home or at school. We hypothesized that most of the transmission of respiratory infections among children occur in these two settings and that transmission patterns can be predicted by a bipartite network of schools and households. AIM AND METHODS: To confirm transmission over a school-household network, SARS-CoV-2 transmission pairs in children aged 4-17 years were analyzed by study year and primary/secondary school. Cases with symptom onset between 1 March 2021 and 4 April 2021 identified by source and contact-tracing in the Netherlands were included. In this period, primary schools were open and secondary school students attended class at least once per week. Within pairs, spatial distance between the postcodes was calculated as the Euclidean distance. RESULTS: A total of 4059 transmission pairs were identified; 51.9% between primary schoolers; 19.6% between primary and secondary schoolers; 28.5% between secondary schoolers. Most (68.5%) of the transmission for children in the same study year occurred at school. In contrast, most of the transmission of children from different study years (64.3%) and most primary-secondary transmission (81.7%) occurred at home. The average spatial distance between infections was 1.2 km (median 0.4) for primary school pairs, 1.6 km (median 0) for primary-secondary school pairs and 4.1 km (median 1.2) for secondary school pairs. CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence of transmission on a bipartite school-household network. Schools play an important role in transmission within study years, and households play an important role in transmission between study years and between primary and secondary schools. Spatial distance between infections in a transmission pair reflects the smaller school catchment area of primary schools versus secondary schools. Many of these observed patterns likely hold for other respiratory pathogens.

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